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under those six heads, given a full and truly poetical system of christian, public, and low life.
• His legend of friendship is more diffuse, and yet even there the allegory is finely drawn, only the heads various, one knight could not there support all the parts.
oTo do honour to his country, prince Arthur is an universal hero ; in holiness, temperance, chastity, and justice superexcellent. For the same reason, and toc'ompliment queen Elizabeth, Gloriania, queen of fairies, whose court was the asylum of the oppressed, represents that glorious queen. At her commands all these knights set forth, and only at hers the Red-Cross Knight destroys the dragon, Guyon overturns the bower of bliss ; Arthegal (i. e. justice) beats dawn Geryonoe (i. e. Philip II, king of Spain, to rescue Belge (i. e. Holland), and he beats the Grantorto (the same Philip in another light) to restore Irena (i. e. peace to Europe).
"Chastity, being the first female virtue, Britomartis is a Briton; her part is fine, though it requires explication. His style is very poetical; no puns, affectations of wit, forced antitheses, or any of that low tribe.
« His old words are all true English, and numbers exquisite ; and since of words there is the multa renascentur, since they are all proper, such a poem should not (any more than Milton's) consist all of it of common ordinary words. See instances of descriptions.
Causless jealousy in Britomartis, V. 6, 14, in its restlessness.
Like as a wayward child, whose sounder sleep
But kicks, and squalls, and shrieks for fell despite;
Now scratching her, and her loose locks misusing,
Curiosity occasioned by jealousy, upon occasion of her lover's absence. Ibid. Stan. 8, 9,
There as she looked long, at last she spy'd,
Care and his house are described thus, V. 6, 33, 34, 35.
Not far away, not meet for any guest,
There entering in, they found the good man's self,
His name was Care; a blacksmith by his trade,
Homer's epithets were much admired by antiquity ; see what great justness and variety there is in these epithets of the trees in the forest where the Red-Cross Kight lost truth, B. I. Cant. I. Stan. S, 9.
The sailing pine, the cedar proud and tall,
The laurei, meed of mighty conquerors,
I shall trouble you no more, but desire you to let me conclude with these verses, though I think thev have already been quoted by you ; they are dia rections to young ladies opprest with calumny, V. 6, 14.
The best, said he, that I can you advise,
No. DXLI. THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 20.
Format enim natura prius nos intus ad omnem
For nature forms and softens us within,
MY friend the Templar, whom I have so often mentioned in these writings, having determined to lay aside his poetical studies, in order to a closer pursuit of the law, has put together, as a farewel es. say, some thoughts concerning pronunciation, and action, which he has given me leave to communicate to the public. They are chiefly collected from his favourite author Cicero, who is known to have been an intimate friend of Roscius the actor, and a good judge of dramatic performances, as well as the most eloquent pleader of the time in which he lived.
Cicero concludes his celebrated books de Oratore with some precepts for pronunciation and action, without which part he affirms that the best orator in the world can never succeed; and an indifferent one, who is master of this shall gain much greater applause. What could make a stronger impression, says he, than those exclamations of Gracchus ?....... ( Whither shall I turn? Wretch that I am ? to what place betake myself ? Shall I go to the Capitol ?..... Alas! it is overflow'd with my brother's blood. Or shall I retire to my house? Yet there I behold my mother plunged in misery, weeping, and despairing! These breaks and turns of passion, it seems, were so enforced by the eyes, voice, and gesture of
the speaker, that his very enemies could not refrain from tears. I insist, says Tully, upon this the rather, because our orators, who are, as it were, actors of the truth itself, have quitted this manner of speaking; and the players, who are but the imitators of truth, have taken it up.
I shall therefore pursue the hint he has here given me, and, for the service of the British stage, I shall copy some of the rules which this great Roman master has laid down ; yet, without confining my. self wholly to his thoughts or words : and to adapt this essay the more to the purpose for which I intend it, instead of the examples he has inserted in his discourse out of the ancient tragedies, I shall make use of parallel passages out of the most celebrated of our own.
The design of art is to assist action as much as possible in the representation of nature ; for the appearance of reality is that which moves us in all representations, and these have always the greater force, the nearer they approach to nature, and the less they shew of imitation.
Nature herself has assigned, to every motion of the soul, its peculiar cast of the countenance, tone of voice, and manner of gesture, through the whole person : all the features of the face and tones of the voice answer, like strings upon musical instruments, to the impressions made on them by the mind. Thus the sounds of the voice, according to the various touches, which raise them, form themselves into an acute or grave, quick or slow, loud or soft tone. These two may be subdivided into various kinds of tones, as the gentle, the rough, the contracted, the diffuse, the continued, the intermitted, the broken, abrupt, winding, softened, or elevated. Every one of these may be employed with art and judgment; and all supply the actor, as colours do the painter, with an expressive variety.