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say, looked anything but dangerous. which Ueli had pledged himself to do Poor Suldi, evidently scared by the con- it, left no doubt, in my mind, as to his fusion he had created, limped on slowly determination. Drowning excluded the and cautiously, stopped now and then, necessity of spilling blood, a decisive and, whether standing still or moving consideration, in my mind, in favour of on, wagged his tail most conciliatingly. that mode of execution ; then, he had

The alarm raised by the fugitives had no weapon about him, that I could see, brought the whole household to the not even a cudgel. front door, Frantz included. I saw him, So long as they were in the grounds at sight of Suldi, strike his forehead of the establishment, Suldi walked with his clenched fist, then withdraw thoughtfully and cautiously along, turnfor an instant, and re-appear gun in ing occasionally round to see whether hand. Suldi no sooner saw the gun, they were followed. The consciousness than he galloped away towards the cow. was evidently upon him that he had house. The uncouth figure of Ueli was had a very narrow escape. But, as soon standing on the threshold ; Suldi sprang as he had crossed the road and the railtowards him, put his front paws on his way, Suldi became demonstrative, jumpshoulders, and began licking his friend's ing for joy, barking, and barring Ueli's face. Frantz was upon them in a progress. Ueli neither encouraged nor twinkling.

discouraged this display of feeling; he “Get out of the way,” thundered only turned Suldi out of his own way, Frantz to Ueli.

when necessary, and walked on fast. “I can't, I won't,” cried Ueli.

We had almost all the breadth of the “I'll blow your brains out if you vale to cross in order to get to the river. don't,” shouted enraged Frantz.

It was a treeless valley, as flat as the “Do," answered Ueli, coolly, draw- palm of my hand, all meadows and ing the dog closer to himself.

pastures—no possible concealment even Frantz was exasperated ; nobody can for a rabbit. Did Ueli see me followsay what might have been the conse- ing in his wake, or did he not? I don't quences, if Madeleine in tears, some of know. If he saw me, which most likely the boarders, and myself, had not inter- he did, he made as though he had not. fered. We succeeded in wringing the Not once did he turn his head towards gun out of the maddened man's hands, me. From the day I had raised my while Madeleine was parleying with voice in behalf of his protégé, I had won Ueli. Ueli had no rebellious intentions. Veli's heart. Even if Jungfrau MadeHe knew what he had promised, and leine had not told me so, I should have stuck by it, only he wanted to do it him- guessed it from his never passing me self, he said, and not there.

without putting on what he believed “ Will you do it, really ? ” asked his best smile, and saluting me by name. Frantz

Half-an-hour's forced marzh took us “I will."

to the river. It was swollen by the “Upon your honour ?"

melting of the snow—a mighty, deep, “ Upon my honour," affirmed the fast-darting river, with ominous eddies cowman, with a motion of the right in the middle. Ueli sat on its raised hand not wanting in nobility. Upon bank, and looked down for a moment. this understanding Ueli was left alone, Apparently the spot was not deep and and retired with Suldi into the cow. rapid enough, for he got up and walked house. He came out of it almost im- along the path under the stunted old mediately, looked about him for a few willows, that darkened the water. He seconds, as if irresolute, then struck presently found what he wanted, and sat across the fields, shunning the avenue. down again. Suldi sat down too between His face was turned to the plain, to- Veli's legs, his head against Ueli's face. wards the river. He is going to drown The two friends looked closely at each him, thought I; the solemnity with other for some time ; then Ueli spoke.

No. 28.—VOL. V.

