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The Grammatical Subject of a sentence is that which is the subject-nominative of the verb.

The Logical Subject is the grammatical subject together with the words that modify it. When there are no modifying words, it is the same as the grammatical subject.

“ The sun shines.” Sun is the grammatical subject; the sun is the logical subject.—“Time flies.” Time is both the logical and the grammatical subject.

The Predicate is that which is said or written about the subject.

The Grammatical Predicate is the verb that affirms respecting the subject.

The Logical Predicate is the grammatical predicate together with the words that modify it. When there are no modifying words, it is the same as the grammatical predicate.

“The sun shines pleasantly." Shines is the grammatical predicate; shines pleasantly is the logical predicate.—“Time flies.” Flies is both the logical and the grammatical predicate.

When the Grammatical predicate is any part of the verb to be, it is also called the Copula.

When an adjective or participle belonging to the subject follows the copula, it is called the Attribute.

“Horses are strong." Are strong is the logical predicate ; are is the copula, strong the attribute. Sometimes copula and attribute are embraced in the same word; as in the sentence, “Horses draw loads." Draw embraces copula and attribute, being equivalent to are drawing.

SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES.

A Member of a sentence is such a part as expresses an independent thought, and has a distinct subject and predicate of its own.

A Clause is a combination of words generally used to introduce an additional fact or circumstance into a sentence, but dependent either in construction or for the completion of its sense on some other word or words.

A Phrase is a combination of words (seldom more than three), which, taken separately, are uncon. nected in construction and sense with the rest of the sentence, but taken together convey a single idea, and are often equivalent to a single word; as, in fine, in vain, of course, to be sure, on the contrary, &c.

Phrases are to be distinguished from adjuncts,—that is, combinations of a preposition and its object. In an adjunct, each word can be parsed separately and contributes its own proper meaning to the meaning of the whole; not so in a phrase. This distinction will appear by comparing the adjunct in Boston and the phrase in fine.

A Simple Sentence contains but one proposition; as," Dryden believed in astrology."

A Compound Sentence is one that contains two or more members; as, “ Dryden believed in astrology; Hobbes believed in ghosts."

Sometimes, to prevent repetition, the grammatical predicate is omitted in the last member of a compound sentence; as, “ Dry den believed in astrology ; Hobbes (believed], in ghosts.”

A sentence containing more than one member is a compound sentence; but a sentence may contain several clauses or phrases and still be simple.

When a simple sentence contains phrases, or clauses not essential to its grammatical construction, if we remove them we have left what is called the Leading Proposition. The phrases and clauses removed modify the leading proposition or some of

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its parts, or introduce some additional fact connected with it.

When the members of a compound sentence contain phrases, or clauses not essential to its grammatical construction, by removing them we get the leading propositions of the sentence, which are as many in number as the members composing it.

EXAMPLE.—"When I am old, forsake me not.” This is a simple imperative sentence. Forsake me not is the leading proposition. When I am old is a clause expressing time.

CLASSIFICATION OF CLAUSES. The principal clauses are distinguished as Substantive, Relative, Adjective, Adverbial, and Conditional.

A Substantive Clause is one that performs the office of a noun in the nominative or objective case; as, “Whether we shall go, is uncertain."

A Relative Clause is one introduced by a relative pronoun; as, “ Cabot, who discovered Newfoundland, was a merchant of Bristol."

An Adjective Clause is one that has the force of an adjective, generally implying some quality or attribute; as, Like all the other works of the Almighty, the eye is wonderfully adapted to the purposes for which it is designed.”

An adjective clause often contains an adjective, as in the example last given : or a participle; as, “ Tempted by pleasure, he forgot the lessons of his youth.”

An Adverbial Clause is one that performs the office of an adverb, denoting manner, time, place,

" Where the rapids commence, a small point of land juts out.”

&c.; as,

A Conditional Clause is one that expresses something doubtful; as, “ If he is in health, I am con

tent.

INCORPORATED QUOTATIONS.

Quotations,—that is, passages taken from some writer or speaker in his exact words, or represented as so taken,--are introduced into sentences in various ways. When accompanied by introductory words, though constituting complete sentences in themselves, they generally form part of the logical predicate of a simple sentence, modifying the grammatical predicate.

ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. In analyzing a sentence, 1. State its class. 2. State its logical and grammatical subject. 3. State its logical and grammatical predicate. 4. State its copula and attribute. 5. When there are clauses, point them out and the leading

proposition they modify. 6. Point out the parts of which the clauses are composed,

and the office of each. 7. Point out the adjuncts and phrases; tell what they mod

ify, and by what they are themselves modified. A model of full analysis follows. It is believed that treating sentences in this way is as improving an exercise as parsing them syntactically; and, in going through the selections, the teacher is solicited to require it as a regular part of the recitation.

MODEL.--I say to you, my friend, "Look not upon the wine when it is red."

This is a simple declarative sentence.
The logical and grammatical subject is I.
The logical predicate is say to you, my friend, look not upon the wine

when it is red. The grammatical predicate is say, which embraces copula and attri

bute, and is modified by the adjunct to you and the quotation look

not upon the wine when it is red. The adjunct to you is composed of the preposition to and its object

you. The quotation look not upon the wine when it is red is a simple im

perative sentence. The logical and grammatical subject is thou understood. The logical predicate is the whole quotation expressed. The grammatical predicate is look, which embraces copula and attri

bute, and is modified by the adverb not, the adjunct upon the

wine, and the adverbial clause when it is red. The adjunct upon the wine is composed of the preposition upon and

its object wine, which is modified by the adjective the. The adverbial clause when it is red is connected with the leading

proposition look not upon the wine by the conjunctive adverb

when, The logical and grammatical subject of the clause is it. The logical predicate is is red. The grammatical predicate is is, which is also the copula. The attribute is red. My friend is an independent expression, composed of friend, the

name of an object addressed, and the pronoun my in the possessive case, which modifies it.

CHAPTER II.

RULES OF SYNTAX.

SYNTAX is that department of grammar which treats of the agreement, government, and arrangement of words in sentences.

To determine the agreement, government, and arrangement of words in sentences, we have certain rules known as the Rules of Syntax.

RULE I.-APPOSITION. A noun or pronoun annexed to another noun or pronoun, and denoting the same person or thing, is put, by apposition, in the same case; as, “ Paul the apostle.

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