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he performed this Japanese ceremony believed that Sanscrit, the superior lanon his own person. Every man has a guage, is the language of gods and men. right to be relieved from the responsi- Prakrit, the inferior dialect, is the diability of being critic in his own case. lect of women and benevolent genii. No man is bound as a matter of honour Lord Shaftesbury apparently thinks to commit ecclesiastical suicide, or to that benevolent genii can do not only anticipate a verdict of the law courts on with an inferior language, but without his own views. Were it not so, a cler- knowledge of language altogether. gyman of talent and education would be Happily, few educated Englishmen driven into becoming a theological hypo- think on these subjects like Lord chondriac, eternally watching his own Shaftesbury. Protestantism, which imhealth, and examining the pulse of his plies the right of private judgment, own orthodoxy.
does not fortunately imply that all priOur middle classes are sincerely at- vate judgments are equally valuable. tached to a few extremely popularised Appeals to popular passion and ignoformulas which represent to their eyes rance are everywhere beginning to be the Christian faith. The Church since condemned. The agitation which seemed the last century has become less learned, at first somewhat like a reaction against though, at the same time, she has per the right of free speech and free thought haps become more practical and active. has almost passed away. People are The mass of her members have never ready to acknowledge that the Essayists heard of one half the controversies and should be met either on the fair field of dogmas for which there was formerly argument, or on the impartial arena of ample room within her bosom. That a law court. While we write, the trial there should be a burst of excitement of an Essayist, deservedly, perhaps, the on the publication by clergymen of most unpopular, is actually pending. half a dozen disquieting Essays, was, Whatever the wisdom of the Bishop of then, extremely natural. It was true Salisbury's move, none can complain of that many who abused, had never read its injustice. It is just and fair ; law them. One of the most extraordinary alone should decide whether a legal religious pecularities of Englishmen of the barrier has been overstepped. Whatmiddle classes, is, that they are perfectly ever be the judgment of the law, the willing to condemn all reputed heretics country will accept it in a spirit of unheard. Lord Shaftesbury, whose name liberality and toleration. Among the will be ennobled for his philanthropy's, intelligent and educated there cannot not his learning's sake, either distinctly now-a-days be a religious reaction ; asserts that “ Essays and Reviews” are for religion stands in need of none. the organs of infidelity, or else distinct- Among the less wise and the less tolely encourages the uneducated audience rant, whatever opinions prevail, we whom he is addressing, in the delusion may look to see an increasing love of that they are as good judges of a polemi- justice and of fair play. A recent act cal point as the divines and scholars of of academical and pedantic bigotry, by the Church. He protests against the which the most distinguished of the tyranny of professors, much in the same Essayists was deprived of his hardway as Hyde Park orators protest against earned salary as Greek Professor on the tyranny of political economy. He account of his opinions, was deservedly is quite prepared to have the questions reprobated by public opinion, and by all raised in “ Essays and Reviews” settled the better portion of the press. In a by himself and the working-men of word, Britain is not reactionary, because England, without any appeal to diction- she desires above all things to know aries, histories, or commentators. In the truth and to be just. Indian literature it is understood and
THE DEATH OF THE PRINCE CONSORT.
The removal, by death, of the man of site, is so common, that, in the case of most public station in Great Britain, a person of princely rank, we positively would, at any time, be an event of require greater evidence of trustworthinational concern. But, when the exalted ness than would satisfy us in other person so removed is such a man as the cases, before we yield that true respect late Prince Consort, and when the time in our private thoughts and our private of his removal is such a time as the pre- talk which is so different a thing from sent, the feeling may well be as deep as ceremonious flexure of the body in the appointed signs of it will be exten- public. Perhaps only the most gentlysive. It is not only that we must all be constituted minds are so free from the impressed by the thought that one of dread of sycophancy, as to be able, in the highest rank in the realm has been such cases, to avoid the contrary error struck down at the age of forty-two, in of churlislıness. the full strength and comeliness of man- That, notwithstanding all this, it hood. It is not only that the sympathy should have been long a conviction, with family-grief, which we all yield with those who had the best means of whenever, within our own circles, we judging, that the late Prince Consort hear of the death of a good husband and was really no ordinary man, but one father, will naturally be yielded, in whom natural endowment and culture, larger measure than usual and over the not less than the chance of position, whole land, when it is in the royal halls had fitted for an influential part in of Windsor that death has made the affairs, and that this conviction should, blank, and the lady so suddenly widowed of recent years, have been extending is our honoured Sovereign, and the itself beyond the inner circles of British children left fatherless are those princes society and becoming a national tenet, and princesses in whose characters and are facts which argue that the conviction fortunes, from him who is the youthful must have been well founded. His late heir to the throne down to the smallest Royal Highness came among us young prattler in the nursery, we and our and unknown, a prince from one of posterity are collectively in crested. those German courts with which our There is more than this in the death of relations of this sort had not been the Prince Consort.
