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general expectation for enlarged effort. The same standards are acknowledged, the same doctrines are avowed, and the same measures of policy are adopted by each. There is to be no change in ecclesiastical institutions and no re-adjustment of church relations. Both branches have been laboring in most departments of work, and both in their united capacity are prepared to give the preference to the ecclesiastical over the voluntary organization. Each has reached this result, if not in the same way and time, yet by such a process as to give the promise of unity in all co-operative movements in the future. Then there may be found on investigation in the different schemes, such variety in the details of labor and in modes of procedure as may impart to them hereafter greater vigor and efficiency-yea, there may be born in the very inquiry, What is this union to accomplish? some more decisive means of dereloping the resources and consolidating the strength of the church.
In aid of this feeling is the fact that this one church is not composed of two hitherto independent churches, with different names and principles. Each has kept, since the division, the same name, each has held to the same creed, each has the same polity, each has a common ancestry and a common heritage; the fathers of the one are those of the other, great names of the past are alike dear to both, and to them they have in turn appealed, or have gloried together in their labors, influence, and successes. Their origin is the same; but, like a river that is separated by a portion of land in its onward course, the two parts have flowed in parallel lines until the intervening obstacle is removed, when they have again met. The two were formerly one, and whatever their differences, jealousies, and alienations, they now believe that they see eye to eye in the essentials of faith, government, and work. In their aims and aspirations, in the forms of spiritual life, in geographical boundaries, and in administrative economy, the two are one. Side by side they have labored. The ministers of the one have passed over to the other, and the same has been freely done by the members, and each of these has felt at home in his new communion and relations. This tre, uent interchange has done much to smooth the way,
wear down the barriers that had been reared, and bring to a point the increasing tendencies of the two separate parts toward union. They can thus, without friction, readily fall into line and prepare themselves, with their combined energies, for work. In the separation, with its attendant conflicts, lessons have been learned and experience gained that will have a hallowed influence over modes of thought, policy, and life; and, in the future, they will live in more accord with the principles of their faith and with the policy of their church. If the one part be numerically the stronger, this will be generously used for the common good, while the other may seek to infuse new energy into the whole, to make up in any thing which either lacketh, that the cause of Christ may be more rapidly advanced and God's glory be promoted in the earth. But the dissolving process of the two parts may go on so rapidly that it may soon be difficult to tell to which distinctive organization any one belonged
Tros Tyriusque-nullo discrimine agetur.
One other hopeful sign may here be mentioned--that this re-union is effected without loss. Before this, Presbyterian bodies have been incorporated into one. The Secession Church in Scotland was made up of two parts. The United Presbyterian Church there and in this country were each composed of two distinct organizations, with different names. But in all of these, and others that could be mentioned, there was a part missing, that would not go into the union. Thus far, we have heard of no separatists from the joint body. Previous to its consummation, there was considerable discussion as to the desirableness of union, and not a few objections urged against the thing itself. These were generally set forth with manliness and frankness, and did much to prepare the way for the harmonious action of the two Assemblies at Pittsburg. The men who feared and doubted will neither leave the church nor work coldly in it. They feel that it is not now a mere policy or party, but a beloved church whose interests and success are involved, and these will receive their sympathy, prayers, and active, generous aid. They can individually say, with deep and true emotion--" Thy people shall be my people,
and thy God my God: the Lord do so to me, and more also, if aught but death part thee and me.”
But turning from these things, which promise increased strength and efficiency, we find much that is encouraging, with God's blessing, in the numbers, wealth, ministry, and creed of the combined host.
There is, first, the force of numbers. The union has brought into one organization the largest body of Presbyterians in the world, which, when thoroughly compacted together with buoyant energies and bright anticipations, can do much for the enlargement of its borders. It embraces 4,532 ordained ministers and licentiates, 4,371 churches, and 431,463 communicants. In sympathy with this church, or brought under its influence, are at least two millions of people. These are found in most of the States and Territories. The chief strength of Presbyterianism in the South is, since the commencement of the war, independent of the re-united church. Few efforts, and these of a desultory nature, have been made to establish Presbyterianism in New England, though the time is coming, when, without entering upon any crusade, more decided measures must be taken to meet the wishes of those in that section who prefer our faith and polity.
