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being noxious to the health of the body, blood, faster, farther, and more forcibly are thus excreted from it. Now it is than before. Thus the concussion and essential to the perfect health of child reacting effort are not confined to that or adult, that these excretions should be part of the nervous and circulatory sysremoved from the skin. Otherwise, their tems which forms the sensory layer of the accumulation there will block up the skin, and the fibrous bed upon which mouths of the ducts,'to the enfeeblement it is extended, but are shared directly of the secreting glands, and the impair- by the entire body. ment of the healthy condition of the But bathing is not the only agent blood itself. Simple water has the affecting growth and development which power of dissolving the saline matter addresses itself to the skin. The nature exuded, but not the oily matter. and condition of the garments by which For this latter purpose soap is advan it is covered exercise a material intageously employed, because the alkalies, fuence upon its health and functional which form important ingredients in its ability; and, though it must be admitted manufacture, have the property of that there are still many features in the dissolving oily matters. The tempera- clothing of children which require al. ture of the water also greatly affects its teration, yet great has been the advancecleansing power ; for, cold water being ment of late years in this important of a temperature much lower than that respect—more, perhaps, than in any of the surface of the body, its contact other affecting the physical condition of with it causes the skin and subjacent childhood. Whereas the child was fortissues to shrink-by which the pores merly swathed like a mummy in many are closed, and the lines and declivities, yards and many folds of linen, pressing in which lie the greater part of its exuda- upon chest and abdomen, hindering the tions, are contracted. A higher tempera- growth of every muscle and bone, and ture has a contrary effect. The skin checking the action of every internal expands under its influence, allowing organ, it is now clothed in a manner the deepest cutaneous deposits to be conducive to comfort and health. Inreached and removed.
deed, when we see the antiquated For this reason the evening tepid bath swathings, and reflect on their inevitable should never be omitted in the nursery. operation upon a creature so delicately By it all accumulations upon the skin fashioned, and in a state of such rapid will be thoroughly removed, and perfect growth and transition as a young child, freedom allowed for the performance of our wonder is, not that it grew up to its functions, always more active during have the use of its limbs, to have sleep; and the morning bath may be muscles that could contract, and bones considered almost solely for its value as that could support them, but that it a tonic, both as regards temperature could grow at all; and nothing can and duration. In this aspect, the pro more strongly impress us with the perties of the bath are in an inverse sense of the tenacity of life, and the power ratio to its cleansing properties. Here of growth of the body towards its the point desired is the sudden contrac ultimate and destined form and use, tion and shrinking of the skin and than the fact that these abuses were subjacent parts, by which the blood
ever successfully resisted. Our wonder circulating in them is driven inwards is excited when we witness the soft upon the internal organs. For this is and tender shoots of an accidentally but the rompre pour mieux sauter, the buried plant forcing their way through recoil for an energetic return. The the hard-trodden soil, upheaving and tissues through which the blood has displacing turf and stone until they been driven are greatly stimulated by reach the light and the air ; yet is the this sudden afflux ; the action of the resistance it had to encounter slight circulatory and respiratory organs be in comparison to that which awaited comes more vigorous ; back rushes the
children of fifty years ago.
Yet, although swathing is given up, being abstracted from it by a cold atyoung
children have often their mosphere, or to screen it from an atmonumerous and nameless coverings fas- sphere, or object, of a temperature higher tened too tight across the chest, and than that required for its comfort and often with shoulder-straps too short; well-being. It must therefore be always which is but another form of swathing remembered that clothes are in themwith all its certain evils. Without selves neither hot or cold. Tþeir title great care and constant watching to to such epithets is due to their character adjust the size and shape of these gar as good or bad conductors of heat (that ments to the constantly changing pro- is, as they have a tendency or otherportions of the parts they have to cover, wise to conduct from the body the heat much injury may be done. To use generated by it), and good or bad raa nursery phrase pregnant of evil, the diators (that is, as they have a tendency child “will grow out of them;" which or otherwise to retain the heat they remeans that the clothes become too small ceive). Upon the character of clothing in for the child, and therefore that there is these two respects depends its power of a constant and abiding pressure and maintaining between the surrounding atconstraint-a pressure and constraint mosphere and the skin a stratum of air intensified by every day's neglect—upon already heated to a temperature approxithat portion of the little frame most mating to that of the body. And, as each liable to injury from such abuse, and successive garment interposes another which it is the most desirable to keep layer of heated air between the body free from all such constraint.
