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21 MAR 1962

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U

2. Chasm ; space

V AB

у V AC or u, the 20th letter and 5th vowel of VACANCY. s. (from vacant.) 1. Einpty

, our alphabet, is formed in the voice space; vacuity (Shaks.). by a round configuration of the lips, and a unfilled (Watts). 3. State of a post or emgreater extrusion of the under one than in ployment when it is unsupplied (Ayliffe). 4. forming the letter o, and the tongue is also Tiine of leisure ; relaxation ; intermission ; more cannulated. The sound is short in curst, time unengaged (Watts). 5. Listlessness; must, tun, tub; but is lengthened by a final é, emptiness of thought (Wotton). as in tune, tube, &c. In some words it is ra- VA'CANT. a. (vucant, Fr. vacans, Lat.) ther acuie than long; as in brute, flute, lute, 1. Empty; unfilled ; void (Boyle). 2. Free; &c. li is mostly long in polysyllables; as in unencumbered; uncrowded (More). 3. Noi union, curious, &c. but in some words it is filled by an incumbent, or possessor (Swift). obscure, as in nature, venture, &c. This let. 4. Being at leisure ; disengaged (Clarendon). ter in the form of V, or v, is properly a con- 5. Thoughtless ; empty of thought; not busy. sonant, and as such is placed before all the To VĂCATE. v. n. (vaco, Latin.) 1. TO vowels; as in vacant, venal, vibrate, &c. annul ; to make void ; to make of no authority Though the letters v and u had always two (Nelson). 2. To make vacant; to quit possounds, they had only the form v till the be- session of

. 3. To defeat; to put an end to ginning of the fourth century, when the other (Dryden). form was introduced, the inconvenience of ex- VACATION. s. (vacatio, Latin.) 1. Inpressing two different sounds by the same termission of juridical proceedings, or any other letter having been observed long before. In stated employments; recess of courts or senates numerals V stands for five; and with a dash (Cowell). 2. Leisure; freedom from trouble added at top, thus V, it signifies 5000. In or perplexity (llammond). abbreviations, amongst the Romans, V. A.

VA CARY. s. (vacca, Latin.) A cowstood for veterani assignati; V. B. viro tonu; house; a cow.pasture (Bailey).

V. B, A. viri honi arbitratu; V. B. F. vir lonce VACCINATION, in medicine, the process fidei; V. C. vir consularis ; V. C. C. F. vale of inoculating a person with the virus of the disconjux charissime, feliciter ; V. D. D. vuto ease, called vaccina, or cow-pox, in order to dedicatur; V.G. verbi gratia; Vir. Ve. virgo render him incapable of being infected by the vestulis ; VL. videlicet ; V. N. quinto nonu- small-pox; thus erup'oying a milder disease as

an antidote to a severer. rum. VABRES, a town of France, in the depart

This may be regarded as one of the most im. ment of Aveiron. Though an episcopal see portant discoveries of modern times, and albefore the revolution, it is little better than a

though strenuously opposed and decried by in

dividuals in most countries, has met with all village ; but has some manufactures of serges, the support and countenance from all the godimities, and cottons. It is seated at the confluence of two small rivers that fall into the is entitled. Under the article INOCULATION WE

vernments of every part of the globe to wbich it Tarn, 30 miles S. E. of Rodez, and 32 E. of have entered at some length into the history and Alby. Lon. 2. 55 E. Lat. 43. 37 N. praxis of this admirable preservative, and have VOL. XI.-PART II.

B

cursorily exhinined into the testimonies in its ble of producing these diseases. We ought likefavour. That article, however, bas been written wise to inquire whether the source from which for more than three years from the present time: the cow-pox matter was derived was infected in the course of which period vaccination has with any foreign ferment. And finally, as in all been tried upon a much more extended scale, ages and all circumstances of life various disand its effects have been examined with still eases appear which cannot be assigned to any closer precision, and we are happy to add, with known cause, those which succeed vaccination more philosophical coolness. One of the best ought, in order to be ascribed to it, to show such papers that has been given to the world by the a character of affinity with each other as to indiFrench Imperial Institute is an article upon cate their common origin, and offer in their dethis subject, drawn up by three of its brightest velopment a connexion more or less sensible ornaments, M. M. Berthollet, Percy and Halle, with the primitive effects of vaccination to which and read August 17, 1812. It has since been they succeed published, on account of its national, or rather It is therefore requisite to admit, in opposition its universal, importance in the Moniteur, and to the advantages ascribed to vaccination, those we cannot forbear presenting our readers with observations only which are well authenticated, the following translation of that part of it which and the details of which are sufficiently complete chiefly examines and replies to the general obser- to enable us to appreciate their value. vations which in different countries have been Nevertheless, if the number of facts alleged advanced in opposition to it. These obser- were very considerable, as it would be impossivations are put in the form of six successive que. ble in such a case to ascribe them to mere acries; each of which receives its proper answer. cident, they would in a great measure supply

