« ElőzőTovább »
should be removed from the skin, this Wool, manufactured from the natural is accomplished in the moment, and by protective coverings of animals which the very act of their union, in the form have to encounter the vicissitudes of the of evaporation. It is, therefore, essen- seasons in a moderate climate, holds the tial to health that the textures of which second place. the clothing is composed shall be suffi- Silk, manufactured from a material ciently open to admit of this evaporation. produced by an insect for its protection
The materials usually selected to form during a state of transformation, holds articles of clothing are wool, silk, cot- the third place. ton, and linen or flax. Of these, wool, Cotton, manufactured from the prowoven into cloth of various kinds, as duct of a plant growing in hot countries, flannel, merino, &c., ranks first as a bad and forming the protective covering of conductor and good radiator of heat; its seeds, holds the fourth place. and its value in this respect is increased Linen, derived from the fibres of the by the character of its textures, and also bark of a plant, which springs from a by the cellular structure of the material cold and moist soil, holds the last place. itself, which is actually hair, each of the Linen has, therefore, little claim as a little cells of which contains its sepa- skin-covering garment. Its qualities of rate collection of air. The looseness of readily conducting heat, and of imbibing the texture of all woollen preparations and retaining moisture, combine to unfit also provides for the second requisite by it for this purpose. Linen is now generendering them perfect ventilators. Silk rally superseded by cotton, and deservedly ranks next to wool as a non-conductor and 80; for this second material possesses all radiator; but, from the roundness of its the qualities desired for the preservafilaments, and the closeness of its tex- tion of the temperature requisite to tures, it is very defective as a ventilator. the comfort and health of the body. Cotton possesses considerable claims Flannel, being a preparation of wool, both as a non-conductor and radiator, holds, of course, the first place as a nonand also as a ventilator; for, the filaments conductor and ventilator ; but it posfrom which the threads are spun being sesses a third quality, which, while enunequal and flat, these characteristics are hancing its value as a skin-covering preserved in the threads themselves, garment in some cases, renders it objecsecuring the openness of the cloth into tionable in others. From its open and which they are woven. Linen has the unequal texture, presenting every gradasmallest claims in any of these capaci- tion of inequality, the skin is subjected ties. It is a good conductor and a bad to an active and sustained stimulus, radiator of heat; moreover, from the amounting, with an unaccustomed wearer, porous character of its fibres, it is highly to actual irritation. Now this stimulus retentive of moisture, itself a rapid con- is invaluable to the delicate and the ductor of heat.
ailing; to those whose skin, from enforced Another material frequently brought sedentary pursuits, from illness, or from into use as an article of clothing is fur. constitutional weakness, is wanting in It has the same qualities as wool in ex- vigour and tone; to all, indeed, who treme, save that, being quite impervious stand in need of powerful artificial to air or moisture, it has no ventilating means to maintain the functional activity properties whatever.
of the skin. But, with the additional Thus fur, the natural protective cover- power of flannel as a non-conductor, ing of animals which inhabit the coldest it is too great in a moderate climate for countries of the globe, is the most power the healthy and active frame. For this ful of all preservers of the heat gene reason, with children in moderate health, rated in the frames which it covers, who are able to make use of the agents too powerful, indeed, for use in a of bathing and exercise, the more gentle moderate climate, save as small local friction of the cotton garment is inficoverings.
But it is not alone to the material of which the fabric is composed, nor to the texture of the fabric that we must confine our attention. The shape of the garment, its weight and even its colour, have an important effect in determining its fitness. All clothes should be light; and this is especially the case with those of children. It is a great error to put heavy clothes on a child ; and, unfortunately, this is frequently done at the very time when it is least desirablewhen about to take what is often its only exercise and recreation, a walk
-thereby compelling the child to carry an uninteresting burden. Now, al. though a healthy child will voluntarily undergo an amazing amount of exertion in the form of play—that is when it has merely itself to carry-it will undergo very little if it has to support any extraneous weight; in fact, there is no part of a child's frame fitted for it. It is a mistake also to think that weight gives warmth. It in no way does so, except by pressure on certain parts of the body, and the continuous and exhausting efforts of those parts to support it. Besides, it is an ascertained fact that respiration is diminished in proportion to the weight of the clothing; and the full expansion of the lungs and
free inhalation of air is one of the chief objects of all recreative exercise. Proper warmth is best obtained by selecting a soft and light material that will fall around and drape itself about the figure, and follow the shape and action of the parts it covers. Again, all clothes should be loose. No tight garment, however thick, can be warm, because the stratum of air which should lie between it and the inner garment is lost. No garment whatever, nor any part of one, should pres3 or lie tight upon any part of the body, but, on the contrary, should have a margin for that expansion which takes place when it is in motion. The hand cannot be opened or closed, the foot cannot be lifted, without certain parts of hand and arm, foot and leg, expanding under the operation; and the whole trunk is lifted upwards and outwards at every breath inhaled. Let, therefore, the clothes of children not only be free but loose ; for every restraint is an injury-an injury exactly proportionate to the extent of the restraint. On this subject I shall be more precise in another paper, in which I shall also make some remarks on Exercise for Children, and the various forms of it.
