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any other sin only that is not conjoined with an obstinate, final impenitency, and rejecting offered mercy, and neglecting means appointed for their salvation.

4. God's decrees do cause no man's sin (nor his damnation any further than as supposing sin), for Dr. Twisse himself still professeth, 1. That reprobation is an immanent act, and nihil ponit in objecto,' putteth nothing at all into the person. 2. And that reprobation inferreth no necessity of sin or misery, but that which is called 'necessitas consequentiæ,' and not any necessitas consequentis ;' and Arminius and all confess that God's bare foreknowledge causeth or inferreth a' necessity consequentiæ,' which truly is but a logical necessity in order of argumentation, when one thing is proved by another; and not by physical necessity in order of causation, as one thing is caused by another.

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And whereas they say, 'Then man might have frustrated God's decree.' I ask them, whether man can frustrate God's foreknowledge; suppose God to foreknow sin without decreeing it (of which more anon), is not this a good argument, All that God foreknoweth will certainly come to pass. But God foreknoweth, e. g. Judas's sin, therefore it will certainly come to pass.' And what of all this? It doth not come to pass, because God foreknoweth it, any more than the sun will rise to-morrow, because you foreknow it.

And if you say, that no power can frustrate God's foreknowledge, I answer, they are delusory words of one that knoweth not what he saith. For it is one thing to have power to make God ignorant, and another thing to have power to do otherwise than that which he foreknoweth you will do. No man hath power to make God ignorant; but all sinners may have power to do otherwise than that which God foreknoweth they will do. For God doth not foreknow that, e. g. Gehezi, shall not have power to forbear a lie; but only that he will not forbear it. Yea, more, God's foreknowledge doth prove that sinners have power to do otherwise; for that which God foreknoweth will be. But God foreknoweth that men will abuse their power to sin, or will sin when they had power to do otherwise, therefore it will be so in the event.

Now if you will call their power to do otherwise, a power to frustrate God's foreknowledge, you will but speak

foolishly. For the power itself is foreknown; and the object of knowledge'in esse cognito,' is not after the act of knowledge. And if the person will not actually sin, God could not foreknow that he will sin. So that foreknowledge is here (when it is not casual) but a medium in a syllogism, and inferreth only the necessity of the consequence in arguing, and doth not cause the thing foreknown.

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Now when Dr. Twisse saith, that all the schoolmen. agree, that no necessity, consequentis,' or of causation, but only consequentiæ,' doth follow the decree of reprobation, see how far he and Arminius are in this agreed, (though I know some give another sense of necessitas consequentiæ).' But I come closer to the matter yet.

4. God decreeth no man's sin; neither Adam's, nor any other's. He may decrée the effect, which sinners accomplish (as the death of Christ), and he may overrule men in their sin, and bring good out of it, &c. But sin is not a thing that he can will or cause, and so not decree, which signifieth a volition.

5. God cannot be proved to decree, or will the permission of man's sin. For to permit is nothing. It is but not to hinder; which is no act: and to decree and will is a positive act. And if you fain God to have a positive volition or nolition, of every thing, or negative, then he must have positive decrees of every mere possible atom, sand, worm, name, word, thought of man, &c. That such and such a nothing shall never be; whereas, there needeth no more to keep any thing from being (in this case) than God's not causing it, not willing it, not decreeing it. The creature's active nature, disposition, objects, and circumstances, are here pre-supposed; and the impedition necessary, is by act, or substraction of these aforesaid, and God's non-agere' needs no positive decree. I must tell the learned reader, that this room will not serve to answer his foreseen objections. But I hope I have done it sufficiently elsewhere.

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6. God hath not only decreed to give, but actually given a great deal of mercy to them that perish, which had a natural tendency to their salvation. Christ hath so far died for all, as that none shall perish for want of a sufficiency in the satisfaction made: he hath purchased and given for all a grant or gift of himself, with pardon, justification, adoption and right to glory, on condition of acceptance

(where the Gospel cometh). In a word, so that none of them shall perish, that do not finally refuse the grace and salvation offered them.

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7. Men are not impenitent and unbelievers for want of that called natural faculty, or power to choose and refuse aright; but for want of a right disposition of their own wills; and by such a moral impotency, which is indeed their viciousness, and the wickedness of their wills, and doth not excuse, but aggravate the sin. (See Mr. Truman of "Natural and Moral Impotency.")

8. To rectify men's wicked wills and dispositions, God giveth them a world of means; the whole creation, and documents of providence; all the precepts, promises, threats of Scripture; preaching, example, mercies, judgments, patience and inward motions of the Spirit; all which might do much to men's conversion and salvation, if they would but do what they could on their own part.

9. Adam could have stood, when he fell, without any more grace than that which he abused and neglected. God's grace, which was not effectual to him, was as much as was necessary to his standing, if he would have done his best: and it was left to his freewill, to have made that help effectual by improvement. He fell, not because he could not stand, but because he would not.

