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If the book is to be lettered, a small piece of morocco leather, pared thing is then pasted on the back for the purpose, and when sufficiently dry and glaired with the wbite of an egg beat, it is oiled over, a piece of gold leaf laid on, and the lettering imprinted by means of brass or other letters warmed in the fire'to a moderate heat, the loose gold is then rubbed off; 'thé filleting is performed by means of a heated brass roll, the boards claired, and the book polished.
The burnishing of tlie leaves is performed, after the book has been pasted up, by a dog's tootli fastened in a stick.
This is the common process of binding titled books. In the more common, for school-books, &c. the books are cut round before boarding; and for fine and extra work.a num, ber of little niceties must be attended to, which as well as paper-book binding, ruling, gilding, blacking, and marbling, and several other things connected with the business, would encroach too much on my limits at present to describe..
The usual time for binding Apprentices to the Bookbinding business in London and Edinburgh is seven years ;; but in some places in the country they are taken för a. shorter period. In Edinburgh, for seven years, 2s. 6d.. or 3s. per week is given during the first year, and 6d. advance every successive year.
Where the time is shorter, , the terms may be supposed to differ of course.
A journeyman Book-binder may earn in Scotland from 16s. to 24s. per week, and in London, journeymen are said to be able to earn 30s. and much more, if they are good workmen.
A Lesson to Persecutors. THE following story related by Dt TAYLOR, he says-he found in the Jews? books : “When Abraham sat at his . tent door, according to his custom; waiting to entertain
strangers, he espied an old man, stooping and leaning on his staff, weary with age and travel, coming towards him, who was a hundred years
He received him kindly, wasbed his feet, provided supper, caused him to sit down; but observing that the old man eat, and prayed not, nor begged for a blessing on his meat, he asked him why he did not worship the God of heaven. The old man told him, that he worshipped the fire only, and acknowledged no other God. At which answer Abraham grew so zealously angry, that he thrust the old man out of his tent, and exposed him to all the evils of the night, and an unguarded condition.
When the old man was gone, God called to Abraham, and asked him where the stranger was?. He replied, I thrust him away, because he did not worship thee. God answered bim, I have suffered him these hundred years, although he dishonoured me; and coulust not thou endure him one night, when he gave thee no trouble ? Upon this,” saith the story, “Abraham fetched him back again, and gave him hospitable entertainment, and wise instruction.” The doctor adds : :" Go thou, and do likewise, and thy charity shall be rewarded by the God of Abraham.
On Education. The formation of good habits requires particular care. “Chuse that mode of life which is fit,” was the precept of an ancient
“ Chuse that mode of life which is fit, and habit will render it agreeable." Wherefore, let a child be gradually accustomed to the practice of what is honest, just, lovely; and to the fixed detestation of whatover is insincere or loose among men.
Where virtuous habits are not formed betimes, the principles of conduct becoming still more dissolụte, and the manners greatly de
praved, the young sometimes lose all sense of religious restraint, and pursue criminal courses where enterprises of despair are their only enjoyment.-Train up a child to respect all the commandments of God, otherwise indulgence would be granted to different vices; for, who has not a propensity to commit particular sins ? But early admonish him to acquire habits of temperance, and veracity, and application. Temperance is conducive to health and happiness, while dissipation “ stingeth like a serpent, and biteth like an adder." A sacred regard to veracity is always venerable ; while there scarcely exists a more odious wretch, than the person who sports with truth, and adopts falsebood as a principle. Application is favourable both to intellectual and moral improvement, raising many a friendless youth to future eminence in his profession, and erecting monuments more durable than the pyramids of Egypt. How many difficulties has persevering diligence overcome? It has levelled mountains and bounded the ocean.
No man, says the moralist, who has gotten a classical education, will ever despise it ; yet this must not engross the whole attention, as if wisdom spoke to her children only in the language of Greece and Rome. Let the improvement of moral principles be uniformly connected with the culture of the intellectual powers. Never throw off the salutary restraints of religion. When the bank is demolished, the flood has often deluged the plain.- When the children of a worthy family are widely dispersed, it is pleasing to think, that cherishing the religious principles in which they were educated, they may be offering their devotions in different quarters of the globe at the same moment. What although the prayers of ope may ascend from the mountains of the East, and the supplications of another arise from the American wilderness, they are all beard by that great God who fills the immensity of space
with his presence.. In every land, to be religious is to be blessed.-Hail ! holy Religion ! thou descendant of Divini: ty, thou daughter of Heaven! Let me ever feel thy blessed influence, and bow at thy altar Urge not the cus tom of the world as an excuse for disobeying the conmandments of God. God will not dispense, with his precepts, because numbers of his creatures disregard theni. That what is wrong for one to do, is wrong for more, is a proposition too clear for argument, and too simple for illustration. In the whole of your conduct display fearless inflexible integrity, and, whatever others do, serve the Lord.
LETTER FROM A FATHER TO A SON, WHO
HAD SIGNIFIED A WISH TO GO TO INDIA.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE CHEAP MAGAZINE. Sir,
Mid-Lothian, October, 1813. HAVING lately had occasion to visit an old friend, I found him in his study writing a Letter, the paper of which he had blotted in several places with his tears. He yielded to my pressing solicitations, and not only acquainted me with the cause of his distress, but allowed me to take a copy of his letter, which was addresse, to his eldest son, a very promising young man of 15 years of age. As I think the subject of the letter of importance to society, I send you a copy of it, and leave you at liberty to insert it in your useful Magazine.
MY DEAR BOY,
I HAVE received your letter, acquainting your
wish to go to India, on the civil establish-ment of the Company, and desiring that I would write your uncle, to endeavour to get you sent to Bengal, wbich, being the residence of the Governor-General, promises to be the most likely place for a roung man to rise in.
I have considered your proposal with all the attention I am master of, and, although I shall agree to your prosecuting any walk in life, most agreeable to yourself, yet I think it my duty, as your friend and father, to give you my idea of your plan.
I agree with you, that, if you go to India, you should avail yourself of the circumstance of your uncle's situation as a Director, and the high interest he possesses, which, in the event of bis death, you would be deprived of.
I am likewise sensible that you are come to that time of life when you ought to make choice of a profession, and that thie liberal education you have received, together with the knowledge you have of the French and Dutch languages, would be particularly useful to you in India, and, if it should please God to spare you, that, from all these ado vantages you would probably push yourself forward, and acquire a fortune as soon as most young men.-Still, I confess to you, I don't like your plan.
You have had, as I have said before, a very liberal em ducation, and it is with pleasure I say it, have made more use of it, than most young men I know; but you much to learn : your estimate of men and things will depend on the hands you fall into. Now, my dear child, I do not know a worse school for a young man wherein to form his mind, than the one you wish to go to; and, if I did not know the goodness of your heart, I should feel the most poignant distress on the present occasion." proposing at a time of life when the affections are strongest, to leave your parents and relations, who all vie with each other in their demonstrations of love and attachment to you, to go to a climate, which has been the grave of 19 in 20, of all those who have gone before you ; and into the society of persons you hardly know by name, who may look to you with the jealous eye of rivals, deprived of part