« ElőzőTovább »
Evening Instructions ;
ATHER'S ADVICE TO HIS SON ON THE CHOICE OF A TRADL.
(CONCLUDED FROM OUR LAST.)
THE WATCHMAKER, THE last business I shall mention to thee, on the present occasion,
is that of the Watchmaker, or more properly the Watch-finisher; for the parts of a watch are now made by several different mechanics.
Watches and Clocks being adapted to the same purpose, are put together and finished by the same artisan. Both are composed of wheels and pinions ; but in the former there is a balance, or regulator, to direct the quickness and slowness of the wheels, and a spring which communicates motion to the whole machine, while in clocks there are a pendulum and two weights. The spring of a watch is inclosed in a barrel, on the outside of which is wound a chair; one end of this chain is fixed to the barrel itself, and the other to the fusee, which is a piece of metal in the form of a cone.
In winding up the watch the chain upon the barrel is wound upon the fussee, and by this means the spring in the barrel is stretched; the interior end of the spring being fixed to an immoveable axis, about which the barrel revolves. The spring being made of exceedingly elastic steel, endeavours to recover its former position, which forces the barrel to turn round, and this motion causes the chain, which is upon the fusee, to unfold and turn the fusee. The motion of the fusce in its turn is communicated to a wheel, which, by means of its teeth connected with the pinion, is made to turn another wheel, and so of the resto
An Apprentice Watchmaker is bound 5 years, and gets bed and board the whole of his time, but pays from L. 15. to L.20. apprentice fee. Those that serve for the freedom of Edinburgh, serve 7 years, upon same terms. Journeymen earn from 16s. to 215. per week, but usually work by the piece, and gain from iSs to 245. per week.
Thus, 'my dear TOMMY, I have given thee an account of some useful trades and professions, different from those which are practised in our village, these, I beg, thou wilt compare with the others thou hast got some information of, and after imploring the blessing of the Almighty to direct thee in thy choice, I leave thee to make up thy mind on the subject before the expiration of the present quarter, as thou hast signified thy wish to enter to a trade when it is out.
LOCAL AFFECTIONS. MANY are the casualties and disorders to which the human frame
is exposed, and as several of these are of such a nature that no prudence can forsee, nor care prevent, it is impossible that we can sufficiently guard against them. It is, however, the duty of every one to give time notice when any misfortune has overtaken him; and
NEVER CONCEAL AN ACCIDENT," is a maxim that should be strongly inculcated and enforced on the minds of youth of all ranks and denominations; for in no respect is the trite saying, that “delays are dangerous," more applicable, than in cases of this kind; where the kind officiousness of a parent or friend might easily accomplish a cure, in what neglected or allowed to stand over might afterwards baffle the utmost skill of the physician.
It is far, indeed, from our intention to dissuade from an early ap. plication for medical advice and surgical aid, where they can be conveniently had at the time an accident happens; but as many of our readers, must be supposed placed in the humbler walks of life, and some of them in retired and remote situations, we do not conceive we will be doing amiss by concluding our article of USEFUL INFORMATION with the few following cures, and simple remedies, which have either been sent for the express purpose of being inserted in our work, or have been selected from respectable authorities. The three first we extract from the letter of a correspondent.
Receipt for the cure of Scalds or Burns.--A Negro woman in the West Indies, while she was picking cotton, her child fell into boil. ing water ; having nothing to apply she laid it on cotton, and covered it over with the same. The child cried violently for a quarter of an hour, and soon after fell asleep. It was kept in the cotton, without any other application, and in a few days was perfectly well. After several trials the receipt was sent over to this country, and I had an opportunity of making particular inquiries at people of undoubted veracity lately, who mentioned many instances of its efficacy; two of which I shall mention. A little girl, daughter to a gentleman near this place, fell into a tub of almost boiling wort; her arm, side, breast and neck, were dreadfully scalded; cotton was immediately applied. She cried for about a quarter of an hour, then became much easier, and fell asleep. In a few days the cotton fell off and left her skin sound and well. The other case was a person who had a bad burn unskil. fully treated, it became a sore, which was not like to get soon well; hearing of the cotton, it was applied, and, as moisture came through it, more was always put on above the first; in a short time the cotton came off, leaving the limb perfectly sound and well skined over.
N. B. The cotton wool should be carded at a mill. When applied to scalds or børns it should be put on so thick as to exclude the air, and should never be taken off. When any damp comes through it put more cotton above.
