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by the concession than our own. The Evidence is wanting to show that the Golden Maritime Law which should blockade of the South coast is so comguide us, both as to blockades and as pletely a paper blockade as to justify us to privateers, may be thus laid down. in protesting against it; and we are not England's interest is, that each nation's the proper people, nor is this the proper power of inflicting damage on its enemies' time perhaps, to raise the question. A trade, should be in exact proportion to great deal of denunciation has indeed the regular force which it can bring to been expended on the sinking of a stone bear in war-time on a given spot. Irre fleet at the mouth of Charleston hargular warfare may be, perhaps, for the bour. If the harbour was thereby debenefit of those whose naval power is stroyed or permanently injured, the less overwhelming than ours. But measure would be a barbarous one, England is chiefly concerned to see that against which all Europe might consisthe greatest possible advantage shall be tently and properly protest. But engireserved for the country that has the neers know that it is extremely difficult most considerable fleet. To limit as to block up a channel by sinking cbnarrowly as possible the right of block structions at its mouth. ade; to put an end, if possible, to bability, the bottom off Charleston “blockade by cruisers ;” and to insist harbour is composed of alluvial soil. upon the doctrine of blockade by an in The action of the outward current in vesting force, is a policy which would such case will scoop out the bed of sand increase rather than diminish our naval or mud from beneath the sunken ships. predominance. It is astonishing that It is likely (judging from what is usually this truth should not be more generally the case with wrecks) that they will in

If the Continent in its wis time disappear entirely, and even the dom were to so state further, and to very weight of stone which they carry urge that no port should be held to be will increase the rapidity of their disblockaded off where less than a dozen appearance. If this view be correct, the

even twenty ships were stationed, sinking of the stones is not an outrage on we should gain, not lose, by the propo the law of nations, though it is a severe sition. We can better spare twenty ships and unusual measure. We are not of than anybody else for the purpose. We the number of those who think that should be better off than other mari America's difficulty is England's opportime powers in proportion to the facility tunity. It would be both unjust and with which we could detach the requi unwise to interfere unnecessarily with site number of vessels on such a service. the naval operations of the North; and The result would be that the privilege a cogent case for interference has not yet of blockading would virtually pass alto been established, either in respect of gether into English, and into French the stone fleet or of the blockade. But hands.

should the question of effective blockIf the American civil war teach us to ades be raised at all, we trust it will examine the principles on which block not be dismissed again until it has been ade should rest, and to abolish “blockade more satisfactorily settled. by cruisers," it will have taught us The war itself progresses-slowly, a valuable lesson. The day will per but surely-towards its turning point. haps come when all of us will acknow General Maclellan's plan of campaign ledge-what in our opinion is certain has apparently been conceived on a scale that by enforcing strictness of blockade, proportioned to the vastness of the conand by admitting the inviolability of test. The defeat and death of Zollienemies' private property at sea, as we coeffer at Somerset, and the landing of have admitted that of neutral property at the Burnside expedition, have been two sea, England and civilization will both heavy blows dealt at almost the same be gainers. We are far from approving moment to the Confederate cause and to of intervention in favour of the South. the spirits of its supporters. We may

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look for a series of victories still more a great extent the foreign trade, which is considerable than those which have re ordinarily conducted without any imporcently been gained. The new Secretary tant transfer of specie. On the other of War, Mr. Stanton, brings to bear hand, the war converts into combatants upon

