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" Van's genius, without thought or lec-i
deciduous cypresses in England. It ture,
is said to be a most beautiful tree, Is hugely turn'd to architecture.” with pendant branches sweeping the
lawn. The cypresses at Percy Cross, But Vanbrugh possessed, undoubt
Lord Ravensworth's seat, are between edly, the elements of a bold and
seventy and eighty feet high, In daring genius.
that garden, also, is the largest SalisAmong the places that immediately
buria in Europe. To return to St. recur to the memory, should be men- Anue's Hill. The kitchen - garden tioned Cassiobury Park. The gar- is happily arranged, being “ blended dens were arranged by Le Notre, the
on two sides with the pleasuredisposer of the gardens of Versailles,
ground; on the opposite two, enclosed and the planter of our own parks of
by beech-hedges, concealed from the St. James's and Greenwich.
exterior by evergreens.” The garden " No man," says Evelyn, “has been is intersected by grass walks, which more industrious than this noble lord in give it a very fresh and rural applanting about bis seat, adorned with pearance. Upon these interesting walks, ponds, and other rural elegances. subjects Loudon, in his numerous The gardens are very rare ; and cannot productions upon trees and gardens, be otherwise, having so skilful an artist
should, of course, be diligently conto govern them as Cooke, who is, as to the mechanical part, not ignorant in
sulted. I am indebted to his pen for mathematics, and pretends to astrology.
the following very curious description There is an excellent collection of the
of a rock-gardlen, belonging to Lady choicest fruit."
“ The length of the flower garden, Evelyn adds, with innocent irony, within the rocky boundary, is sixty yards, “ My lord is not illiterate beyond and the breadth thirty-four yards. The the rate of most noblemen of his baskets, twenty-seven in number, are in age." Lord Essex entered actively in- five straight rows; and each basket is a to horticultural pursuits, assisting to
circle, nine feet five inches in diameter.
They are made of iron, worked on an iron prune the trees. Loudon says that the buildings and garden - scenery
rod; the rod being placed upon small harmonise with each other, being
pegs, to keep the basket to the level of
the grass; and they are paiuted a yellow venerable in age, rich in design, and stone colour, to harmonise with the rocks admirable in execution. One singular and the verandah. They stand eight feature at Cassiobury should not be inches above the ground, the grass coming forgotten-a Chinese garden. It con- close to the iron rod. The design of the tains a conservatory, a sort of low rock-work was taken from a small model pagoda, and other ornamental build- representing the mountains of Savoy, ings, full of Chinese porcelain, man
with the valley of Chamouni. Tbe walis darins, figures, paintings, fountains,
and the foundation are built of the red and gold fish. Very large plants of
sandstone of the country; and the other
materials have been collected from various green and black tea aid the illusion.
quarters, chiefly from Wales; but it is We may also, although iu a digres
now so generally covered with creeping sion, notice at the seat of the Mar
and Alpine plants, that it all mingles toquess of Salisbury, Ilatfield House, gether in one mass. The outline, howa beautiful antique flower-garden, ever, is carefully preserved ; and the
buted. Mr. Wells has spent a large and freshness the trim grass-plats of portion of thirty years in adorning Milton. The lawn at King's is in this place. A very interesting ac- excellent condition; but Neville's count of Red-leaf — the only one, in- Court, in Trinity, has a peculiar deed, which I have seen - appeared charm of stillness and repose. The in the Gardener's Magazine for July meadows behind Trinity and Clare 1839. But however ingenious these are beautifully bright with verdure. adaptations or imitations of nature Here ruminates
te shining cow may be, we sometimes almost invo- under the shadowy boughs; and here luntarily remember the lines of Payne wantons the college hackney,Knight :
“ His sleek sides bathing in the dewy “But let no servile copyist appear,
green.' To plant his paltry imitations here; To shew how Baalbec dwindled to the Little cares he for discussions on the eye,
corn-laws, watched over by the beAnd Pæstum's fanes, with columns six neficent eye of the Bursar. Happy feet high.”