My hiding place, behind a tree, was near nigh exhausted ; a shout from Ueli enough to hear, unfortunately, without revived it for a moment. The dog understanding, every word he uttered; pushed desperately on for a yard or so, but too far to perceive the play of his close enough for Ueli to wade into the countenance. The tone of voice was, water up to the chest, and fling the by turns, chiding, deprecating, and ten- smockfrock within Suldi's reach. He der. I fancied that he was scolding caught at it with his teeth and held on Suldi for his disobedience, which had fast; Ueli drew the garment and Suldi brought them both to this pass ; that he with it towards himself. Another mowas explaining and begging pardon for ment, and rescued and rescuer lay panting the part of executioner he had assumed by each other on the little creek. and taking an affectionate farewell of Ueli's success did not prove unminhim. A plaintive cry of Suldi, during gled with bitterness ; Suldi, as soon as the chiding period, drew forth from he could move, withdrew from him Ueli a passionate outburst of sensibility with distrust. This was Ueli's finishing It was as if I heard him say-Oh yes, stroke. He sank under it. He buried I understand what thou sayest; thy his face in his hands, and .... I was great love of me it was that made thee too far to see whether he wept. Suldi come back ; I know that thou couldst had not the heart to leave his friend not stand any longer to be separated long thus. He crawled near to him, from thy Ueli. And I, dost thou sniffed at him, whined, and licked his think that I had an easy time of it? hands. Ueli opened his arms to Suldi, I did nothing but pine and pine in thy and kept him long embraced. What absence, but I bore it for thy sake, for was his agony of mind during this close thy sake. And, now !

embrace, God only knows. I saw him A few seconds of silence and per- rise on a sudden, raise his hand, and, to fect immobility followed the address. my horror, strike a blow--a second, a Ueli, as I thought, was gathering up third, a twentieth, a fiftieth—then fall his strength. Then a sudden jerk, a back at his full length. cry, and a great splash in the water. Veli's immobility made me uneasy Ueli stood alone on the bank, his eyes after a time. I crept to the spot; Ueli riveted on the gurgling stream below. heard me, got up, and motioned me Presently Suldi reappeared afloat, at a away with the look of a man who must considerable distance from the place be obeyed. For once there was no lack where he had sunk. The mighty cur- of expression in his countenance. rent was whirling him down fast. He It was the last look I had of him. lifted his head, looked at Ueli, and He came back late at night, as reported whined piteously. There was something by Jungfrau Madeleine, informed Frantz human in the sound. I could well un- he must go away next day, and in fact derstand Ueli's distraction at this ap- left early in the morning. peal. Ueli forgot everything, but that “How did he look ? ” I asked. Suldi was in danger. His whole soul “Just as he did when you saw him was now bent on saving him. He hur- first, and were so much puzzled by his ried along the bank, a little in advance appearance, like a man who takes no of the dog, calling to, and encouraging thought or interest in anything.” him by word and gesture. The poor I returned on the morrow to the fatal beast taking heart at this, strove with spot. There was not the least trace of might and main, though with little suc- blood, or of the earth around having cess, to get out of the current in the been dug; but, on going a little farther direction of the bank. Ueli, in the along the bank, I found, between two meantime, spied a little dry indenture willows, indications of a fresh-made on the level of the river, sprang down grave. into it, and slipped off his smock frock. Poor Suldi! poor Ueli ! Suldi's strength was just then well

To be continued.

295

SUGGESTIONS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF OUR REPRESENTATIVE SYSTEM :

THE UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS' ACT OF LAST SESSION.1

BY THOMAS HARE, AUTHOR OF “A TREATISE ON REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT.”

No symptom of the progress of thought amongst public men, on the amendment of the representation, is more encouraging than the Act of the last session, enabling the members of the Universities to vote without leaving their abodes, or their ordinary duties, or incurring the expense and inconvenience of a journey to Oxford, or Cambridge, or Dublin. The large majority which supported Mr. Dodson in carrying the measure through the House of Commons in the absence of either government or party support, and even in the face of opposition from members who have usually great personal influence, shows the growing force of the opinion, that real improvement in political representation must consist not merely in the increase of the numbers of voters, but also in bringing to the work as much of the enlightened intelligence of every constituency as can be gathered and roused into activity. The triumphant success of this measure, compared with the fate of the abortive proposals which have from time to tinie proceeded from different sides of the House of Commons, indicates the existence of a deeply-seated belief, that additions to the classes and numbers of electors should not precede amendments that shall admit of the expression of the most carefully formed opinions of those who are enfranchised—especially of all the higher moral and intellectual elements of the electoral bodies. Accompanied with provisions, which shall not only prevent the extinction of such elements, but shall give them their full moral as well as numerical weight—which shall liberate individual thought, and enable every man who has a spark of love for his country to do something in his day