I.- Do the fever and the general eruption the place of exact observations, and would prowhich follow the inoculation for the small-pox, duce a certain degree of probability in their but do not appear after vaccination, constitute a favour. necessary purification of the system, the want of By attending to all these particulars we shall which may lead to dangerous consequences ? endeavour to give an answer to the question

II.-Do the facts observed demonstrate that proposed. the cow-pox, introduced into the system, is of We shall begin with the observations which such a nature as to produce eruptions, or ac- have been given as proofs that there exists discidents, which ought to be ascribed to the diffi- eases which owe their origin to vaccination. culty, the imperfection, or the want of erup- Among those that have been published, or tions?

that have come to our knowledge, there are very III.-Is the virus introduced by vaccination few which, considered separately, have the chaof such a nature as to produce immediately, racter of exact observation ; and not one posthat is, during the development of the natural sesses the conditions necessary to fix the relaeffects of vaccination, fatal accidents?

tion of the nalady noticed to the previous vac, The first two of these queries are answered in cination. the affirmative; the third in the negative. We Oul of eleven observations that have been must pass by the train of argument, though particularly communicated to us, and which, highly ingenious and conclusive, in order to from the precision with which the facts were notice, in a somewhat detailed manner, the three announced, as well as the nature of the evidence questions by which these are succeeded, and of those who communicated them, seemed to dewhich are of considerably more practical in- serve particular attention, we have had it in portance:

our power to verify seven. All of these seven IV.--Is the virus introduced by vaccination of were formally and authentically denied by ocular such a nature as to produce, even after its opera- witnesses, most assiduous, and consequently best tion has terminated favourably, diseases, more acquainted with the facts, either from situation, or less severe, and which may even prove fatal? or the interest which attached them to the child

The solution of this question is difficult, be- ren who were the subject of these observations, cause our investigation is of necessity interrupted We can only suppose that the persons, who comby a great number of uncertainties.

municated to us these observations, persons well It is certainly difficult to establish, that a virus, informed, and without any motive to deceive, introduced into the body, and capable of render- were led into error by false reports concerning ing it inaccessible to the small-pox contagion, things which they had not been able to see with has not the power of producing any other change their own eyes. After this it was natural for us which can affect the health. Such a consequence to suspect the authenticity of the other facts can only be the result of a number of observa- which had come to our knowledge by the same tions, so great, that its disproportion with the means, though we had it not in our power to contrary observations must prevent us from as- verify them by aclual inquiry. cribing them to any thing else but causes abso- A fact reported to the medical society of lutely unconnected with the introduction of the Grenoble has been mentioned, and it is advanced yirus,

in the work of N. Chappon, as a proof of the bad But the observations in support of a contrary effects of vaccination. A child after vaccinaopinion must be equally difficult to oblain. If tion had the face covered with pimples, which a disease appear after vaccination, in order to were succeeded by scabs that gave the face a show that it can be ascribed to no other cause, hideous appearance. This was followed by an sre ought to know what was the state of the sub- anasarca, and the case ended fatally. Notwithject before vaccination, and whether his consti- standing the want of details in this case, it is tutional or hereditary temperament did not pre- easy to perceive in it that eruption so familiar to pare him for those maladies which have taken infants, and known by the vulgar name of croute place. We must be able to show that after vac- laiteuse ( crusta lactea). Its appearance after vacbination he has not been exposed to causes capa- cinatiou does not prove that it had any thing in

common with it. We frequently see the sup- true cow-pox, an observation of more importance pression of such eruptions produce very severe than has always been supposd. symptoms without the presence of vaccination, The facts furnished by the Bibliotheque Bricommonly either in the head or the organs of tannique afford us the following results. We respiration.

shall notice those only which have been announced The little exactness in the other observations with so much precision as to give us an exact idea which we might examine, renders it impossible of the case. to admit them as proofs in a discussiou like the In 1800 M. Odjer announced at Geneva that present.