always fortunate. While making his Flattery attends the great; but so reputation, and, in part, forming his also does the crabbed suspicion that the character here, he had to labour under great are flattered. Hence it may well be the disadvantage of being required to that, if sometimes a person in royal sta- exercise, first of all, virtues viliul are tion is credited with more ability and merely negative. Not so much to act. worth than he possesses, at other times as to abstain from action, was what a such a person may have to work against natural British jealousy, never withpeculiar difficulties, and may not have out lynx-eyed representatives, demanded, his real merits so readily allowed as if more especially at the outset, from the they had been shown in less conspicuous German Consort of our Sovereign. To circumstances. In the present age of have answered expectations in this the world it is perhaps against the grain respect as Prince Albert did answer with most of us to believe that a prince them was much in itself. Abundantly may be a superior man. The old kind creditible it would have been to the of loyalty has so gone out, and the deceased Prince if we could now say opposite, or the aliectation of the oppo- nothing more of him than that, with No. 27.-VOL. v.
exemplary tact and dignity, he had, for appears, ever came in contact with his two and twenty years, borne the ho. Royal Highness without carrying away nours and enjoyed the pleasures of his an impression of his superior capacity high rank, not starting aside in extrava- and attainments; and the multiplicity gant courses, nor causing such scandal of such impressions, made upon different and perplexity as, had they so come, it kinds of persons, and sent by them would have been easier to resent than through society, had amounted, in the to remedy. When we think of what end, to a considerable and still growing might have been, had our sovereign's item in British public opinion. Now, choice of a partner been less happy, this to have been such a man, and to have may seem much. Positive virtues, done justice to such marked personal certain sound and manly qualities, were qualifications, so that they could have required even for such negative excellence scope and assert themselves, without in so high a station. But to our notion any transgression of limits which even of a man entitled, in the more perfect the most scrupulous constitutionalism degree, to our respect and consideration, could reasonably find fault with, was a something more largely and decidedly noteworthy solution of the problem of a positive is requisite. We ask that a life. The late Prince Consort solved it man should have his own thoughts with remarkable skill and persistency. about things, that he should have a will No one can say of him that he was and predilections of his own, that there merely a cipher who satisfied by abstishould be something characteristic about nence from offence. He chalked out a him, affecting the society in which he career for himself which the nation was lives and affecting it beneficially. In willing to see him adopt and our instithis respect Prince Albert far tran- tutions made legitimate, which was a scended that standard of mere royal non- career of great public effect and utility, offensiveness with which we might have to which there was really some need been contented. It was impossible to that a man of high rank and accomplishsee him in any place of public resort— ments should devote himself in this in the royal box at the Opera, listening country, and in which none could have good-humouredly to Ronconi, with his done so much as precisely the Consortchildren around him, or at a conver- Royal. He was not an idle man. His sazione of the Royal Society, examining days were full of occupations, of business a model of the Whitworth cannon and of his own, and of engagements with asking questions respecting it—without others punctually kept. It was imposinferring, from his appearance, that he sible that he should not be interested in was a man of acute and strong intel- our politics, and especially in our poliligence, as capable as any within the tical connexions with Germany and the whole circle of the British aristocracy rest of the Continent; and we should of acting a well-reasoned part, and as think less of him if we did not believe likely, if there were occasion, to act it that what he felt and thought on such resolutely. Ene even fancied that, at subjects he found means of honestly and the rouse of some not impossible junc- yet discreetly expressing where his views ture of affairs, that brain and head might might be of weight. But from our turn out, in some less reserved manner party-politics in any public way he stood than hitherto, to be of importance to the consistently and judiciously detached ; nation. Then, we had only to remember and the work which he made his own, of what stock he came, and how care and which the nation was glad to see fully he had been educated as a German him making his own, was that larger student, to be aware that such an in- kind of political work, unclaimed by ference might probably be correct. But either Whiggism or Toryism as such, in aid of all this there were confirma- which consists in the promotion of entions on every hand, settling the matter lightened modes of thinking, and of as far as it could be settled. No one, it recognised measures of social improve
ment. Here the part he took in suggesting and bringing about the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations, gives him a title even to originality and to the chief invention of a method of international education the developments of which are not yet exhausted ; and, on the whole, he did 80 much and did it so well that we now think of him not as the foreign Prince who came among us two and twenty years ago, but as a naturalized Briton who understood us and our ways, had made our interests his own, and so conducted himself as to win honour for himself and confer additional dignity on our Queen.
