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And visited all night by troops of stars,
And you, ye five wild torrents fiercely glad!
Ye ice-falls! ye that from the mountain's brow
Ye living flowers that skirt the eternal frost!
Thou too, hoar Mount! with thy sky-pointing peaks, Oft from whose feet, the avalanche, unheard,
Shoots downward, glittering through the pure serene
Into the depth of clouds that veil thy breast—
Thou too again, stupendous Mountain! thou
That as I raise my head, awhile bowed low
In adoration, upward from thy base
Slow travelling, with dim eyes suffused with tears,
Solemnly seemest, like a vapoury cloud,
To rise before me—Rise, O ever rise,
Rise like a cloud of incense, from the Earth!
Thou kingly Spirit throned among the hills,
Thou dread ambassador from Earth to Heaven,
Great hierarch! tell thou the silent sky,
And tell the stars, and tell yon rising sun,
Earth, with her thousand voices, praises God.
I Consider a human soul without education like marble in the quarry, which shows none of its inherent beauties until the skill of the polisher fetches out the colours, makes the surface shine, and discovers every ornamental cloud, spot, and vein that runs through the body of it. Education, after the same manner, when it works upon a noble mind, draws out to view every latent virtue and perfection, which without such helps are never able to make their appearance.
If my reader will give me leave to change the allusion so soon upon him, I shall make use of the same instance to illustrate the force of education, which Aristotle has brought to explain his doctrine of substantial forms, when he tells us that a statue lies hid in a block of marble, and that the art of the statuary only clears away the superfluous matter, and removes the rubbish. The figure is in the stone, the sculptor only finds it. What the sculptor is to a block of marble, education is to a human soul. The philosopher, the saint, or the hero, the wise, the good, or the great man, very often lie hid and concealed in a plebeian, which a proper education might have disinterred, and have brought to light.
The Night Cometh, When No Man Can Work.
LESSONS ON THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
1. The number of words in our fullest English dictionaries is not much below one hundred thousand; but this includes the technical words used in science and art. The number in every-day use is not, however, half so great. It is reckoned that Richardson and Webster's dictionaries contain about forty-five thousand.
2. The different sources from which these words are derived have been thus estimated by Archbishop Trench:—" Suppose the English language to be divided into a hundred parts; of these, to make a rough distribution, sixty would be Saxon, thirty would be Latin (including, of course, the Latin which has come to us through the French), and five would be Greek. We should then have assigned ninety-five parts, leaving the other five, perhaps too large a residue, to be divided among all the other languages from which we have adopted isolated words."*
3. The earliest language spoken in England in historical times was the Celtic, of which Welsh is still the surviving memorial. The Celtic was the language of the ancient Britons.
Its influence on the English language of the present day is a question on which opinions widely differ—some scholars limiting the number of Celtic words in our language to a very few; others claiming a far larger share. The ancient Britons were for more than four hundred years in contact with their Roman masters while England was a Roman province, and thus, no doubt, adopted many Latin words into their own language from them; and they were afterwards for centuries in contact with the Old English, or " Anglo-Saxons," partly in more honourable, but mostly in subordinate relations, as the humbler classes and slaves of the community. A large number of Celtic words must thus have been introduced into Old English, and, on the other hand, not a few adopted from Old English into Celtic.
4. It is impossible to speak with accuracy or completeness on a subject so complicated, and, as yet, so slightly explored by scholars ; but the following words may be taken as at least an illustration of our indebtedness to our British forefathers.
Celtic Words Adopted Into Esqlish.