out of 1500 persons vaccinated not one accident We have met with strangers to the art of me had occurred. dicine, especially parents, who have assured us Dr. Anderson writes, in 1804, from Madras, to that their children, after having been carefully the Jennerian Society of London, that the numand successfully vaccinated, experienced several ber of vaccinations performed by the British and inconveniences, sometimes eruptions, sometimes Indian physicians on English, Portuguese, Braha weakness of health to which they had not been min, Malabar, Gentoo, Mahometan, Half-cast, subject before vaccination. These symptoms in Pariah, Maralta, Canadian, and Rajaput saba some cases obliged them to have recourse to jects, amounted to 145,818; and that in none of blisters and issues in order to remove them. It these cases bad a single accident been observed. was impossible for us to make ourselves so well This enumeration was made in 1803, and pub. acquainted with the origin of these facts as to lished in 1804 by the government of Madras. be able to judge how far the allegations were In 1805 the Jennerian Society of London, in well founded ; but without rejecting them alto- consequence of rumours propagated respecting gether, we may say that all the children, and vaccination, as if it occasioned various dreadful even adults, that we have had an opportunity of diseases till that time unknown, was induced to vaccinating ourselves, or that we have seen vac- make an exact exa.nination. The result of this, cinated, never exhibited any such symptom. comprehended in twenty-two paragraphs, gives

There is a circumstance which we observe in paragraph twenty-one the following statefrequently, and to which we ought to attend ment: the disease produced by vaccination is in particularly, while discussing the present ques. general slight, and without bad consequences. tion. We often see an accidental impression, an The cases contrary to this conclusion are in emotion, a fall, occasion the development of a small number, compared with the total number disease, to the nature of which that occasional of cases, and may very naturally be ascribed to cause is obviously a stranger. The small-pox the constitution, or the peculiar disposition of itself often appears after such accidents, and in the individuals who have exhibited the excepotber cases they have occasioned violent fevers tions. or other maladies to which a disposition seems In 1807 the Society of Surgeons in London pub. to have pre-existed, and only required an occa- lished another repori, more precise; and in sion to call it into action. Is it not also possi- which they show the greate t reserve with reble, that in circumstances which we can neither spect to the consequences to be drawn from the determine nor foresee, vaccination may give oc. results obtained. We have already said, in casion to the appearance of a malady without speaking of the eruptions following vaccination, being its cause, and thus bring about what any that there were only sixty-six examples of them other commotion would have done, experienced among 164,361 persons vaccinated; twenty-four at the same time? In that case there would be erysipelatous affections only were observed out nothing in such diseases connected with vaccina- of the number sixty-six: and among these we tion, or proceeding from the cow-pox virus. must reckon the only three deaths which follow.

Since then there is not one of the observa- ed vaccination, and which have already been tions, collected hitherto, which can of itself noticed. All this is the result of the answer of serve as a proof of the opinion which we are 426 correspondents, whose testimony was solicitexamining, it remains for us to see whethered by a circular letter. taken collectively their number is such, com- In another place mention is made of the same pared with that of the cases whose history is erysipelatous cases, probably comprehended under known, as to give some solidity to the objec- the twenty-four which have been just mentioned. tion.

The disease is ascribed to the too great depth of The collections to which we have had re- the incisions, by means of which the cow-pox course already, in order to give an answer to the matter had been pushed too far below the skin, other questions, will still furnish us with numer- instead of being introduced between it and the ous facts to satisfy this.

epidermis. Other observations may give some The correspondence of Paris, besides the facts probability to this presumption, which we shall which we have noticed above, furnishes the fol- not attempt to examine here. lowing: erysipelas in the arm in the proportion At Aleppo, the English consul, Mr. Barker, has of one case to 10,000; suppurations continuing succeeded in familiarizing the people to vaccinain the cow.pox, in the proportion of one to tion : 600 were vaccinated in 1806, without ob10,000; and these are only local accidents, par serving a single disagreeable accident to follow. ticular to the parts on which the inoculation In 1803 the Spanish government undertook the was performed. As to general accidents they noble and generous enterprise of sending out an have only been observed when from particular expedition,

which terminated in 1806. The sule objects the number of punctures has been very object of this expedition was to convey to all much increased, as when they have amounted to their American and Asiatic possessions the new 30, 40, 50, or even to 60. These accidents have means of preserving the colonies against the been fever and convulsions, which did not in ravages of the small-pox. any instance terminate fatally. The cases col- A certain number of children was embarked, lected by the society of Paris are all such as who were to be vaccinated successively during have exhibited the characteristic progress of the roynge. In this manner the cow-pox virus published in London in 1800, entitled Some ObThese advantages have been ascribed either to servations on Vaccination, &c. when speaking of the perfection of the eruption, and the regularity the effects of vaccination on the health, says, that of the general commotion which accompanies it, he has generally observed the health improved or regarded as the effect of the suppurations pro- by vaccination, and he gives two instances: the longed in the place where the inoculation was first a young girl, daughter of a consumptive performed; a phenomenon which has been imi- father, subject to vomiting, and continually lainted by means of a supplementary suppuration, bouring under oppression, with a cadaverous induced by blisters when the circumstances of aspect spotted with livid blotches. After a for. the case seemed to require it. It has been con- tunate and successful vaccination, she in a few ceived that these evacuations destroyed the causes months recovered the best possible state of of the diseases formerly existing, and in the health. The second example was a child two midst of which the stuall-pox bad made its ap- years of nge, naturally delicate, recovering from pearance.