There is a melancholy interest now in turning over those printed speeches of Prince Albert on public occasions which are as yet the only literary me·morial of his activity. They are models of what such things, from such a speaker, ought to be-singularly neat and concise, always hitting the exact nail of the occasion on the head, and generally distinguished not only by their practical good sense, but also, so far as that slight and formal style of composition will permit, by a vein of speculative meaning not usual in British orations of the same order. Here are a few passages which seem characteristis :
At a meeting of the Society for Improving the Condition of the Labouring Classes, May 18, 1848:-“Depend upon it, the interests of classes too often contrasted are identical, and it is only ignorance which prevents them from uniting for each other's advantage. To dispel that ignorance, to show bow man can help man, notwithstanding the complicated state of civilized society, ought to be the aim of every philanthropic person; but it is more peculiarly the duty of those who, under the blessing of Divine Providence, enjoy station, wealth and education."
At the Lord Mayor's Banquet in London, March 21, 1850, in anticipation of the Greal Exhibition :-“Gentlemen ! I conceive it to be the duty of every educated person closely to watch and stuay the time in which he lives, and, as far as in hini lies, to add his humble mite of indi. vidual exertion to further the accomplishinent of what he believes Providence to have ordained. Nobody, however, who has paid any attention to the peculiar features of our preBent era, will doubt for a moment that we are living at a period of most wonderful transition,
which tends rapidly to accomplish that great end to which, indeed, all history points; the realization of the Unity of mankind! Not a unity which breaks down the limits, and levels the peculiar characteristics of the different nations of the earth, but rather a unity, the result and product of those very national varieties and antagonistic qualities.”
At the Dinner of the Royal Academy, May 3, 1851 :-"Gentlemen ! the production of all works in art or poetry requires in their conception and execution not only an exercise of the intellect, skill, and patience, but particularly a concurrent warmth of feeling and a free flow of imagination. This renders them most tender plants, which will thrive only in an atmosphere calculated to maintain that warmth; and that atmosphere is one of kindness, kindness towards the artist personally as well as towards his production. An unkiud word of criticism passes like a cold blast over their tender shoots, and shrivels them up, checking the flow of the sap, which was rising to produce perhaps multitudes of flowers and fruit. · But still criticism is absolutely necessary to the development of art, and the injudicious praise of an inferior work becomes an insult to superior genius. In this respect our times are peculiarly unfavourable when compared with those when Madonnas were painted in the seclusion of convents; for we have now on the one hand the eager competition of a vast array of artists of every degree of talent and skill, and on the other as judge, a great public, for the greater part wholly uneducated in art, and thus led by professional writers, who often strive to impress the publio with a great idea of their own artistic knowledge by the merciless manner in which they treat works which cost those who produced them the bighest efforts of mind or feeling. The works of art, by being publicly exbibited and offered for sale, are becoming articles of trade, following as such the unreasoning laws of markets and fashion; and public and even private patronage is swayed by their tyrannical influence."