Simple cures for the Sting of a Wasp or Bee.--Sweet oil, applied nediately, cures the sting of wasps or bees; and if the sting is left he wound, it should, if possible, be extracted with hair piricers. take an onion, and cut it through the middle, then put a quantity salt upon it, and lay it upon the place for an hour or more. en common salt, moistened with a little water applied to the part, rubbing it with the slice of an onion, is said to give it immediate
For the Sting of a Gnat.Olive oil, unsalted butter, or fresh 's-lard, if t'mely rubbed on the wound; or if a small but equal porn of Venice turpentine and sweet oil be mixed together, and aped to it, the pain will be effectually relieved in the space of 6 hours, On swallowing a Wasp.-Instantly put into your mouth a teasonful of common salt, which will instantaneously not only kill the isp, but at the same time heal the sting. Ear-wigs that have crept into the ear, may be destroyed by some end dropping into the ear a little olive oil, sweet oil, or oil of al. inds-Or an Ear-wig may be enticed out alive, by applying a piece apple (of which that insect has a peculiar fondness) outside the ear. To extract Briers or Thorns - If a thorn runs into your leg, and e flesh closes over it-put on a bit of shoemaker's wax, and a poul:e over the wax-let it remain twelve hours, or till the wax draws it the end of the thorn : it seldom requires so long time. Bleeding at the nose. When a bleeding at the nose becomes ex. ssive, all cumbersome clothes and ligatures, especially those about e wrists and neck, ought to be instantly loosened: the patient should : removed to a cooler temperature, and placed in an erect position, s hands and legs immersed in tepid water, about milk warm, and ossils of lint dipped in vinegar, put up the nostrils. If the bleeding Des not abate, cold fomentations, either of simple water, or solution
nitre and sugar of lead, should be repeatedly applied to the foreead and temples, as well as to the regions of the kidneys, &c.
A Sprain should be fomented with vinegar a little warm, for four rfive minutes at a time, once every four hours ; this will render the i'culation of the fluids in the parts affected more easy, and either revent its swelling, or promote its subsiding. Wounds,- The first thing to be done, when a person has received wound, is to examine whether any foreign body be lodged in it, as rood, stone, iron, &c.; these, if possible, ought to be extracted, and he wound cleaned before any dressings be applied. In slight wounds, hich do not penetrate much deeper than the skin, the best applicaation is a bit of the common black sticking-plaister. But when a pound penetrates deep, it is not safe to keep its lips quite close, as his keeps in the matter, and is apt to make the wound fester.' In his case, the best way is to fill it with caddis not stuffed too hard, ind covered with a cloth dipped in oil, or spread with the common vax plaister--the whole being properly secured by a proper bandage. When the bleeding is excessive, it may possibly be stopped by a arter fixed above the wound if in any of the limbs.
Bruises.-In slight bruises it will be sufficient to bathe the pai with warm vinegar, to which a little brandy or ruin may occasionall be added, and to keep cluths wet with this mixture constantly applie to it.- In some parts of the country the peasants apply to a recen bruise a cataplasm of fresh cow dung. I have often seen, (says Ds Buchan,) this cataplasm applied to violent contusions, occasioned by blows, falls, bruises, and such like, and never knew it fail to bare : good effect.
SUDDEN DEATH. When sudden death happens on the street, the nearest do should be immediately opened for the reception of the body. Inai cases, interment should be deferred till signs of putrefaction appear, but especially in those where no gradation of disease has preceded, a in cases of hysterics, apoplexies, external injuries, drowning, suffocation, and the like. The effects of sound upon animal life is astonisting. The beat of a drum may have a very beneficial effect upon per sons in the state of suspended animation. At one time, a scream, extorted by grief, proved the means of resuscitating a person who was supposed to be dead, and who had exhibited the usual recent mars of the extinction of life.
CAUTIONS AGAINST PREMATURE INTERMENT. That in cases of malignant fevers, putrescency advances speedily; and that under such circumstances the time of the funeral ought not to be unnecessarily protracted we admit; but what are we to say, when in the more northern climates, and in temperate or even cool weather, we find the same rash practice equally prevails, not only among aged worn-out constitutions, but in young persons in the bloom of health and vigour, who, on being struck down by an illness of only a few days, or even hours, are nevertheless consigned to the same sur mary sentence, because custom has ordained it ? No sooner bas breathing apparently ceased, and the visage assumed a ghastly or death-like look, than the patient, after his eyes are closed, is hurried into a colfin, and the body, scarcely yet cold, is precipitated into the grave ? So extremely fallacious are the signs of death, that too often has the semblance been mistaken for reality'; especially after sudden accidents, or short illness. Many of these. however, by prompt means and jadicious treatment, have been happily restored.
That certain unfortunate beings have been prematurely interred, some very affecting instances might be produced ; but we farbear ic revive the sad remembrance. To prevent in future a repetition of such horrible events, at the very idea of which our nature revolts and humanity shudders, is the object of the present remarks.
Unequivocal proofs of death should always be waited for, and every possible means of resuscitation persevered in when these do not appear when we consider how appearances may be deceitful, and how unes. pectedly the latent sparks of life may be rekindled. The following method was the means of restoring to her friends a lady who ha been apparently dead for some tinie :--Rub a wine glass with flang before a fire, and immediately apply it to the mouth of the person supposed dead, when, if any of the vital principles remain, sympat of moisture will possibly appear in a short time on the glass.
ERSES SUGGESTED BY À MOONLIGHT SCENE. MARK, with what majesty the Queen of Night,
In sky unclouded, sheds her silver light, Spreads her bright mantle o'er old Ocean's bed: Still as the lonely mansions of the dead.'
Let such a scene, with meditation fraught,
When heav'n and earth, and seas, shall pass away,
The pleasing pages of your Magazine;
'Tis grateful, Sir,—'tis cheering to the mind