and the surrounding atmosphere, the most earnest in desiring to draw atten- heat-preserving power of clothing detion to this circumstance, because to it pends upon the number of garments I believe I can trace many of the as well as upon the character of the otherwise unaccountable malformations, material A third point affecting this and departures, more or less marked, heat-preserving power of clothing
is the from a fair and normal development thickness of the textures of which it is of the upper region of the trunk, which composed, because each of the meshes come daily under my observation, both or interstices formed by the threads in juvenescence and in adult life. contains a separate collection of air, and
For the due performance of its func the thicker the texture the greater of tions, the heat of the body must be course will be the quantity of air thus maintained at a given temperature; and retained, and in this manner is formed this temperature the body can itself as it were an additional inner covering maintain amid all the changes of climate of air, already the recipient of heat and season to which it may be exposed from the body. But, when we consider the character of But, although the interior of the body, the skin, and the extent of surface in all climates and at all seasons, with which it presents to the surrounding scarcely perceptible variation during atmosphere, it is at once evident that health, preserves its standard and unithis heat is liable to be diminished or form temperature, its surface is liable lowered by exposure to an atmosphere to considerable variation, because to it of a temperature lower than its own. is transmitted all superabundant heat The preservation of this desired degree generated in the body by certain states of heat must therefore be greatly de of action or being, such as exercise. pendent, first, on the condition of the For the rapid performance of this operaatmosphere itself, and, secondly, on the tion, moisture is exuded through the character of the coverings of the skin skin over the surface of the body-all as good or bad conductors of heat. moisture being a ready conductor of
The body then generates sufficient heat; but, as all nature's laws are perheat for its own wants, and the object fect, and as it is desired that both the of clothing is to prevent this heat from heat, and the moisture, its conductor,
should be removed from the skin, this Wool, manufactured from the natural is accomplished in the moment, and by protective coverings of animals which the very act of their union, in the form have to encounter the vicissitudes of the of evaporation. It is, therefore, essen seasons in a moderate climate, holds the tial to health that the textures of which second place. the clothing is composed shall be suffi Silk, manufactured from a material ciently open to admit of this evaporation. produced by an insect for its protection
The materials usually selected to form during a state of transformation, holds articles of clothing are wool, silk, cot the third place. ton, and linen or flax. Of these, wool, Cotton, manufactured from the prowoven into cloth of various kinds, as duct of a plant growing in hot countries, flannel, merino, &c., ranks first as a bad and forming the protective covering of conductor and good radiator of heat; its seeds, holds the fourth place. and its value in this respect is increased Linen, derived from the fibres of the by the character of its textures, and also bark of a plant, which springs from a by the cellular structure of the material cold and moist soil, holds the last place. itself, which is actually hair, each of the Linen has, therefore, little claim as a little cells of which contains its sepa skin-covering garment. Its qualities of rate collection of air. The looseness of readily conducting heat, and of imbibing the texture of all woollen preparations and retaining moisture, combine to unfit also provides for the second requisite by it for this purpose. Linen is now generendering them perfect ventilators. Silk rally superseded by cotton, and deservedly ranks next to wool as a non-conductor and 80; for this second material possesses all radiator ; but, from the roundness of its the qualities desired for the preservafilaments, and the closeness of its tex tion of the temperature requisite to tures, it is very defective as a ventilator. the comfort and health of the body. Cotton possesses considerable claims Flannel, being a preparation of wool, both as a non-conductor and radiator, holds, of course, the first place as a nonand also as a ventilator; for, the filaments conductor and ventilator ; but it posfrom which the threads are spun being sesses a third quality, which, while enunequal and flat, these characteristics are hancing its value as a skin-covering preserved in the threads themselves, garment in some cases, renders it objecsecuring the openness of the cloth into tionable in others. From its open and which they are woven.