the conduct of the war an honest an important part, and reduces to idleand industrious mind; and, at all ness a still larger part of the population, events, the loss of Mr. Cameron will none of whom, accordingly, pay in probe a gain that must be felt. It is true ductive labour or in manufactures for the that specie payments have been sus subsistence and the supplies which they pended, and that the national exchequer require. The result is that more specie is empty. In a smaller country which payments are necessary than would be was taxed already as far as it could necessary in a time of peace. There is bear, the suspension of specie payments a dearth in the country, not so much of would be a serious matter. But it wealth as of a circulating medium. The is very different in the case of a nation gold is drifting westwards, into the which populates a continent, and whose pockets of the western agriculturists. central government has hitherto drawn It is at a premium near to the seaboard, from the population a revenue suited because there is not enough of it in the only to a peace establishment. The manufacturing States for purposes of innational treasury is empty thus early ternal exchange, and because the supply in the war, not because the North of it was only adapted to the requireis exhausted, but because taxation in ments of a period at which a great deal the North has not been, and cannot of national trade was carried on without easily be put on a war footing. A Govern the assistance of a circulating medium ment loan, or heavy taxation, would at all. Whatever the signitioance of the have been the natural method of supply- financial state in which the Cabinet of ing the deficiency. Unfortunately Go Washington finds itself, the South is vernment credit is always at a discount in a still sorrier plight. Nor do the in the commercial world of America, Southerners appear to support their conowing to the fact that repudiation is at dition with cheerfulness. The tone of all times possible, and heavy taxation the Richmond press is extremely reis never welcome to free and enlightened markable. The Confederate journals citizens. In such a case, the suspension write in a spirit of discontent and deof specie payments is simply equivalent spair of the prospects of successful reto contracting a forced loan. The mea sistance. It is reasonable to suppose sure may be unconstitutional, or, as it is that there is a large Union party in the called by English writers, profligate ; South, as there seem to be Southern but it does not prove that the country sympathiserseven in the Northern capital. is on the verge of bankruptcy. If A few more Southern reverses, and their America can support a war by taxation, voices will be doubtless heard. Hitherto she can also support depreciation of we have had little more than the prelude the currency

within reasonable limits. to the real contest. It is true that Commercial confidence is not a bit the North have undertaken to re-conquer more likely to be disturbed by the idea a country as large almost as a continent. +hat Government will go on issuing But it is also true that it is as easy to paper money too long, than it would in

conceive of the conquest of the South any case be by the idea that Govern

as of any terms of peace which can be ment might some day refuse to pay acceptable to both sides at once. What Government debts; and it would cer frontier line can possibly be devised to tainly seem that the American currency satisfy both belligerents? There are can well afford to take its chance of de some quarrels which must apparently preciation, if commercial confidence is be fought out, because a compromise not shaken by wanton extravagance. would be in reality a victory for one of On the one hand, the war suspends to the two combatants

441

ROYAL DEATHS.

THE PRINCESS AND THE PRINCE 1817–1861.

BY THE HON. MRS. NORTON.

The first lesson we try to teach our little rallel so close in all its details of sufferones in the nursery is, that there is ing, that the wonder rather is, how such no royal road to learning; the lesson we events, happening within the memory preach to children of a larger growth of living men, and having filled so many is, that there is no royal road to hap with wonder and anguish, should fade piness. In vain! Still do the busy like a dream, and vanish like a sound. childish brains weave for themselves The death of the Princess Charlotte pictures of princes and princesses in is vaguely accepted by the rising genegolden crowns and glittering raiment; ration as a national loss that was greatly still does the maturer mind dream with lamented; but it is to be doubted a half-repining sigh of those lilies in the if the record of her brief life has obgarden of Life, who “neither toil nor tained a visible standing place amongst spin;" whose days are days of pleasant us, even since the revival of its main ness, and their paths paths of peace ; incidents by the publication of gossipwho reap where they have not sowed ; ing memoirs of the period. They, howand to whom the delights of existence ever, who recollect these incidents, know offer themselves without struggle or how close is the resemblance between sacrifice.