in his seclusion and in his life, no It is impossible even to name the ecclesiastical commission disturbs his English gardens or seats which are or stall. Railways trouble him not, he were remarkable for extent, or beauty, still keeps to the road; and, often in or richness of decoration. Cannons the soft hour of a June sunset, may Park, at Edgware, promised to be his feet be heard leisurely pattering the superbest place in the country. along beneath the dim avenue of The Duke of Chandos proposed to limes. purchase land from Little Stanmore to Foreign gardens surpass ours in his town-house in Cavendish Square, odour. The gardens of the Tuileries so as to plant an avenue of nine are famous for their walks bordered miles in length; and it is said that, if by orange-trees in tubs ; but the he had lived, he would have accom- blossoms, being a perquisite of the plished this magnificent design. The gardener, are always plucked off and garden of the Rev. William llerbert sold. This is a great pity, and deat Spofforth contains many exceed- prives the visitor of one of the most ingly beautiful and rare flowers; and delicious charms of which the senses some choice bulbs bloom in the bor
are susceptible. Mr. Loudon, who ders. Mr. Ilerbert is not only a visited Paris in 1830, and paid, as scientific florist, but a very elegant was to be expected, particular attenpoet; having contributed an epic, on tion to its gardens and trees, exthe Miltonic principles of rhythm, to pressed his opinion, that by the judiour own degenerate days. Frognals, cious distribution of orange-trees, and near Bromley, has obtained a reputa- other odoriferous shrubs and plants, tion for its white figs.
or even by the common mignonette * The grounds of White Knights," alone, the air not only of Paris, but of says Mrs. Ilofland,
any city, might be rendered sweet and specimen of gardening in the most fragrant as that of a garden. Every extensive sense of the term, with all traveller knows that the country
66 exhibit every
or to the vivid herbage of English parallelogram, about twice as long as meadows, can conceive the dry, starv- it is broad; it is surrounded by a ing, thirsty appearance of a French wire-fence ten feet high, the texture or Italian grass-plot. That bright being such as will exclude small and healthful green, which Words- birds; that is, each mesh is two inches worth poetically and beautifully calls high, by one inch broad. The trees the emerald radiance, is entirely un- are standards, planted in the angles known. With the single exception of
and their branches are of the garden at Caserta, I do not kept in a horizontal position, by being remember a green grass-plot in Italy. tied down to stakes. A gravel-walk
With respect to landscape-garden- enters at one end, passes up the middle, ing, it will be sufficient to remember and goes out at the other end. Perthe remark of Knight, that scarcely haps a winding walk would have a any parts of England are capable better effect. In the intervals among of representing the compositions of the trees are planted gooseberries, Salvator Rosa, Claude, and the Pous- currants, raspberries, and strawberries sins; a few picturesque portions of of different sorts. The cherries are the island may afford representations of various kinds, but chiefly Mayof the scenes produced by Rysdael, dukes, White-hearts, and the Black Burghem, and Pynaker ; while those Circassian. At regular distances all of Hobbima, Waterloe, and Adrian through the area of this plot, wooden Vandervelvt, can be obtained any boxes, as sockets for posts, are fixed where. If, exclaimed Lord Orford, in the ground; and when the fruit we have the seeds of a Claude or a begins to ripen, a net of the kind Jasper amongst us, he must come used in pilchard-fishing, and made at forth. " If wood, water, groves, Bridport, in Dorsetshire, the meshes valleys, glades, can inspire a poet or of two inches, is drawn over the whole painter, this is the country, this is cherry-garden, fastened to the top of the age to produce them. The flocks, the wire-fence by hooks which are the herds, that are now admitted into, fixed there, and supported from the now graze on the borders of our cul- trees by the props placed in the tivated plains, are ready before the sockets. These props are fourteen painter's eyes, and group themselves feet high at the sides, and gradually to animate his pictures." There seems rise to the middle of the garden; and to be a slight difference in opinion they have blunt heads, in order not between these accomplished writers to injure the netting. The netting on landscape-gardening. I think that necessary for covering this square, Knight has delivered the soundest which is 80 feet by 220 feet, is in judgment. We have neither the two pieces, each 100 feet by 150 feet. architecture nor the sunshine of During rain or dewy evenings the Claude; we look in vain for the net is tightened, and forms a grand savage fertility and the melodramatic vault over the whole cherry-garden ; peasantry of Salvator; the classic during sunshine, or when the weather harmony of Poussin must be sought, is dry, it is slackened, and forms a and with no hasty observation; but the festooned vault supported by pots.* rural landscape of our own painters But we must not linger even in lies under our eyes. The people who this delicious cherry-garden, where possess the Seasons of Thomson may the woods, already glowing with the be satisfied with the delineations of setting day, invite our footsteps, and Gainsborough.