Bringing together the churches in the different States, and considering them in round numbers, we have the following figures : In New England are 2,500 members; New York, 107,000; New Jersey, 36,000; Pennsylvania, 98,000; Delaware, 3,500; Maryland, 8,500 ; Western Virginia, 3,500; Ohio, 54,000; Michigan, 12,500; Illinois, 33,000; Indiana, 22,500; Wisconsin, 5,500; Minnesota, 3,500; Iowa, 12,500; Missouri, 6,500; Kansas, 2,000; California, 3,000; Oregon, 300; Kentucky, 5,000; Tennessee, 3,000, and a smaller number in several of the Southern States and Territories. It will be seen from this enumeration that the strength of our body is massed in certain great States of growing influence and power, which can do much for aggressive movements. Whilst influential in most of the cities of the country, it has a home and powerful hold in rural parishes and growing towns.
But these numbers do not simply stand for so many of the population in these different localities; they generally repre
sent the thinking, thrifty, and influential class in each community. There is something in the Calvinistic faith that develops thought, conserves morals, upholds religious institutions, encourages educational efforts and philanthropic schemes, and gives an impulse to all that is lovely and good. Blot out the direct and indirect aid of our members to the humane institutions of our land, and to all enterprises that have a reformative and elevating power, and a vast beneficent agency would disappear. The strength of the body cannot be gauged by mere numbers or by considering these as so much in bulk for doing good. They constitute in themselves a vast power for impressing others, arresting unbelief, and transfusing their influence among those who are reached by them.
2d. Wealth in itself is no indication of the moral power and efficiency of a church, any more than poverty is a mark of its general prosperity-yet it is a power, when viewed in the light of accountability and used in conscious stewardship as a trust. God has given great wealth to the Presbyterian Church, and this is not centralized, but diffused. Men of large means are found in every section, and in many congregations. This is inevitable, from the character of its members, the state of the country, and the condition of things. The pecuniary ability of the church was never so great as at the present time. This has fully kept pace with the growth of the country and the development of its resources.
Government draws its greatest revenue from incomes from New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Ohio-States where our own church is numerically the strongest. In not a few of our congregations wealth may be reckoned by millions, and it is an interesting fact that this increase has taken place at a time when new and enlarged demands are to be made upon it. Commercial enterprise, opening up new avenues for emigration and settlement in certain regions, the presence and continuance of a heathen population in our borders, the needs of the freedmen, the growing necessities of our educational institutions, the enlarged operations of evangelistic agencies, work out a claim or make claimants upon this increase of wealth. This is more than a coincidence, it is a law in the
divine economy, and at this juncture it has a voice which the united body should hear, and a call which it should obey. The Methodist denomination utilized its centenary to enlarge the benevolent action of their people, to give greater permanency to their institutions, and lay a broader foundation for important religious enterprises. The monuments of their efforts, enthusiasm, and thanksgiving abound.
This our church must do, if it wisely interprets Providence, rises to the dignity of its position, understands its mission, and accomplishes any thing great at this important period of its history. The rich must do much, for they have received much; and what an opportunity is now offered them to rise to the greatness of the occasion, deepen the stream of their benevolence, and do something noble for the cause of Christ and humanity! Let them read in the events of the day why they are the stewards of such riches, and how they are to transmute it into spiritual wealth.
3d. The United Church has an able and effective ministry to preach the truth and do work for the Lord. It has ever been the aim and characteristic of Presbyterianism to demand and foster an educated ministry. The schools, colleges, and theological seminaries planted and sustained in the land, and some of these very early in its history, show how our church sought preachers thoroughly indoctrinated in the truth, and capable of teaching others. This has given the church power over the thinking portion of the country. Its past history is radiant with names eminent for their devotion, zeal, and intellectual prowess, who will be held in remembrance by present and future generations. But its ministers of to-day are in no way behind those of former times in scholarship, piety, love for souls, and in their efforts to advance genuine religion in the hearts and lives of men ; and, to say the least, they are the peers in learning, eloquence, and devotion to the ministry, of those of any other denomination of Christians.
Now, as along the whole line of our church's history, it has men who have stood forth, when assailed, to defend its faith and polity, and it has many who have enlarged by their writings the streams of Christian thought. Its literature is rich in varied treatises of didactic, polemic, and practical theology,