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of Rouen ordained that the king should be interred at Caen, in the church of St. Stephen, which he had built, and royallyendowed. But even now there was no one to do the last honours: his sons, his brothers, his relations, were all absent, and of all the conqueror's officers and rich vassals, not one was found to take charge of the obsequies. At length a poor knight, named Herluin, who lived in the neighbourhood, charged himself with the trouble and expense of the funeral "out of his natural good nature and love of God." This poor and pious knight, engaging the proper attendance and a waggon, conveyed the king's body to the banks of the Seine, and thence to the city of Caen.
Notes.—1086.—In the twentieth year Cardiff Castle, Wales, till he died, in
after the battle of Hastings. William 1136. William.—William II., Rufus (the
was now fifty-nine years old (born, Red), born 1056; killed by an arrow
1027). Philip.—"The Fair," died 1108. while hunting in the New Forest,
Mantes.—A town on the Seine, thirty Hampshire, 1100. Henry.—(I.), called
miles from Paris. Rouen.— Then the Beauclerk (the good scholar), born, 1068;
capital of Normandy, on the Seine, died, 1135, the same year as his prisoner
sixty-eight miles from Paris. Popula- and brother, Robert. Winchester Castle.
tion now 101,000. Robert.—Fought with — Winchester was then a royal city,
his father for Normandy; got it at Prime.—A Roman Catholic word for the
William's death; was driven out in time of early morning prayers. Caen.—
1105 by Henry, bis brother, then King A town of Normandy, ten miles from
of England, who took him prisoner, and the English Channel. Population now
confined him for twenty-eight years in 60,000.
Composition.—Put pronouns in the place of nouns repeated in the
following:—Hunt knew a great many books, and you could not visit
Hunt's house without finding Hunt with a book in Hunt's hand, unless
. Hunt was writing. Hunt depended on the London Library, for Hunt's
own collection was not large, but most of Hunt's books were sterling.
TO THE NIGHT.—Shelley.
Percy Bysshe Shelley, an English poet, of great genius, was born in 1792. He was the son of Sir Timothy Shelley. Of a dreamy, mystical nature, living in an ideal world, he early caught the infection of French opinions then much in vogue, and drew great dislike on himself and much harsh treatment by his avowal of them. He was a man of very pure life and loving nature, and had he lived would, in all probability, have risen above his early strange opinions. But he was drowned in hid thirtieth year, off Italy, in 1822.
Swiftly walk over the western wave,
Spirit of night!
Swift be thy flight!
Wrap thy form in a mantle gray
Come, long sought!
When I arose and saw the dawn,
I sigh'd for thee;
I sigh'd for thee.
Thy brother Death came, and cried
"Death will come when thou art dead,
Soon, too soon—
ZINGIS AND TIMOUE — John Henry Ncicman.
Dr. Newman, an eminent writer on theology, general literature, and history, was born in London, in 1805. At Oxford he led the rising "Tractarian" movement. In 1845 he entered the Eoman Catholic Church.
These two extraordinary men rivalled or exceeded Attila in their wholesale barbarities. Attila vaunted that the grass never grew again after his horse's hoof; so it was the boast of Zingis, that when he destroyed a city, he did it so completely that his horse could gallop across its site without stumbling. He depopulated the whole country from the Danube to the Baltic in a season; and the ruins of cities and churches were strewed with the bones of the inhabitants. He allured the fugitives from the woods, where they lay hid, under a promise of pardon and peace; he made them gather in the harvest and the vintage, and then he put them to death. At Gran, in Hungary, he had three hundred noble ladies slaughtered in his presence. But these were slight excesses compared with other of his acts. When he,had subdued the northern part of China, he proposed, not in the heat of victory, but deliberately in council, to exterminate all its inhabitants, and to turn it into a cattle-walk; from this project indeed he was diverted, but a similar process was his rule with the cities he conquered. Let it be understood, he came down upon cities living in peace and prosperity, as the cities of England now, which had done him no harm, which had not resisted him, which submitted to him at discretion on his summons. What was his treatment of such? He ordered out the whole population on some adjacent plain; then he proceeded to sack their city. Next he divided them into three parts: first, the soldiers and others capable of bearing arms; these he either enlisted into his armies, or slaughtered on the spot. The second class consisted of the rich, the women, and the artisans; these he divided amongst his followers. The remainder, the old, infirm, and poor, he suffered to return to their rifled city. Such was his ordinary course; but when anything occurred to provoke him, the most savage excesses followed. The slightest offence, or appearance of offence, on the part of an individual, sufficed for the massacre of whole populations. The three great capitals of Khorasan were destroyed by his orders, and a reckoning made of the slain: at Maru were killed 1,300,000; at Herat, 1,600,000; and at Neisabour, 1,747,000; making a total of 4,647,000 deaths. Say these numbers are exaggerated fourfold or tenfold; even on the last supposition you will have a massacre of towards half a million of helpless beings. After recounting such preternatural crimes, it is little to add that his devastation of the fine countries between the Caspian and the Indus, a tract of many hundred miles, was so complete, that six centuries have been unable to repair the ravages of four years.
