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government, when Mr. Eaton was chosen governor. By the general court, which sat September 5th, 1640, Quinnipiack was named New-Haven." In the early times of the NewEngland colonies, no one was so much distinguished for good order and internal tranquility, as the colony of New-Haven. Mr. Eaton and Mr. Davenport were the fathers of the plantation, and their influence, founded on their personal worth and unshaken fidelity to the best interests of the settlement, was never diminished. Mr. Eaton was annually elected governor till his death, in 1657. In their intercourse with the natives, the government ever conducted with such wisdom and integrity, that the colony suffered very little from Indian hostility. The principal planters possessed so much property, and conducted the affairs of the colony with such discretion, that the settlement never experienced any special sufferings from want.
The first planters of New-Haven, having been bred in mercantile employments, were inclined to engage in the pursuits of commerce. With that view they fixed their settlement at a port selected for that purpose. In these pursuits, they sustained many severe losses. Particularly in the loss of a new ship of 150 tons, freighted with a valuable cargo, and manned with seamen and passengers from many of the best families in the colony, which foundered at sea, in the year 1647. This severe loss discouraged, for a time, their commercial pursuits, and engaged their attention, more particularly, in the employments of agriculture.
In addition to the town of New-Haven, several other flourishing settlements were soon commenced, which were included in this colony. In 1639, commenced the settlement of the towns of Milford and Guilford. Stamford was settled in 1611. Soon after which, began the town of Branford. Some settlements on Long Island, cotemporary with these, were included in the colony of New-Haven.-The confederation of the united colonies took place in 1643; in the accomplishment of which most important object, Gov. Eaton performed a most distinguished part.-Mr. Hopkins, who emigrated from England in company with Mr. Eaton and Mr. Davenport, settled at Hartford at the same time that the others fixed at New-Haven, and became one of the most useful and eminent characters in Connecticut. The intimate friendship which subsisted between Mr. Hopkins and Mr. Eaton, was of great advantage to the two colonies.
Like the other colonies of New-England, that of New-Haven was planted with a special view to the honor of the divine Saviour, and the enjoyment of the pure religion of the gospel. Mr. Davenport often remarked, before his emigra
tion to America, that he found no churches willing to advance in gospel light and ecclesiastical improvement, any further than the limits attained by their first reformers. That the Lutheran churches, by all the discoveries of subsequent periods, could never be persuaded to make any improvement upon the articles of faith or practice, established by the great Reformer, whose name they bear. That the churches founded on the principles of Calvin, had made no useful advances since that eminent divine was removed from them. That the church of England could not be persuaded to admit any improvement on the sentiments of Cranmer and the other English reformers. Despairing, therefore, of seeing any Christian church in Europe regulated according to what he believed to be the pure precepts and doctrines of Christ, he resolved, with his pious coadjutors, to attempt, in the American wilderness, the establishment of such a church as they had long hoped to see. They believed also, that a state of society could be formed, and civil government maintained in conformity to divine precept, in which a great part of the imperfections of all humau governments might be avoided. At least, they believed the faithfulness of God, in aid of the purest intentions, authorized the hope of realizing these animating anticipations. It is not to be denied that there was something Utopian in these prospects; still it is no more than justice to say that, probably, mankind have never witnessed a greater approximation to the perfection of human society, than was realized by these illustrious Christian patriots. The mode of organizing their churches was original and peculiarly interesting. When a church was to be gathered, the persons proposing to unite in Christian covenant, elected seven of their number, those who were most esteemed for their religious attainments, to stand as pillars of the church. This idea was suggested, in part, from the sacred passage, Prov. ix. 1. Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars. To the persons composing the seven pillars, the others were added, who became members of the church. The greatest efforts were made to establish the churches in the pure faith and uncorrupted practice of Christ and his apostles, and to guard them from any future deviation from that purity in which they were constituted. And this was done, certainly with a most acute knowledge of the scriptures, an extensive acquaintance with the general history of the church, and a clear perception of the human eharacter. Their sentiments concerning church communion, were essentially similar to those which have been since advocated by President Edwards, and are now generally approved by the ministers and churches in this state.
These churches long continued in great harmony and prosperity, enjoying the blessing of heaven, and the gracious presence of the Holy Spirit. The church at New-Haven enjoyed the ministry of Mr. Davenport as pastor, and Mr. Eaton, brother of the governor, as teacher. The first minister at Milford was Mr. Prudden. The church at Guilford had Mr. Whitfield as pastor, and Mr. Higginson as teacher, Mr. Denton was minister at Stamford. The pastor of the church at Branford was Mr. Pierson, who had for an assistant Mr. Brucy. The most of these were eminent ministers of Christ, distinguished for ministerial gifts, extensive learning, practical wisdom and fervent piety.
The constitution of their church, and of their civil government, was formed by the people of New-Haven, at the same time. Indeed, it was considered as one and the same transaction. The persons selected for the seven pillars, after constituting the church, proceeded in the same manner to the organization of the government. Members of the churches only, were freemen of the colony. No human association has existed, more deserving the appellation of a Christian republic than this. Their posterity now reap the rich harvest of their labors and their prayers.