all nature smiles with the “ coming We have hitherto been walking on of grateful evening mild.” In the in flower-gardens, or among the rich western sky the coloured clouds float; scenery of art; perhaps the reader now like the painted folds of Aurora's may now be pleased with the view veil, now in “large brilliant volumes, of a garden consecrated to the palate. like native cinnabar; now of a vivid Let him recreate himself in the very red, like the marble of Languedoc;" ingenious cherry-garden belonging now like the wings of angels, flushed to Mr. Labouchere. The form, as with the rose of Eden. Let us retire described by Loudon, is nearly a
into the forest.
* See Gardeners' Magazine, March 1828. VOL. XXIV. NO. CXLIV.
TIIE GREATER AND LESSER STARS OF OLD PALL MALL.
CHAPTER XIV. QUEEN ANNE BOLEYN - JOHN KINGSTON OLIVER CROMWELL - ORLANDO GIBBONS
SIR ROGER L'ESTRANGE, DUBBED OLIVER CROMWELL'S FIDDLER - JAMES QUIN,
THE BASS SINGER. In the time of Charles I., near the which Cromwell greatly delighted to Park entrance on the east side of hear, and was known frequently to St. James's palace, stood a cluster sit at Kingston's, attentively listening, of low-roofed buildings, which were whilst they practised. then tenanted by the master of the Musical entertainments (then denochoristers of the chapel royal, and minated “ musical crashes"), the perhad been so occupied from the time formers being principally amateurs, of Henry VIII. On this site, soon were often held in Kingston's apartafter the coming to this country of ments; and Cromwell's love for music King George I., was erected the led him to be a frequent and uncere. German chapel
monious visitor to these concerts. In one of these ancient tenements On one occasion, Sir Roger l'Estrange resided John Kingston, who had a happened to be a performer, and the passage between ivy-grown dwarf knight not departing when Cromwell walls which led to Pall Mall. This looked in upon them, the Cavaliers passage had served, a full century dubbed him “ Oliver's fiddler." before, as the private entrance to the That Sir Roger l'Estrange did not flower-garden of Queen Anne Boleyn. very quietly wrap up and slip into
This John Kingston had been a his lace-bound pocket this reproachdisciple of Orlando Gibbons, and sub- ful imputation is sufficiently evident, sequently became organist to Oliver for he wrote a pamphlet entitled Cromwell, who, according to the tes- Truth and Loyalty Vindicated; and it timony of that interesting gossip, was published in 1662, two years Anthony Wood,“ had an affection after the restoration of Charles II., for music and musicians."
wherein he thus fairly clears himself: Kingston's name appears amongst Being in St. James's Park," says the household musical establishment Sir Roger, “ I heard an organ skilof King Charles I. Afterwards, how- fully touched in a long low apartever, for an increased salary, he went ment occupied by one Kingston. On over to Cromwell, and was by him entering, I there found a small comretained to instruct his daughters in pany of musicians practising; and music. Mrs. Claypole, the favourite being desired to take up a ridl and daughter of the Lord-Protector, was bear a part, I did as I was bidden, considered a proficient on the organ. and in a part, too, not much calcuShe performed also on the lute. lated to advance the reputation of
Cromwell, during the latter part my cunning or prowess on an instruof his administration, became melan- ment of such difficult execution. By choly, and sought retirement from and by, without the least colour of the cares of state. He used to sit in design or expectation, in comes Cromawful silence by the side of this ex- well. He found us playing, and, as I cellent lady for hours, until at length remember, so he left us." she would touch the black and white Kingston was the celebrated Dr. keys with such pathos as to melt his Blow's first master. Ile (Kingston) heart, when, embracing her with pa- had a nephew named Peter, who reternal affection, he would burst into ceived his musical education under an agony of grief and hastily retire. the wing of the British Orpheus
Kingston retained in his tenement Henry Purcell. This Peter, who had in the Park two boys, whose voices sufficient talent, became organist of were much admired, and whom he the old church at Ipswich, and was 3 taught to sing with him in parts ; very eminent teacher there, and på. for he was an excellent vocal as well tronised by all the great families in as instrumental performer. He was the county. There is a clever por also a good classic, and taught these trait of Kingston, the uncle, in the youths to sing Deering's Latin
songs, collection at the Music School, O.LOL
which hangs near to that of old Ge- tector, who“ loved a good voice rard Lanière, the favourite composer and instrumental music well." He of Charles I. Lanière was also a heard him sing, with great delight, painter of considerable reputation; “ Liquor'd him well with sack;" and this should be inscribed, Ipse and, in conclusion, said, “ Mr. Quin, pinrit.