1. Basket, barrow, button, bran, broider (to embroider), bill (a hatchet), cabin, quay, cobble (a boat), clout, knob, crock, crockery, cock (boat), gusset, kiln, dainty, darn, tenter, fleam, flaw, flasket (Yorkshire—a pail), frieze, funnel, garter, gyve, griddle, gruel, wain,
* "English, Past and Present," p. 7.
wall, welt, wicket, flannel, flip, gown, wire, hackle (for dressing flax), hem, housing (of a saddle), lath, locker, flummery (jelly of oatmeat), mesh, mattock, mop, pail, pan, park, peck, pellet, pitcher, pottage, rail (a fence), rasher, ridge, drill, rim, rug, solder, sough (of the wind), size (glue), tackle, tassel, drill, balderdash, hug, hugbear, bully, kick, knock, goblin, crouch, cower, cut (lot), cull, whap (stroke), twaddle, fudge, grumble, wed, goal, harlot, hoyden, hog, lick (to beat), lad, lass, matter (pus), muggy, nudge, paunch, pitch, pose, puzzle, puck, bump, pimple, task, dock (to cut short), toss, trip, trudge, tartan, plaid, kilt, clan, reel, fetters, coat, cart, pranks, hap (chance), happy, pert, sham.
5. It was natural that the British names of places should be adopted by invading races, and hence we find them retained in many cases. Thus:—
Aber, the mouth of a river (sometimes contracted into Ber, or even
Kill, a cell, chapel, or burying-ground (sometimes Cl).
1. Write one or more essays in which the Celtic words in the first list are introduced. Each Celtic word is to be underlined in the essay.
2. Give names of places in England, Ireland, or Scotland illustrative of the second list.
II.—1. The Old English, or Anglo-saxon as it is wrongly called, was introduced into England by the German tribes who began to settle in our country in the fifth century, and gradually came in such numbers as to drive back the ancient British race, in great part, to the west of the island, and take its place as the people of England.
I have passed over, in the meantime, the words we got from the Romans during their rule in Britain, because it will be better to treat the whole subject of Latin words at a later point.
The old English is not so much an element of our language as the foundation of it—the cloth of the robe, as it were, on which all words from other sources are only embroidered. The Articles, Pronouns, Conjunctions, Prepositions, Numerals, Auxiliary Verbs—that is, all the smaller words which bind sentences together—are Saxon. The grammatical structure of the language is equally so.
2. Old English words include most of those dear to us in daily life or in most frequent use. The words for our relations and friends—-father, mother, husband, wife, son, daughter, brother, sister, home, kindred, friends, are English. So also are such home words as hearth, roof, fireside, tears, smiles, blushes, laughing, weeping, sighing, and groaning.
The words we use most naturally for things around us in nature, and for its common phenomena are, in the same way, English; as, for example, the words sun, moon, stars, fire, earth, water, day, night, morning, evening, twilight, noon, midnight, sunset, sunrise, light, heat, cold, frost, snow, hail, rain, sleet, thunder, lightning.
The hill, dale, woods, streams, land, and sea are English.
So are our horses, dogs, cows, calves, and pigs, and our beef, veal, and pork.
Our bodily actions are mostly described by English words. We tit and stand, lie, walk, run, leap, stagger, stride, slide, glide, yawn, gape, wink, fly, swim, creep, crawl.
The parts of our body are also mostly English—our arms, legs, hands, eyes, mouth, ears, nose, and so on.
3. The English people remained still the mass of the nation after the Norman conquest, for the Normans did not come in families, and fill the land with their own race, but as soldiers, who soon intermarried with the English, and themselves became, as it were, part of them. Hence the words of common business life remain English. We sell and buy; things are dear or cheap; we plough and sow; we grow rich and poor.
In short, as I shall show you by-and-by, the homely language of the heart, of the eye, and of daily life in all its varieties, remained English, while the prouder or more lordly part of the language was, for the time, borrowed from the haughty Norman conquerors.
4. A striking illustration of the fact that English is the great ruling element in our language is seen in the fact that you may write on almost any subject in ordinary affairs without using any other than English words; but you could not do this with words in use among us from any other language. Thus, in the following passage from the Bible, the only words not English are marked with italics:—
"And they made ready the present against Joseph came at noon: for they heard that they should eat bread there. And when Joseph came home, they brought him the present which was in their hand into the house, and bowed themselves to him to the earth. And he asked them of their welfare, and said, Is your father well, the old man of whom ye