The colony of New Hampshire, which now holds a distinguished rank among the New-England states, though its settlement began at a very early period, did not become a separate colony till many years after that settlement commenced, Capt. Smith, of Virginia, who sailed along the shores of New-England in 1614, and published a chart of the coast, with some account of the country, discovered the river Piscataqua. He found the river to be large, the harbor capaeious and safe, and gave a favorable representation of the place as a site for a new plantation.
Gorges and Mason, two members of the council of Plymouth, in England, having obtained from the council a grant of that tract of country, attempted the establishment of a colony and fishery at the river Piscataqua. In the spring of the year 1623, they sent over a few persons for this purpose, who sat down on the south side of the river near its mouth, and there fixed a temporary residence. This was the beginning of that excellent and flourishing town of Portsmouth. The same year, two of the company erected a fish-house at the place of the present town of Dover. These settlements, for several years were small, and scarcely permanent. 1629, some of the settlers about the Massachusetts-Bay, wishing to unite with the settlement of Piscataqua, they assembled the chiefs of several Indian tribes at Squamscot falls,
now Exeter, and, for a valuable consideration, made a purchase of an extensive tract of land. In the instrument of conveyance, the natives express a desire to have the English come and settle among them, as among their countrymen in Massachusetts." After this purchase, the plantation had a moderate increase, but no new settlements were made till the year 1638, which was the beginning of the towns of Exeter and Hampton.
The people at Dover early erected a convenient meetinghouse, which was afterwards improved as a fortification. A church was soon organized, of a character similar to the churches in the neighboring colonies; and Mr. William Leaverich, a worthy and able puritan and divine, came from England in 1633, and became their minister. The settlement at Portsmouth, in their infant state, erected a house for divine worship, and enjoyed, successively, the labors of several faithful ministers. The ministry of one of these, Mr. James Parker, was attended with much success. But the town had no settled minister till a number of years after its settlement.
The people who made the settlement of Exeter, in 1638, were mostly from Boston. Having been regularly dismissed from the church in that town, they immediately united in a church relation, on the principles of their mother church. As they judged their settlement to be without the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, they formed themselves into a body politic, chose rulers and assistants, who were sworn to the proper execution of their respective offices, and a correspondent oath of obedience was taken by the people. In this political compact we have an instance of civil government in its simplest, perhaps in its purest form. The magistrates, who were few, were vested with legislative, judicial, and executive authority. The settlements at Portsmouth and Dover, for several years, were governed, principally, by agents sent over by the proprietors in England. Having experienced many inconveniences from this mode of government, they, separately, formed a civil compact, after the example of their neighbors at Exeter, enacted and enforced their own laws. The combination at Dover was similar to the one at Exeter; at Portsmouth they had a chief magistrate, annually elected, stiled a governor.
These settlements, for many years, lived peaceably with the natives, and from their great advantage for fishery, experienced less of the evils of famine than the neighboring colonies. Placed in distinct civil communities, they soon found themselves exposed to a variety of difficulties, and peculiar
ly defenceless in the event of trouble from an enemy. Their corporations were necessarily weak, and exposed to the intrusion of vagrants and outlaws, who would not submit to the steady government which was maintained in the colonies of Massachusetts and Plymouth. Had these political combinations been left to the management of their original framers and their posterity, they might have exhibited an example of the finest republics on historic record. But the constant influx of emigrants, and of demagogues invited by their weakness, rendered this expectation hopeless.-These considerations induced the settlements to desire a union with the colony of Massachusetts. The subject having been for some time in agitation, in the year 1641, the settlements on and near the Piscataqua, submitted to the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, on condition of enjoying equal privileges with the people of that colony, and having a court of justice maintained among themselves. They were cordially accepted by that government, and thus, by a solemn compact, became a part of the colony of Massachusetts. From this time, the settlements advanced in a more rapid progress, and in greater security; and their civil and ecclesiastical history becomes one with the colony of which they now constituted a respectable portion. This union continued till the year 1679, when, by the authority of the King of Great Britain, New-Hampshire was separated from the government of Massachusetts, and became a royal province.... To be continued.
LIFE AND DEATH OF EMILIA.
EMILIA was born of reputable parents, and lived the most of her short life in one of the flourishing towns in Connecticut. Her father has long been improved in public life and enjoys a plentiful estate. Emilia from her infancy, was a child formed to gain attention-lively and quick in her imagination, she pleased her little acquaintances, and made them admire her. But especially she engaged the affection of her parents and older connections, whose breasts often heaved with a joyous sigh in anticipation of her future brilliancy. In addition to her natural vivacity her figure was graceful, though rather slender—her skin transparent, tinged with the rose-her eyes and features expressive, and well animated, and her manners naturally easy and delicate. Having passed the days of infancy and childhood, her mind brightened with her years. Her education, though much short of what so promising a subject merited, was sufficient