. ? Stat. 24 & 25 Vict. c. 53.

that may elevate and purify political life--the basis of the representation cannot be made too broad. Some have feared that the multitude of the population, rapidly increasing as it is, will always render it necessary to adhere to a very restricted franchise; and the apprehension may well be entertained when it is seen that candidates for public favour are compelled in most of the greater electoral bodies to appeal to the ignorance, or prejudice, or something worse, of those who form the more numerous classes, and who, being able to monopolise the representation, disregard and contemn the opinions of the minorities, whilst the latter relapse into apathy and indifference. This is no necessary result of numbers, or of an extended suffrage; but it is the result of the pertinacity with which we adhere to the rude and defective organisation thatsufficed for the sparsely distributed and scanty population of a former age, and an entirely different social condition. Let there be no fear of the effect of the increase of our population. “In the multitude of the people is the king's honour." As the number of electors increase,' there arises, however, a progressive increase of the necessity for marshalling and giving full play to every social force beneficial to man. At the present time, the understanding and intellect of the far larger portion of the educated classes of the country, in the matter of political action, are hopelessly fettered, and the conscience of the same classes, in regard to political duty, is paralysed, by the overwhelming force of local majorities, wielded, for the most part, by men who are the least likely in each community to be guided by any large or enlightened views, or to be worthy of general confidence. When the eyes of the public are once opened to perceive that there is a method by which the most enlightened conscience and the highest intellect of every man in the kingdom may be enlisted in the business and duty of social government, the application of such a method will be demanded by reflecting persons of every condition-by the politician as well as by the divine. The University Act has struck off much of the weight which impeded electoral action in the bodies to which it relates, and it has at the same time done not a little to elevate its tone.

The moral effect of this measure, in lessening the cost, or, indeed, in putting an end to the necessity of any considerable expense in future electoral contests, is of vast importance. “The costliness “of elections," observes Mr. Mill in his “ Considerations on Representative Government,” “ is an advantage to those “ who can afford the expense by exclud“ ing a multitude of competitors ; and “ anything, however noxious, is cherished “ as having a Conservative tendency if « it limits the access to Parliament to “ rich men. This is a rooted feeling “ among our legislators of both parties, “ and is almost the only point on which “I believe them to be really ill-inten“ tioned.” “ There is scarcely any mode “ in which political institutions are more “ morally mischievous — work greater “ evil through their spirit — than by “ representing political functions as a “ favour to be conferred, a thing which “ the depository is to ask for as desiring “ it for himself, and even to pay for, as “ if it were designed for his pecuniary “ benefit. Men are not fond of paying “ large sums for leave to perform a la “ borious duty. Plato had a much juster “ view of the conditions of good govern. “ ment, when he asserted that the per “ sons who should be sought out to be “ invested with political power are those “ who are personally most averse to it; * and that the only motive which can be “relied on for inducing the fittest men to “ take upon themselves the toils of go“vernment, is the fear of being governed “ by worse men. What must an elector “think, then, when he sees three or four

“gentlemen, none of them previously “ observed to be lavish of their money “ in projects of disinterested beneficence, “ vying with one another in the sums “ they expend to be enabled to write “ M.P. after their names? Is it likely “ he will suppose that it is for his in“terest they incur all this cost ? Poli“ticians are fond of treating it as the “ dream of enthusiasts, that the elec“ toral body will ever be uncorrupt : “truly enough, until they are willing “to become so themselves; for the “electors assuredly will take their moral “tone from the candidates. So long as “the elected member, in any shape or " manner, pays for his seat, all en" deavours will fail to make the business “ of election anything but a selfish bar“ gain on all sides. So long as the “ candidate himself, and the customs of “the world, seem to regard the function “ of a member of Parliament, less as a “duty to be discharged, than a personal “ favour to be solicited, no effort will “ avail to implant in an ordinary voter “the feeling that the election of a “member of Parliament is also a matter “ of duty, and that he is not at liberty "to bestow his vote on any other con“sideration than that of personal fit" ness."1