10. For aught any can prove, multitudes that believe not now, but perish, may have rejected a help as sufficient to their believing, as Adam's was to his standing.

11. All men have power to do more good, and avoid more evil than they do; and he that will not do what he can do, justly suffereth.

12. Heathens and infidels are not left unredeemed under the remediless curse, and covenant of innocency, which we broke in Adam; but are all brought by the redemption wrought by Christ, under a law or terms of grace. 1. God. made a covenant of grace with all mankind in Adam; (Gen. iii. 15.) who was by tradition to acquaint his posterity with it, as he did to Cain and Abel, the ordinances of oblation and sacrifice. 2. This covenant was renewed with all mankind in Noah. 3. This covenant is not repealed, otherwise than by a more perfect edition to them that have the plenary Gospel. 4. The full Gospel-covenant is made for all, as to the tenor of it, and the command of preaching and offering

it to all. 5. They that have not this edition, may yet be under the first edition. 6. The Jews, under the first edition, were saved without believing in this determinate person of Jesus, or that he should die for sin, and rise again, and send down the Spirit: for the apostles believed it not beforehand; (Luke xviii. 34. John xii. 16. Luke ix. 45. Mark ix. 34. Luke xxiv. 21. 25, 26. Acts i. 6-8.) yet were they then in a state of saving grace, as appeareth by John xiv. xv. xvi. xvii. throughout. 7. The rest of the world that had not the same supernatural revelation, were not then bound to believe so much as the Jews were, about the Messiah. 8. God himself told them all, that they were not under the unremedied curse of the covenant of innocency, by giving them a life full of those mercies which they had forfeited, which all did tend to lead them to repentance, and to seek after God (Rom. ii. 4. Acts xvii. 27.), and "find him; yea, he left not himfelf without witness, for that which may be known of him, and his invisible things are manifested and clearly seen in his works ;" so that the wicked are without excuse; Rom. i. 19, 20. Acts xiv. 17. So that all heathens are bound "to believe that God is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him ;” (Heb. xi. 6.) And are all under the duty of using certain means, in order to their own recovery and salvation, and to believe that they are not commanded to do this in vain: so that God's own providence by a course of such mercies, which cannot stand with the execution of the unremedied, violated law of innocency, together with his obliging all men to repentance, and to the use of a certain course of means, in order to their salvation, is a promulgation of a law of grace, according to the first edition, and distinguisheth man from unredeemed devils.

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And they that say that all the infidel world have all this mercy, duty, means and hope, without any redemption or satisfaction of Christ as the procuring cause, are in the way to say next, That the church's mercies too, might have been given without Christ.' 9. "Of a truth, God is no respecter of persons, but in every nation he that feareth God and worketh righteousness is accepted with him;" Acts x. 34, 35. For "God will render to every man according to his deeds to them who by patient continuance in well doing, seek for glory, and honour, and incorruptibility, eternal life;" Rom. ii. 6, 7. Glory, honour, and peace, to

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the Greek;" ver. 10. with God;" ver. 11.

every man that worketh good, to the Jew first, and also to "For there is no respect of persons "For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these having not the law, are a law unto themselves, which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;" ver. 14, 15. And they shall be judged according to that law which they were under, natural or mosaical, "even by Jesus Christ;" ver. 12. 16. And it is the work of the Spirit promised to believers, to write the law of God in their hearts.

11. Though a special promise was made to Abraham, as an eminent believer, and the Jewish nation were the peculiar people of God, advanced to greater privileges than any others in the world; yet were they not the whole kingdom of God the Redeemer, nor the only people that were in a covenant of grace, or in a state of salvation. For Shem was alive after Abraham's death, who was not like to be less than a king, and to have a kingdom and a people governed according to his fidelity. And Melchisedec was a king of righteousness and peace, not like to be Shem by the situation of his country. And a righteous king would govern in righteousness. Job and his friends are evidences of the same truth. And we have no proof or probability that all Abraham's seed by Ishmael, and Esau, and Keturah, were apostates, for they continued circumcision. And what all the rest of the world was we know not, save that in general most grew idolatrous, and the Canaanites in special. But that they all apostatized from the covenant of grace made with Adam and Noah, there is no proof. We have not the history of any of their countries fully, so as to determine of such cases. In Nineveh God ruled by that law of grace which called them to repent, and spared them upon their belief and repentance; "Because he was a gracious God, and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness, and repenteth of the evil;" Jonah iv. 2.

And that God dealeth not with mankind now as the mere judge of the violated law of innocency; he declareth not only by the full testimony of his providence, or mercies given to the sinful world; but also by the very name, which he proclaimeth unto Moses (which signifieth his nature,

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