Ye Gods ! ye Gods! What fate is this ye send ?
See these veins swell, and these thick sinews draw,
* I am faint-
Oh Fate! I cry upon thee in my woe!
# 'Alas! why spite ye me, To knit me vast, and broad, and greatly limb'd, Yet steal away my greenness, and my heart ? Give me, ye Gods, one day of the past days, When I stood sure to dare all strength of men. They came and cast upon me; they grew weak; They changed in mine hands; their bones were wax And their blood water unto me. I stood ; I shook them down on the Olympian sands,
Nor felt my heart was stirr'd to one hot stroke;
The night is coming down, and I am faint,
ABOUT the year 1846 several leading sical Knowledge, could be more fitly acmembers of the University of Oxford commodated than they yet were. They came to a conviction that, if the urgently thought also that, if the stigma of a pressed necessity to provide schools for persistent and dull neglect of all stuscientific teaching, and laboratories for dies in Natural Science was to be rediffusing practical knowledge, was in moved, the sooner the work was set any way to be satisfied, it would be about the better. The urgency of the needful to erect premises wherein those case made itself the more felt in the objects could be carried out-wherein few years that followed, through the the Ashmolean Museum, the Geological murmurs and reproaches of those withand Mineralogical collections, and the out the academic pale, which, like the apparatus of the Reader in Experimental whispers, and hoarse though far-off rolling Philosophy, and other teachers of Phy- of a sea, hinted an overwhelming flood
of revolution, if reform were not swiftly attempted. Large funds had accumulated, the property of the University, which, if not expended in accordance with modern requirements, might be snatched from the grasp of those then in command, and applied to purposes which some of the elder children of the Academies shuddered to think of. Ultimately 30,0001. were granted for the shell of the building required; and from thirtytwo designs obtained in competition, that since executed was chosen-being the work of Sir John Deane and Mr. Woodward, architects, of Dublin.
A Gothic design was chosen, because the majority of the committee intrusted with the office of selection considered that the true spirit of that order of art, if realized in practice, would amply and alone ensure that fitness to function which, being the law of all constructive beauty in nature, is also the indispensable requirement of good art. From Gothic they expected to get satisfaction for the demands, however apparently incompatible, to which the building proposed would be subject-a huge, open, and sky-lighted space for a Museum ; lecture-rooms of divers sizes, one of which must perforce receive the sun's rays; apartments of various width; galleries of communication suitable for displaying objects; also laboratories for chemical studies, and dissecting-rooms, removed from the main body of the edifice. That, wisely disposed, such a gathering of apartments should produce a fine architectural effect was, of course, imperative. From the untrammelled spirit of true Gothic art the means of accomplishing all these things was confidently expected. Its advocates said that in perfect freedom was perfect power, and that, wherever a failure happened, there was the true soul of Gothic art absent. In short, the long-contested question between this and the classic style was to be put to experiment. That the sum of money voted was barely adequate to the end in view could hardly be quoted as a real disadvantage, seeing that the revivalists averred that Gothic art could be perfectly exhibited, at a cost not need
fully greater than Classic or Italian art would require, if only the fundamental principle were laid down that good art, being essentially constructive, did not demand mere decoration (craving source of costliness), but would be noble and honestly true without “goldsmith's work" from the carver, or jewelry from the glass-stainer.
How far these convictions have been confirmed by the event, we may now inquire, bearing in mind that the very “ practice of architecture has been con“fused by the inventions of modern “science," such as the application of iron in construction, “and is hardly “yet organized completely, with respect “ to the new means at its disposal.”
In considering the general success of the edifice in adaptation to its purposes, we must state that the architect was bound to have a large central area, covered with a glass roof, supported upon iron columns, and lofty enough to admit of a gallery, and fulfil further conditions hinted at above. We may here extract from Dr. Acland's excellent little handbooka general account of the interior. “For the illustration of “nature the student requires four things “—first, the work-room, where he may "practically see and work for himself; "secondly, the lecture-room, where he “may see and be taught that which by “himself he can neither ses nor learn, “and, as an adjunct to these, a room for “more private study for each ; thirdly, "a general space for the common display “of any illustrative specimens capable of “preservation, so placed as to be conve“nient for reference and comparison “between all different branches; and, “fourthly, a library in which whatever “has been done or is now doing, in “the sciences of this and other periods “and countries, may be conveniently “ascertained. The centre of the edifice, “which is intended to contain the “Collections, consists of a quadrangle. “This large area is covered with a glass
i Remarks on the Oxford Museum, by Dr. Acland, Regius Professor of Medicine. Osford : ). H. and J. Parker. London: Smith, Elder, and Co.