Al the Banquet in Birmingham, on laying the first stone of the Birmingham and Midland Institute, November 22, 1855 :-“ The study of the laws by which the Almighty governs the Universe is therefore our bounden duty. Of these laws our great academies and seats of education have, rather arkitrarily, selected only two spheres or groups (as I may call them) as essential parts of our national education—the laws which regulate quantities and proportions, which form the subject of mathematics; and the laws regulating the expression of our thoughts, through the medium of language, that is to say, grammar, which finds its purest expression in the classical languages. These laws are most important branches of knowledge, their study trains and elevates the mind, but they are not the only ones; there are others, which we
cannot disregard, which we cannot do without. There are, for instance, the laws governing the human mind, and its relation to the Divine Spirit (the subject of logic and metaphysics ; there are those which govern our bodily nature and its connexion with the soul (the subject of physiology and psychology); those which govern human society, and the relation: between man and man (the sujects of politics, jarisprudence, and political economs), and many others. Whilst of the laws just mentioned some have been recognised as essentia . of education in different institutions, and some will by the course of time more fully agert their right to recognition, the laws
e regulating matter and form are those which will constitute the chief object of your pur: suits; and, as the principle of subdivision of labour is the one most congenial to our age, I would advise you to keep to this speciality, and to follow with undivided attention chiefly the scieces of mechanics, physics, and chemistry, and the fine arts in painting, sculpture, and architecture."
At a meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society at York, July 13, 1848 : " Agriculturewhich once was the main pursuit of this as of every other nation, holds, even now. notwithstanding the development of commerce and manufactures, a fundamental position in the realm. And, although tine has changes the position which the owner of the land, with his feudal dependente, held in the €:upire, the country gentlemau with his wife and children, the country clergyman, the tenint, and the labourer, still form a great and, I hope, united family, in which we gladly rroguise the foundation of our social state. Suience and mechanical improvement have, in these days, changed the mere practice of cultiviting the soil into an industrial pursuit, requirius capital, machinery, industry and skill. ani perseverance in the struggle of competition. This is another great change. but tre unust cosider it a great progress, as it demands higher ex rts and a higher intelligence."
as well as in State : I mean the principles of individual liberty, and of allegiance and submission to the wil of the community, exacted by it for its own preservation. These conflicting principles cannot safely be disregarded; they must be reconciled. To this country belongs the honour of having succeeded in this mighty task, as far as the State is concerned, whilst other nations are still wrestling with it."
There is no reason to think but that. as these views are characteristically those which the Prince-Consort always urood in publie so the urged in public, so the expression of
pression of them, as here given, was his own too. Matter and expression together, they surely reveal. when we allow for the necessary straitness of all such oratory, a mode of thought and feeling which we can regard as princely in a rather high sense of the word. No one among our numerous aristocratic orators on public occasions thought and talked in the same exact strain. It was distinguishably the Prince-Consort's. Putting the notion of his intellectual and moral qualities we so get along with others derived from other sources, are we not entitled to think, that, had his life been spared, a time might have possibly come --say in some conflict with the rest of the world, rolling Britain back upon herself, and evoking the full powers, without stint, of all who were capable to represent her--when such a mind would have been roused into more powerful and direct action than had before been required of it, and would have been watched as worthy of the emergency? As it is, just as the year 1861 is drawing to a close in prospects cloudy enough, these prospects are complicated, and our spirits in meeting themi unsettled, by the calamity of his loss. He is gone ; what he has been, we know ; what he might have been, we know not. His widowed Queen (whom God com fort) survives as our Sovereign, dearer to us because of her great sorrow; and, a generation hence, his children, whoni thrones and chances await, will look back to this then distant year, and think of their father prematurely lost to them!
At theird Jubilee of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreim Parls, June 111,18.1): -“We cannot help deploring that the Church, whose exertions for the progress of Christianity and civilization we are to-day achuowle's ng, should be afflicted by internal dissension and attacks from without. I have no frar, hvarer, for her safety and ultimate welfire, so lor, as she holds fast to what our ances. tors pair... for us at the Reformation, the gospel Read their würfeltered right of its use. The dissen. xions anii uifficulties which we witness in this as iu ere!y other Church, arise from the natural and necessary conflict of the two autagonistic principle which move human society in Church