PhysicsElectricity (continued)

The Leyden Jar 191

Electric Battery 193

Thunder and Lightning 194

Galvanio Electricity 196

Electro-Magnetism 198


The Mechanical Powers 37-50


The Camera Obscura 151

Burning-Glasses 153

The Magnifying-Glass 155

Microscopes 156

The Telescope 158


The Organs and Functions of Nutrition .... 120

Muscles, The 123

Nerves, The 125

Life The Editor 261

•Life and Death Countess of Blessington 70

•Life's Decay Shakspere 298

•Lines from Wordsworth 186

Mahomet Gibbon 12

Mahomet Carlyle 13

Man-of-War, A, of Last Century .... Mrs. Oliphant 28

Martin Luther Carlyle 169

Mary's Death Scene Froude 201

•Moncontour, Battle of Macaulay 75

Money, The Right Use of Buskin 248

Monmouth, Death of Hume 206

• Moonlight Evening, A Byron 285

My Settlement in Yorkshire Sydney Smith 243

•My Son, A Parental Ode to Thomas Hood 63

tNew Year's Night, &c., The . . . . J. P. F. Richter 109

•Night and Death Blanco While 267

•Night, To the Shelley 18

•Othello, Account of his Courtship Shakspere 282

•Peace, An Ode to Thomas Hood 277

•Peasant, An English Crabbe 10

Poets, Reminiscences of Sir Henry Holland 199

•Poet's Song, The Tennyson 108

Races of Europe Hyde Clarke, B.C.L. 51

•Repentance, The Tear of Thomas Moore 274

Roman Tombs Hawthorne 70

•Sea, Hymn to the Bean Alford 145

•Seasons, Hymn on the Thomson 131

Shelley, Anecdote of Leigh Hunt 113

Sick Child, The C. Bickens 60

♦Sighs, The Bridge of Thomas Hood 127


•Skull, A Human F. Locker 111

•Sleep, To Wordsworth 85

Solar Eruption, A Great Professor Proctor 271

•Song—on May Morning ...... Milton 210

Sunshine Entombed ...... Professor Soscoe 168

Sweden, Rural Life in . . . W. M. Longfellow 214

Thoughtfulness, Need and Benefit of ... Ruskin 102

•Ulysses .......... Tennyson 256

•Unfading Beauty Thomas Carew 253

Vesuvius, In the Crater of ... . Professor Ansted 286

Vocabulary 384-392

Volcanos and Earthquakes .... Sir John Berschel 172

•Wolsey and Cromwell, Dialogue between . . Shakspere 179

Words Spelt In The Same Way, But Used In

Different Senses 379-383

•World's Age, The Kingsley 292

•Would you be Young again? . . . Baroness Nairne 115

•Youth and Age Coleridge 185

Zingis and Timour J. H. Newman 19

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CONSTANTINE.— Dean Stanley*

The Emperor Constantine is one of the few to whom has been awarded the name of "Great." Though this was deserved rather by what he did, than by what he was; though he was great, not among the first characters of the world, but among the second—great like Philip, not like Alexander; great like Augustus, not like Caesar; great with the elevation of Charlemagne or Elizabeth, not with the genius or passion of Cromwell or of Luther; yet this gives us a stronger sense of what the position was which could of itself confer such undoubted grandeur on a character less than the highest.

To English students I cannot forbear recalling that he was, if not our fellow-countryman by birth, yet unquestionably proclaimed Emperor in the Prstorium at York. He probably never visited our shores again. Yet the remembrance of that early connection long continued. It shaped itself into the legend of his British birth, of which, within the walls of York,

* See "Fifth Reader," p. 42.

the scene is still shown. His father's tomb was pointed out in York till the suppression of the monasteries. His mother's name lives still in the numerous British churches dedicated to her. London Wall was ascribed to him.

As he appeared in the council of Nicaea—handsome, tall, stout, broad-shouldered—he was a high specimen of one of the coarse military chiefs of the declining Empire. When Eusebius first saw him, as a young man, on a journey through Palestine before his accession, all were struck by the sturdy health and vigour of his frame; and Eusebius perpetually recurs to it, and maintains that it lasted till the end of his life. In his later days his red complexion and somewhat bloated appearance gave countenance to the belief that he had been affected with leprosy. His eye was remarkable for a brightness, almost a glare, which reminded his courtiers of that of a lion. He had a contemptuous habit of throwing back his head, which, by bringing out the full proportions of his thick neck, procured for him the nickname of Trachala. His voice was remarkable for its gentleness and softness. In dress and outward demeanour the military commander was almost lost in the variety and affectation of Oriental splendour. The spear of the soldier was almost always in his hand, and on his head he always wore a small helmet. But the helmet was studded with jewels, and it was bound round with the Oriental diadem, which he, first of the Emperors, made a practice of wearing on all occasions. His robe was remarked for its unusual magnificence. It was always of the Imperial purple or scarlet, and was made of silk, richly embroidered with pearls and flowers worked in gold. He was specially devoted to the care of his hair, ultimately adopting wigs of false hair of various colours, and in such profusion as to make a marked feature on his coins. First of the Emperors, since Hadrian, he wore a short beard.

He was not a great man, but he was by no means an ordinary man. Calculating and shrewd as he was, yet his worldly views were penetrated by a vein of religious sentiment, almost of Oriental superstition. He had a wide view of his difficult position as the ruler of a divided Empire and divided Church. He had a short dry humour which stamps his sayings with an unmistakable authenticity, and gives us an insight into the cynical contempt of mankind which he is said to have combined, by a curious yet not uncommon union, with an inordinate love of praise. He had the capacity of throwing himself, with almost fanatical energy, into whatever cause came before him

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