the blow which shattered the happy Seldom does the converse of this

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home of Claremont in November, 1817, position force itself on our notice ; sel and that calamity which has lately made dom does the often-preached equality of desolate the royal halls of Windsor human trial become so apparent that and cast a gloom over the English those who run may read the lesson. Christmas of 1861. It is because this But when it does come, it comes with parallel lies on the dim border land which the storm of sorrow: in the cloud and divides our own times from the region the lightning

of written history, that we would briefly Death is the same in itself to all recapitulate a story which, if invented, mankind, and the spectacle is always would have seemed a most touching solemn and admonishing; but Divine romance, and, being suffered, was a Providence, sometimes in the course of miserable reality. ages, sets it forth in such strong contrast The Princess Charlotte, daughter of to all that is held great and good to the the Prince Rogent, afterwards George human being in possession and expec- IV., was born on the 7th of January, tation, that the most careless heart is 1796; an English princess, but with shocked into contemplation."

much German blood in her veins ; of Such a lesson has lately been read to us. that House of Brunswick which claims The grief, the unutterable grief, of the descent from Albert Azo, Marquess of highest lady of our land has passed Tuscany, who, in 1040, married the with an electric thrill to the meanest of heiress of the first Welphs or Guelphs, her subjects. Hearts ache and eyes fill Earls of Altorf in Swabia. The offwith tears at the bare image of her sor spring of alienated parents, Princess row; and to the younger of the genera Charlotte's childhood was disturbed by tion, now in its noon, the blow that has domestic feuds and anxieties, of which xsmitten the royal wife and mother seems she could have no comprehension ; and without example !

her youth was made at once restless It has nevertheless its parallel-a pa and dull by the consequences of these

quarrels, and the jealousy which her Her personal appearance and attracfather early conceived of the political tions are thus described by a contempoimportance of his heiress. Her candid, rary writer:-“In person she was neither impulsive nature was manifested even “ too tall nor short, about the middle as a child, and won the love of those “ size, rather inclining to enbonpoint; around her. Bishop Porteus records “ but not so much as to impair the symwith delight how the little princess, then “metry of her form. Her complexion but five years of age, on being told that, was beautifully fair, her arms deliwhen she went to bathe at Southend cately rounded, and her head finely in Essex, she would be in his diocese, “placed. There was a mingled sweetdropped on her knees before him and “ness and dignity in her look. She begged his blessing; “which," says the “ had a full intelligent eye; and when good prelate, “I gave with all my heart, “ she was engaged in conversation, much and many secret prayers." The reve “ liveliness appeared in the expression rential child grew into a pious woman,

of her countenance. She had very impulsive to the last, but gifted with a “ little of the vanity which is said to be keen intelligence and a noble cordial peculiar to her sex—that of exterior nature, which combined to steer her “ ornament and dress; she never inpast many a shoal, and which gave her, “dulged in it either before or after her in spite of occasional rashness, power to marriage. She aimed at little beyond choose wisely and well who should be “ neatness; there was no incumbering intimate among her few companions, superfluity of jewels to be seen upon her scanty stock of friends ; among the “ her person : in short, nothing that most distinguished of whom was Miss distinguished her from one of the feMercer Elphinstone, Baroness Keith “ male nobility in splendour of apparel. and Nairne, wife of our present French Always elegant, modest, and refined, Ambassador, Count de Flahaut.

" she had nothing of fashionable life She was but eleven, when an inquiry, « about her; but a lofty and generous miscalled the "Delicate Investigation," sense of the duties imposed upon was made as to the conduct of her mo “her by her elevated rank. She was ther, the Princess of Wales; and though “an excellent musician; she performed that inquiry ended temporarily in fa “ on the harp, the piano, and the guitar, vour of the party accused, though hard “ with uncommon skill. Her voice swearing failed to satisfy Ministers that was not powerful, but sweet, and the false profligate husband had a wife “scientifically modulated : she had a as profligate as other ladies who were “most accurate ear, and a brilliant exehis habitual associates, though she was “cution. She spoke French, German, reinstated and received by good old Italian, and Spanish, with considerable George the Third, still the event dis “fluency; and her accomplishments turbed all the relations subsisting be “comprehended not only the poetry and tween mother and child, and was the “ classical writers of her own country, first assault in that war to the knife” “but a considerable acquaintance with which could have but one termination “ ancient literature. Warmth of feeling, between a man without honour and a great elevation of spirit, and openness woman without dignity, even had she “ of heart, marked her conduct through been a better woman than she was. “life: she was justly beloved by all who

