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ly repeated. In this operation, it is necessary to alter the situation of the heaps, with regard to one another, every time they are put under the press; and also, as the heaps are highest toward the middle, to place small pieces of felt at the extremities, to bring every part of them under an equal pressure.
The sheds for drying the paper are in the neighbourhood of the paper mill; and are furnished with a vast number of cords, on which they hang the sheets both before and after the sizing. The sheds are surrounded with moveable lattices, to admit a quantity of air sufficient for drying the paper. The cords of the shed are stretched as much as possible ; and the paper, 4 or 5 sheets of it together, is placed on them by a wooden instrument resembling a pick-ax. The principal difficulty in drying the paper, consists in gradually admitting the external air, and in preventing the cords from imbibing moisture.
Immediately before the operation of sizing, a certain quantity of alun-is added to the size. The workman takes a handful of the sheets, smoothed and rendered as supple as possible, in his left hand, dips them into the vessel, and holds them separate with his right that they may equally imbibe tlie size. After holding them above the vessel for a short space of time, he seizes on the other side with his right hand, and again dips them into the vessel. When he has finished 10 or 12 of these handfuls, they are submitted to the action of the press. The superfluous size is carried back to the vessel by a small pipe. The vessel in which the paper is sized is made of copper, and furnished with a grate, to give the size, when“necessary, due temperature ; and a piece of thin board or felt is placed between every bandful as they are laid on the table of the press. As soon as the paper is sized, it is the practice of some
paper-makers to carry it immediately to the drying house, and hang it, before it cools, sheet by sheet, on the cords. The paper, unless particular attention be paid to the lattices of the drying house, is apt to dry too fast; whereby a great part of the size goes off in evaporation; or if too slow it falls to the ground. It is of consequence that the paper, still warm from the sizing, grow gradually firm under the operation of the exchange, in proportion as it cools. By this method it receives that varnish which is afterwards brought to perfection under the press, and in which the excellency of the paper, either for writing or drawing chiefly consists.
The exchange after the sizing ought to be conducted with the greatest skill and attention, because the grain of the paper
then receives impressions which can never be eradicated. When the sized paper is also exchanged, it is , possible to hang more sheets together on the cords of the drying house. The paper dries better in this condition, and the size is preserved without any sensible waste, because the sheets of paper mutually prevent the rapid operation of the external air.
When the paper is sufficiently dry, it is carried to the finishing room, where it is pressed, selected, examined, folded, made up into quircs, and finally into reams.
It is bere put twice under the press ; first, when it is at its full size, and secondly after it is folded. The principal labour of this place consists in assorting the paper into different lots, according to its quality and faults; after which, it is made into quires. The person who does this must posses great skill, and be capable of great attention, because he acts as a check on those who separated the
into different lots. He 'takes the sheets with his right hand, folds them, examines them, lays them over his left arm till he has the number requisite for a quire, brings the sides
parallel to one another, and places them in heaps under the table. Thie paper
is afterwards collected into reams of 20 quires cach, and for the last time put under the press, where it is continued for 10 or 12 hours, or as long as the demand of the paper-mill will permit.
Paper-maker Apprentices are usually bound seven years.--For the first 5 of which they have 3s. 6d. to 45. 6d. per week, and for the two last 5s. to 6s, per week.
Journeymen have from 18s. to 20s. per week, and a house ; and when they do extra work they may earn 68. to Ss. more.
Picture of a Field of Battle.
TO THE EDITORS OF THE CHEAP MAGAZINE, Gentlemen,
IT was indeed a horrible detail that appeared in your December number, under the head of “ FATAL AMBITION," but the following description renders the picture more complete, as it conveys to the inind some idea of weat those unfortunate victims of remorseless annbition must have suffered and felt, before the vital spark became extinct and their numerous corpses were left to swell the funeral pile.
It is said to be by a person who went over the field of battle after the defeat of the Russians by the King of Prussia at Soldin; and if any person can read it without being moved, he must indeed have feelings very different from the writer.
.“ At one o'clock (says this gentleman) the.cannonado ing ceased, and I went out on foot to Soldin, in order to learn to whose advantage the battle turned out : towards
evening, seven hundred of the Russian fugitives came to Soldin, a pitiful sight indeed! some holding up their hands, cursing and sweariny; others praying, and praising the king of Prussia, without hats, without clothes ; some on foot, others two on a borse, with their heads and arms tied up, some dragging along by the stirrups, 0thers by the horses tails. When the battle was decisive, and victory shouted for the Prussian army, I ventured to the place where the cannonading was. After walking soine way, a Cossack's horse came running full speed towards me, I mounted him, and on my way
for miles and a half, on this side the field of battle, I found the dead and wounded lying on the ground, sadly cut in pieces. The farther 1 advanced, the more these poor creatures lay heaped one upon another ; this scene I shall never forget ! the Cossacks, as soon as they saw me, cried out, dear sir, water, water, water. Righteous God, what a sight! men, women, children, Russians and Prussians, carriages, horses, oxen, chiests, baggage, all lying one upon another, to the height of a man; seven villages around me in flames, and the inhabitants either massacred, or thrown into the fire.
The poor wounded still firing one at another in the greatest exasperation. The field of battle was a plain two miles and a half long, and wholly covered with dead und wounded ; there was not even room to set my foot withont treading on some of them. Several brooks were so filled up with Russians, that I do affirm it, they lay keaped up one upon another as high as two meu, and appeared like hills to the even ground; I could hardly recover myself from the fright occasioned by the great and miserable outcry of the wounded. A noble. Prussian officer, who had lost both his legs, cried ont to me, sir, you are a priest, and preach mercy, pray shew me Vol. II,
that compassion which God has not for me, and dispatch ine at once.
REFLECTION. If there is a God who delights in acts of humanity and virtue, how must he detest the author of such calamities to his creatures ! And if vengeance belongs to this God, what must that monster expect who, regard. less of the groans of the wounded, the tears of the ore phan, and the widow's cries, works his way to dominion through scenes like these; and whose adamantine and callous heart, cares not how many victims bleed, providing his ambitious views are promote!.
The rapidity of his motions, or singular good fortune, us he may be pleased to call it, may for a while save him from his merited fate, but a day of retribution sooner or latter will come, when he may wish with regret that his had been the sentiments so lately expressed by the Crown Prince of Sweden to his son Oscar, immediately after the capture of Lubeck; and as such sentiments, so expressed by such a prince, cannot be hailed but as bappy prognostics of the happiness of nations, I shall conclude with an extract from this admirable letter, dated at Lubeck, on the 7th of December last : “ How happy are we, my dear Son, when we can prevent the shedding of tears! How sound and quiet is our sleep! If all men could be convinced of this truth there would be no more conquerors, and nations would be governed by just kings." I am, &c. January, 1814.
A LOVER OF PEACE.
A FATHER'S ADVICE TO HIS SON. FIRST, my beloved child, worship and adore God, think of him magnificently, speak of him reverently, magnify his providence, adore. his power, frequent his service, and pray to him constantly.