Linen has the unequal texture, presenting every gradasmallest claims in any of these capaci- tion of inequality, the skin is subjected ties. It is a good conductor and a bad to an active and sustained stimulus, radiator of heat; moreover, from the amounting, with an unaccustomed wearer, porous character of its fibres, it is highly to actual irritation. Now this stimulus retentive of moisture, itself a rapid con is invaluable to the delicate and the ductor of heat.
ailing; to those whose skin, from enforced Another material frequently brought sedentary pursuits, from illness, or from into use as an article of clothing is fur. constitutional weakness, is wanting in It has the same qualities as wool in ex vigour and tone; to all, indeed, who treme, save that, being quite impervious stand in need of powerful artificial to air or moisture, it has no ventilating means to maintain the functional activity properties whatever.
of the skin. But, with the additional Thus fur, the natural protective cover power of flannel as a non-conductor, ing of animals which inhabit the coldest it is too great in a moderate climate for countries of the globe, is the most power the healthy and active frame. For this ful of all preservers of the heat gene reason, with children in moderate health, rated in the frames which it covers who are able to make use of the agents too powerful, indeed, for use in a of bathing and exercise, the more gentle moderate clinate, save as small local friction of the cotton garment is inficoverings.
But it is not alone to the material of free inhalation of air is one of the chief which the fabric is composed, nor to the objects of all recreative exercise. Proper texture of the fabric that we must con warmth is best obtained by selecting a fine our attention. The shape of the soft and light material that will fall garment, its weight and even its colour, around and drape itself about the figure, have an important effect in determining and follow the shape and action of the its fitness. All clothes should be light; parts it covers. Again, all clothes and this is especially the case with those should be loose. No tight garment, howof children. It is a great error to put ever thick, can be warm, because the heavy clothes on a child ; and, unfor stratum of air which should lie between tunately, this is frequently done at the it and the inner garment is lost. No very time when it is least desirable garment whatever, nor any part of one, when about to take what is often its should pres3 or lie tight upon any part only exercise and recreation, a walk of the body, but, on the contrary, should
- thereby compelling the child to carry have a margin for that expansion which an uninteresting burden. Now, al. takes place when it is in motion. The though a healthy child will voluntarily hand cannot be opened or closed, the undergo an amazing amount of exer foot cannot be lifted, without certain tion in the form of play—that is when parts of hand and arm, foot and leg, it has merely itself to carry—it will expanding under the operation; and the undergo very little if it has to sup whole trunk is lifted upwards and outport any extraneous weight; in fact, wards at every breath inhaled. Let, there is no part of a child's frame fitted therefore, the clothes of children not for it. It is a mistake also to think only be free but loose ; for every rethat weight gives warmth. It in no way straint is an injury--an injury exactly does so, except by pressure on certain proportionate to the extent of the reparts of the body, and the continuous straint. On this subject I shall be more and exhausting efforts of those parts to precise in another paper, in which I support it. Besides, it is an ascertained shall also make some remarks on Exerfact that respiration is diminished in cise for Children, and the various forms proportion to the weight of the clothing; of it. and the full expansion of the lungs and
YE Gods ! ye Gods! What fate is this ye send ?
See these veins swell, and these thick sinews draw,
I am faint-
Oh Fate! I cry upon thee in my woe!
Alas! why spite ye me, To knit me vast, and broad, and greatly limb'd, Yet steal away my greenness, and my heart? Give me, ye Gods, one day of the past days, When I stood sure to dare all strength of men. They came and cast upon me; they grow weak; They changed in mine hands; their bones were wax And their blood water unto me.
I stood; I shook them down on the Olympian sands,