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the same kind of stuff of which great inventors and discoverers have mostly been made. Lower down, too, in mankind there is much of the same nature leading to various kinds of worthy deeds, though there are no more continents for it to difcover. There was great fimplicity about him, and much loyalty and veneration, (for truly great people are apt to see here, and beyond here, something greater than themselves, or even than their own ideas). He was as magnanimous as it is, perhaps, possible to be for one so sensitive and impassioned as he was. He was humane, selfdenying, courteous. He had an intellect of that largely-enquiring kind which may remind us of our great English philosopher Bacon. He was fingularly resolute and enduring. The Spaniards have a word, “ longanimidad,” (longanimity) which has been well applied to him. He was rapt in his designs, having a ringing for ever in his ears of great projects, making him deaf to much, perhaps, that prudence might have heeded;

-one to be loved by those near him, and likely by his presence to inspire favour and respect.

Such was the man under whom we are now going to enter into a wider sphere of our history of Slavery.

80

CHAPTER III.

DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.

PARASOLUMBUS was born in the Genoese

territory in the year 1447 or 1448.

His family was obscure, but, like most others, when the light of a great man born in it is thrown upon its records, real and possible, it presents some other names not altogether unworthy to be put down as the great man's ancestors. Columbus was sent to Pavia for his education, and seems to have profited by it, for we find that he wrote legibly, designed well, was a good Latin scholar, and it is probable that he acquired then the rudiments of the various sciences in which he afterwards became proficient. At the age of fourteen he went to sea. Of his many voyages, which of them took place before, and which after, his coming to Portugal, we have no

distinct record ; but we know that he traversed Early voy- most of the known parts of the world, that he ages of Columbus, visited England,* that he made his way to Ice

* Ví todo el Levante y Poniente, que dice por ir al camino de

land,* that he had been at El Mina, on the coast of Africa, and had seen the islands of the Archipelago. I He also mentions having been employed by King René of Provence, to intercept a Venetian galliot. The next thing that we may fay we know for certain of him is, that he went to Portugal, where he married Donna Felipa Muñiz Perestrelo; and is said to have been shown by his mother-in-law the papers of her deceased husband, the late governor of Porto Santo. Columbus lived for some time at Porto Santo, 9 and made voyages to different parts of Africa in company with Portuguese mariners. At what precise period his great idea came into his mind we have no records to show. The flow of Portuguese discoveries had excited the mind of Europe, and must have influenced Columbus, living in the midst of them. This may be said without in the least detracting from the merits of Columbus as a difcoverer. Men do not jump from nothing to the highest realities, like people in fick dreams. A great invention or discovery is like a daring leap, but from land to land, not from nothing to something. And if we look at the subject fairly, we shall probably admit that Columbus had as large a share in the merit of his discovery as most inventors, or discoverers, can lay claim to. If the idea which has rendered him famous was not in his mind at the outset of his career of investigation, at any rate he had from the first the desire for discovery, or, as he says himself, the wish to know the secrets of this world.* Whether this impulse soon brought him to his utmost height of survey, and that he then only applied to learning in order to confirm his first views; or whether the impulse merely carried him along, with growing perception of the great truth he was to prove, into deep thinking upon cosmographical studies, Portuguese discoveries, the dreams of learned men, the labours of former geographers, the dim prophetic notices of great unknown lands and vague reports amongst mariners of drift wood seen on the seas; at any rate we know that he arrived at a fixed conclusion that there is a way by the west to the Indies, that he could find it out, and so come to Cipango, Cathay, the grand Can, and all that his much-studied Marco Polo told him of. Let us not pretend to lay down the exact chronological order of the formation of the idea in his mind,-in fact to know more about it than the man would probably be able to tell us himself.

Septentrion, que es Inglaterra. — Navarrete, Coleccion. Madrid, 1825. vol. 1, p. 101.

• Yo navegué el año de cuatrocientos y setenta y siete en el mes de Febrero ultra Tile .... es tan grande como Inglaterra, van los Ingleses con mercaderia; especialmente los de Bristol. Las Casas, Hift. de las Indias, MSS. Primera Parte, tom. I, cap. 8.

+ Yo estuve en la Fortaleça de San Jorge de la Mina.Barcia, Hif. del Almirante Chrif. Colon. Madrid, 1749. cap. 4.

| En otra parte hace mencion haber navegado à las Illas del Archipièlago donde en una dellas que se llama Enxion vido sacar almaciga de ciertos arboles. — Las Casas, Hift. de las Indias, MSS. Primera Parte, tom. 1, cap. 3.

§ Las Casas, upon the authority of Diego Columbus.-Hift. de las Indias, MSS. Primera Parte, tom. 1, cap. 3.

The sources of his great resolve.

* Muy altos Reges; de muy pequeña edad entré en la mar navegando e lo he continuado fasta hoy: la mesma arte inclina á quien le prosigue á desear de saber los secretos deste mundo. Ya pasan de cuarenta años que yo voy en este uso: todo lo que fasta hoy se navega todo lo he andado.--Navarrete, Col. Doc. Dip. num. 140.

Of the works of learned men, that which according to Ferdinand Columbus, had most weight with his father, was the “Cosmographia” of Cardinal Aliaco.* Columbus was also confirmed in his views of a western passage to the Indies by Paulo Toscanelli, the Florentine philosopher. That the notices, however, of western lands were not

* The following passage is particularly referred to by Ferdinand Columbus : « Et dicit Aristoteles ut mare parvum est inter finem Hispaniæ a parte occidentis et inter principium Indiæ a parte orientis. Et non loquitur de Hispaniâ citeriori, quæ nunc Hispania communiter dicitur, sed de Hispaniâ ulteriori quæ nunc Africa dicitur."- Aliaco, Imago Mundi Capitulum octavum.

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