you have done very well. What There are many particulars re- shall I do for you ?" To which lated of that extraordinary personage,
Quin made answer, with great comCromwell, which prove that he was pliments, of which he had command, an amateur of music. Indeed, An- and with a becoming grace,
“ That thony Wood expressly asserts the fact your highness would be pleased to on his own knowledge, and recites a restore to me my student's former circumstantial story in proof thereof : place.” Which Cromwell did ac“ I had,” says he, “ some intimacy cordingly; and so Quin kept it to with James Quin, one of the senior his dying day. students of Christ Church, and had Cromwell was also long before several times heard him sing with
fond of the music of the organ, as great admiration, not only in the the following will serve to shew. choir there, but also at the inn in In the grand rebellion, when the the city of Oxford, kept a few years fine instrument at Magdalen College, before by Dame Davenant, the mo- Oxford, amongst others, was taken ther of the poet, William, the godson down by the brutal order of the inof Master William Shakspeare, who, fatuated Puritans, Cromwell kept his in his latter days, often sojourned eye upon it, and gave peremptory there for a short time, on his way up orders to his sergeants to see that it and down from Stratford-upon-Avon was carefully taken to pieces, its parts to the Globe, at Bankside, South- correctly numbered, and, on pain of wark."
his displeasure, safely conveyed to Quin's voice was a powerful bass, Hampton Court palace forthwith. It and he had great command of it; but was so done, and set up in Cardinal he was deficient in skill, and could Wolsey's gallery there; and one of scarce sing in consort. He had been his favourite amusements, in his leiturned out of his student's place sure hours, was to listen to Kingston's through the ignorance or puritanical able fingers rattling away on its keys. tyranny of the visitors of the time; It remained at this favourite retreat but happening to be “ hand-in-glove" of Cromwell's until the Restoration ; with some few influential men of that when many things that had been long period that had retained some old sadly out of place found their way affection for music, they introduced home again, and, among others, this him into the company of Oliver identical magnificent organ of MagCromwell, then become lord-pro- dalen College.
CHAPTER XV. HENRY PURCELL, THE BRITISH ORPHEUS--CHIFFNEY, KING CHARLES W's PAGE-DRYDEN
THE POET --SIR RICHARD STEELE-- JAJES QUIN, THE COMEDIAN-LACEY, THE COMEDIAN - Tom D'URFEY-DR. TUDWAY-GOSTLING OF CANTERBURY - KING CHARLES II. AND THE DUKE OF YORK IN A STORM AT SEA - THE DUCHESS OF PORTSMOUTH - MADAME RICOURT -- KING CHARLES 1.'s QUEEN — DR. JOHNSON - SIMON, THE DIE-CASTER — XELL GWYNN MISS BYRON,
An old winding staircase in the place, the poet sometimes for days, clock-tower at the corner of the and at others even for weeks, here, Ambassador's Court, forming the by the kindness of Purcell, took gate entrance of St. James's Palace, peaceful sanctuary, and the twain and abutting on the west end of ate their snug dinner, provided by Pall Mall, led to a suite of chambers the agency of Chiff'ney, a hearty good which were given to Henry Purcell fellow, whose influence over the by his royal patron, Charles II. In king's esquire, cuisinier, and whose this comfortable retreat he was fre- persuasive powers tickling the ear quently visited by his friend Dryden, of the yeoman of the mouth, together the poet, who being an expensive man, commanded the key of the royal and sometimes in dread of his cre- larder, and here they feasted in comditors, the palace being a privileged fortable tranquillity ; for the one