Timour equalled Zingis, if he could not surpass him, in barbarity. At Delhi, the capital of his future dynasty, he massacred 100,000 prisoners, because some of them were seen to smile when the army of their countrymen came in sight. He laid a tax of the following sort on the people of Ispahan, viz., to find him 70,000 human skulls to build his towers with; and, after Bagdad had revolted, he exacted of the inhabitants as many as 90,000. He burned, or sacked, or razed to the ground, the cities of Astrachan, Carisme, Delhi, Ispahan, Bagdad, Aleppo, Damascus, Brousa, Smyrna, and a thousand others. We seem to be reading of some antediluvian giant, rather than of a mediaeval conqueror.
Notes.—Attila, King of the Huns, a Neisabour.—Were the three capitals of branch of the Mongol Tartars. Along Khorasan. Caspian (Sea). — North of with his brother, whom he afterwards Persia. Indus.—The great river which murdered, he began his reign in A.d. 433. flows along the western side of Upper His rule extended from the frontier of India, forming its boundary, and falling Gaul to that of China, over all the northern into the Arabian Sea. Timour. — A nations. In 446—450 he ravaged the Mongol Tartar, like Zingis, called Timur countries between the Black Sea and the lang or Tamerlane, that is Timour the Adriatic, and spent the remaining years of Lame. He was a successor of Zingis, his life (450—453) in desolating Western whose kingdom, which had fallen to Europe. He was defeated at the great pieces, he determined to restore. Delhi. battle of Chalons-on-the-Marne, in Gaul. —An Indian city, the capital of the From 250,000 to 300,000 men fell in this Mongol dynasty of Indian emperors, awful struggle, but it saved the civiliza- which Timour founded and which reigned tion of Europe. Attila died (a.d. 453) of over all India from 1519 till the close the bursting of a blood-vessel on the of the last century; nominally, innight of his last marriage. His vast deed, till after the Indian mutiny, empire broke up at his death. Zingis, in 1857. Astrachan.—A city, now in or Genghis Kkan.—The son of a petty Russia in Asia, on the Volga, fifty miles Tartar chief of Central Asia. In 1205 north of the Caspian Sea, Carisme.— he invaded China, and from that time Capital of a province lying south of the to his death, in 1227, roamed with his Sea of Aral. Ispahan. — Formerly the armies, conquering and desolating Nor- capital of Persia, south of the Caspian. them China, Persia, and Tartary. He Bagdad.—On the Tigris, capital of the is computed to have destroyed upwards Empire of the Caliphs. Aleppo.—A city of 5,000,000 men in these awful wars. of Syria. Damascus. — Ditto, ditto. It was the son of Genghis Khan, Batu, Brousa.—A city of Asia Minor, sixty and his grandson, by whom Poland, miles from Constantinople. Smyrna.— Hungary, and %reat part of Ger- A city of Asia Minor, on the Gulf of many, were desolated. Khorasan.—A Smyrna. It has a great trade in silks, provuice of Persia. Maru, Herat and carpets, fruit, &c. Population, 160,000.
Composition.—Write out a list of the verbs in the first paragraph, with as many synonyms of each as you can give.
HENRY VIIL—J. L. Sanford.
An historical writer of great merit. His "History of Henry VIII.'s Time," has been very recently published.
The basis of the character of Henry is his powerful and healthy physique. From this sprang his vigour of mind: from this to a great extent was drawn his moral nature, and by a reference to this his excellences and deficiencies, both mental and moral, can be best explained. With Henry VII. the case had been different; the basis of his character was intellectual, and his frail bodily constitution only modified and hampered a powerful intellectual organisation. But the younger Henry felt, thought, and acted, as a strong and healthy, a consciously strong and healthy, and, therefore, a self-confident and selfreliant, man would naturally do. He had the magnanimity as
Henry YIH. on his way to meet Francis I. (1520.)
well as the pride, the self-respect as well as the vanity and ostentation, of a magnificent bodily organisation. His acts and thoughts, both good and evil, seemed to possess a certain robustness, and his intellectual and moral perceptions to have something physical and bodily in their composition. The weaker and thinner fibres of human nature seemed to be strengthened and widened in him by this physical inter