The observations of Lord Fôrtescue, in the debate on the second reading of the Bill, in the House of Lords, deserve the most serious and attentive consideration of all to whom the result of the ephemeral struggles of existing parties is less interesting and important than the permanent stability and grandeur of our institutions. Lord Fortescue expressed his hope that the Bill might be regarded “ as the precursor of a “sounder legislation, with regard to the “rights of electors.” He pointed to the folly and inconsistency of imposing a trust, as the right of voting is,” and then putting unnecessary difficulties in the way of its exercise ; and he adverted to the dangers of our present system,

1 “Considerations on Representative Government," chap. x. On the Mode of Voting.

? See on this point“Considerations on Representative Government," chap. x. p. 191 et seq.

which few will fail to apprehend who voting-paper, is a more clumsy, without can be brought to consider the state being a more secure, process, than the of modern society, and compare the fa- transmission of the voting-paper inclosed cility of combination in the lower class in a registered letter to the Vice-Chanof voters with the immense difficulty, cellor or returning officer. It might very if not impossibility, of any effectual well happen that an elector residing organisation of the wealthy, or the in a remote district, and many years educated, whose political force is now, absent from the University, may, at least, therefore, generally in the inverse ratio without much preliminary corresponof their mental and moral capacity and dence, be unable to find any other elector value-dangers, which, unless encoun- with whom he is acquainted, who is certered by giving to property and in- tain to attend the election. The regutellect a greater freedom of action—not larity and accuracy of the post-office suffreedom to bribe and cajole, but free. fice for all the important transactions of dom for pure and honourable effort - commerce ; by its means remittances are and therewith, higher and better in- made, and bills taken up, to the amount ducements to act, will surely leave them, of millions daily, at the precise moment as elsewhere in like circumstances, de- that they are due. It is strange that apgraded and powerless.

prehension should be expressed of error The Act, as ultimately passed, consists or fraud in the simple transmission of the of six short clauses and a schedule con vote at an election, whilst no one hesitaining the form of the voting-paper. tates to draw on his banking account, The elector must fill up the paper (which and transmit by post crossed cheques probably will be obtained in a printed of any amount payable to order. There shape) with his name, college, and aca- is no reason why the same credence should demical rank, the name of the person or not be given to a voting-paper received persons for whom he votes, and a decla- by the post as to a bank-note or a cheque. ration that he has signed no other voting. Blank voting-papers might be engraved, paper at such election. He must also, distinguished by the seals of the several on the same paper, nominate some other colleges, and issued only to the number person or persons with whom he is ac- that there are voters on the books, and quainted, and who are entitled to vote at only on the application of each voter; and the same University election, to deliver they might be returned duly attested. A his paper at the poll. The voting-paper trifling amount of clerical labour under must be dated after the notice given by the direction of the Vice-Chancellor or the returning officer of the day of elec- Pro-Vice-Chancellor, would be required tion, and it must be signed by the voter to open, arrange, and register the votes on in the presence of a justice of the peace, the election day, and the election would personally known to him, by whom the be completed with the smallest degrce signature must be attested in the form of labour, and without any intervention prescribed.

between the elector and the returning In the discussions on the Bill, both officer. Mr. Gladstone and Lord Derby described The Bill was, of course, met by its opthe machinery as less convenient than ponents with all the usual condemnatory might have been devised. A provision catch-words which often appeal so efthat the elector may vote in person, after fectually to English prejudices. It was he has signed a voting-paper, and placed an “innovation," it endangered the it in the hands of his nominee, if he ten- “bulwarks of the Constitution.” It was ders his vote before his voting-paper is even thrown out that it might lead to tendered, gave rise to some merriment, something like an “ American caucus ;” on the suggestion that the elector might and, lastly, it was said to be an introrun a race with his own voting-paper. duction of the ballot! No attempt was The interposition of an elector as the ne- made to explain in what manner it could cessary medium for the delivery of the be made to approximate to any system

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