was transported to the Canaries, to Porto Rico, duce results that seem diametrically opposite to to the Caraccas, to Guatimala, to New Spain, to each other. These effects do not appear contrathe Philippine islands, to Macao, to Canton, to dietory, but because they vary according to the the islands of Visaye, where a hostile nation was disposition and the strength of the subjects who so struck with this act of generosity on the part receive the virus, and according as the essential of the Spaniards as immediately to lay down phenomena of the malady, which this virus occatheir arms. The colonists of si. Helena, who sions, take place with more or less violence, rehad hitherto refused the cow-pox matter from gularity, or perfection. The fact exists. The their own countrymen, received it from the only conclusion, which in our opinion can be Spaniards. The provinces of Terrafirma, of drawn, is that these effects depend upon general Carthagena, of Peru, &c. likewise received the laws, which it is not our business bere to exCow-pox matter, which was even found indigen- plain, and that they must not be regarded as a ous near Puebla-de-los-Angeles, not far from specific properly, which, if it did exist, could not Valladolid, and in the Caraccas. The viceroy give birth to consequences so different. of New Spain has attested that out of 50,000 in- We must, nevertheless, acknowledge, that howdividuals vaccirrated in bis government not a ever striking the observations may be, they do single unfavourable accident had come to his not lead to a striking demonstration. Hence, knowledge.

when any person says that inoculation favours At Echaterinoslaff

, the Duke of Richelieu, the cure of a particular disease, we must restrict governor of the Crimea, assures us that out of the proposition to mean nothing more than a 7065 individuals vaccinated in six months, not a simple expression of the particular fact observed. single accident intervened, except one, in which A person was afflicted with a chronic disease, the small-pox appeared the day after vaccina- froin the knowledge of the character and protion.

gress of which we could not expect a speedy Finally, in 1810, M. Čurioni, minister of the cure. This person was inoculated, and soon interior at Milan, wrote to M. Sacco that as far after the cure took place in a manner quite unas his information went, not a single instance had expected. Such is the fact. To draw as a conoccurred of small-pox appearing upon indiv. sequence that the inoculation was the cause of duals that had been vaccinated, and no disease the cure, it would be necessary that analogous whatever had fallowed the process.

instances had either always, or at least very freIt appears to us that the small number of un- quently, occurred; otherwise the coincidence favourable observations which have been collect. may have been entirely accidentai. ed, and among which we must not include those Examples are given of obstinate, even heredinot well authenticated, and which depend upon tary ulcers, of cachexy, scurvy, eruptions, &c. assertions destitule of proof, disappear entirely cured in consequence of inoculation. The chabefore such a mass of facts.

racter of those who have attested these facts V.-Supposing that inoculation for the small- does not permit us to call them in question. pox has the advantage of sometimes favouring advantages ought to establish a preference for

We readily admit them; but to prove that these the cure of certain chronical diseases, is this ad- inoculation with the small-pos matter over vacvantage peculiar to it, and ought it to ensure it a cination, it would be at least necessary to prove preference over vaccination?

that vaccination has not been followed by equally This question does not present fewer difficulties fortunate consequences; but the very contrary than the preceding.

fact results from the observations collected by In speaking of the diseases, the origin of which the correspondence of Paris, and from several has been referred to vaccination, we might have cases announced in the works extracted by the observed that the same reproach had been thrown authors of the Bibliotheque Britannique. The against the small-pox, and that not without some variety of facts announced by the correspondence

Not to mention former authors sus. of Paris is so great that it might even lead to pected of partiality, we shall satisfy ourselves some scepticism. We shall therefore only notice with referring to the authors of the Bibliotheque those relations which are given by persons enBritannique, who have giveo some instances. titled to draw our attention, and those the details Other facts of an opposite nature have been al- of which contain some interesting particulars. leged, showing that inoculation is an epoch of Without attempting to draw any consequences an advantageous change in the constitution, by from them, we shall simply present a short statethe cessation of various infirmities, and the confirmation of the health and constitution of the Mr. Richard Dunning, of Plymouth, in a work person inoculated.

an inflammation of the breast, but still pale, very Observers will not consider it as a contradic. feeble, and oppressed. This child, after vaccition to say that a commotion excited by the in- nation, speedily recovered strength, acquired a troduction of the matter of sınall-pox may pro. good habit of body, a free respiration, and an

reason.

ment.

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