Perhaps no part of Princess Char “had the good fortune to know her ; and lotte's character is more touching than 66 when she found herself blessed with the efforts she made to offer a divided “the husband of her choice (and that duty to both her parents—the pity and “choice still reflects great honour upon the love with which she yearned to her “ her memory), she more than once mother, and the submission she trained “ declared that she was the happiest her naturally impatient spirit to show woman in her grandfather's kingdom." to her father.

Such was the Princess Charlotte of

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England, then the apparent heiress of house was exposed from French hostithe throne of these realms ; and per- lity seem only to have contributed to haps the description of the husband she preserve the purity of his morals; and selected cannot be better placed than they certainly had a most powerful immediately under her own picture. influence in the development of that Few will read it and not also think of rare moderation, that ardent love of justhe Prince Consort, his nephew, so lately tice, and that manly firmness, which were taken from us !

the predominant traits in his character. “In his early youth, this prince mani In his campaigns, and in the field of fested an excellent understanding, and battle, where all faise greatness disa tender and benevolent heart. As he appears, Leopold gave the most undeniadvanced in years he displayed a strong able proofs of courage, and of that clear attachment to literary and scientific pur intelligence and unshaken fortitude suits, and even at that time all his which are essential in a warrior and a actions were marked with dignified prince. If we add that this young wargravity and unusual moderation. His rior was of most admirable personal propensity to study was seconded by beauty, though of a somewhat dark the efforts of an excellent instructor; and melancholy countenance, Princess and, as he remained a stranger to all Charlotte's choice will not appear extrathose dissipations with which persons ordinary. of his age and rank are commonly in When the princess, in 1814, attained dulged, his attainments, so early as his the age of eighteen, the Prince Regent, fifteenth year, were very extensive. anxious to obtain for her a suitable. His extraordinary capacity particularly alliance, fixed upon the Prince of Orange. unfolded itself in the study of the lan After some serious negotiations, howguages, history, mathematics, botany, ever, the match was broken off. The drawing, and music; he sang beauti reason assigned in Parliament was the fully, and had one of the finest tenor objection entertained by the princess to voices in the world.”

a residence in Holland; the reasons The convulsion which, in 1806, shook assigned by her friends were Russian the north of Germany had been attended intrigues, and her owu distaste for her with consequences peculiarly calamitous young suitor. That he did not regard to the House of Coburg. In the her with similar indifference, is proved autumn of that year, when the French by the fact that, when he was obliged to approached the Saxon frontiers, Duke return her miniature with other presents, Francis, who was in very ill health, he secretly caused a copy to be taken, retired with his consort from Coburg which is still preserved in the Palace to Saalfeld ; and Prince Leopold, the in the Wood, at the Hague. but fifteen years old, was the companion She had already at this time made and support of his infirm father. The acquaintance with the Prince Leopold ; French appeared before Saalfeld ; the but, the Regent disapproving of the castle was stormed; and the ducal family degree of welcome she seemed willing exposed to all the dangers and horrors to accord him, the prince returned to of that disastrous battle, which cost the Continent. Displeased with the Prince Lewis-Ferdinand of Prussia his failure of the Orange match, and suspilife. This was more than the constitu cious of the influence of those around tion of Duke Francis, already so much his daughter, the Regent planned and impaired by disease, was capable of sup executed a kind of domestic coup d'état, porting; he sank under the accumula- changing at once all the ladies of her tion of misfortunes, and died in the household. The Princess Charlotte, beginning of December. Bonaparte then startled and irritated by this exercise of seized the Coburg possessions, which power, which she conceived to be the were not restored till the peace of Tilsit. forerunner of yet greater severity, has

The vicissitudes to which Leopold's tily fled her home at Warwick House,

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