SILVER of human eloquence, and gold of acquired literature, have I none; but such as I have, I give to thee; plain truth in plain style, in the name of Jesus Christ. He is our one master. It has been my earnest prayer, that to his glory mine eye might be single. One grand point has been my chief aim, namely, to exalt the Lord Jesus, the perfection of his atonement and righteousness, and the glory of his salvation. This I have found the blessed support and joyful triumph of my own soul, while exercised with great disorder and weakness of body, in this work. If the Lord and giver of all grace, is pleased to bless this. feeble attempt to the spiritual profit of any of his dear children, to him only all the glory is due.

As love covereth a multitude of faults, and the prayer. of faith availeth much, may these, reader, be excited in behalf of the following sheets; and towards him who desires to esteem it his highest honor, and greatest glory on earth, to confess and serve the Lord Christ, `though less than the least of all his servants, and thine also for his sake.





THE subject of this memoir was born at Rotherhithe, in the county of Surrey, in the year 1719. His father was by trade a clockmaker. He gave his son a decent education at a grammar-school, where he learnt the rudiments of the Latin language; and, possessing a mind naturally inquisitive, devoted many hours of his younger years to reading. At a proper age he was bound an apprentice to his father; who having no idea beyond the acquisition of present good, took no pains to train him up in the way he should go, or to impress his mind with the truths of revelation.

Just before the expiration of his apprenticeship, his father was removed by death. By this event Providence called him very early in life to act the part of a Joseph. A mother, a sister, and a brother, now became his charge. When reflecting on this circumstance, and the direction and support which that God, whose ways are in the great deep, was pleased to afford him, tears of gratitude would frequently burst from his eyes, and the language of praise fall from his lips. To his mother he rendered, to the day of her death, all that assistance which duty, affection and industry, could inspire. His sister, by marriage, was taken from under his protection, and in a few years died. His brother, who yet survives, was, when very young left to his care, whom he put to school, and afterwards brought him up to his own business.

At the age of twenty-two, he gave his hand in marriage to Miss Cox, with whom he lived in happy union nearly fifty years, and which only terminated in his death. He frequently acknowledged the goodness of God, in restraining in him the violence of youthful passions. Though his mind was not impressed with religious truths, yet at no one period was he led captive by those vices to which youth are particularly addicted. But, as his moral conduct was exemplary, he derived from it no small hope of obtaining favor from God. He constantly attended his parish church, and was seldom absent from the sacrament; but, to use the language of the Prophet, he found "the bed VOL. I.




shorter than that a man can stretch himself on it, and the covering narrower than that he can wrap himself in it." His mind was not unfrequently distressed with the suspicion, that he was not so good as he ought to be. His conscience would sometimes upbraid him with the omission of duty and the commission of sin. Being at this time wholly unacquainted with the nature of evangelical sentiments, and that peace which results from the knowledge of Jesus Christ, as our wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption, he would seclude himself from the world, and, by agonizing in prayer, endeavor to perfect, by the flesh, that righteousness which he had long been attempting to establish. Being convinced that no exertions of his own would produce that happiness which his mind was ardently set upon, and finding that the system of mere Heathenish morality, which he had been accustomed to hear at his parish church, would administer no relief to his soul; he began occasionally to attend at Mr. Wesley's chapels, and in a few years was admitted into their societies, and appointed a leader of a class.

His new connection soon brought upon him the persecution of the world. In a diary, which he wrote in the year 1749, he has this remark: Aug. 7. "I was severely reflected on by one, who cursed and swore at me, saying I was commenced preacher: I was despised in the company of the world; a good lesson to me, that I am called out of the world." This was succeeded by another persecution of the tongue: "My worthy friend the Rev. Dr. rages mightily: He says, I have ruined a good Christian family, for whom he had the greatest love. As for me, I am melancholy mad; or, as another honest inoffensive clergyman tells me, I perplex myself too much about religion."

But this was not the only persecution he met with. Many of his former acquaintance not only deserted him, but used their endeavors to injure him in his business; several captains of ships, who before had given him large orders, now entirely withdrew their favors, and he had the very trying prospect of an increasing family, with a decreasing trade. To this circumstance he alludes in his SPIRITUAL TREASURY, in the meditation from Luke xxii. 35. Lacked ye any thing? And they said, Nothing. He begins it: "Precious words to me! With tears of thankfulness I record the goodness of my Lord to the chief of sinners. Upwards of twenty years ago, when it pleased him to call me by his grace, and make me happy in his love, my name was cast out as evil....friends became foes....their hands were against me.... they withdrew their favors from me, and derided me; under narrow circumstances, tender feelings for a large family, carnal reasonings of my corrupt nature, and strong temptations from the enemy, I was often sore distressed. But my Lord was gracious; many and many

a time did he bring this text to my mind, Lackedst thou any thing? I was constrained with gratitude to reply, Nothing, Lord: Christ is a most precious Master to serve! I have proved it."

During his connection with Mr. Wesley, though he in a great measure perceived the insufficiency of his own righteousness to justify him before God (for in the diary before alluded to, he expresses himself thus, "I would as soon attempt to swim by the help of a mill-stone, as to rely on my own works for salvation"); yet the doctrine which he had been taught to believe to be scriptural, that a person may be one day high in the favor of God, and the next, an object of the divine vengeance, would often make him miserable. One night returning from Mr. Wesley's chapel, under great dejection of mind, fearing he should not be faithful to grace received, and so make shipwreck of faith, and finally perish; these words were immediately suggested to his mind: "If when we were enemies we were reconciled to God, by the death of his Son, much more being reconciled we shall be saved by his life." His fears instantly subsided, his conscience felt a calm, to which before it was a stranger, and his mind was made happy in the belief of the truth.

In his next interview with Mr. Wesley, he hinted at the doctrine of the saints' final perseverance; upon this Mr. Wesley asked, "Where have you been to learn that?" He related the distress of his mind, together with the cause of it, and the means by which he had been relieved. As his understanding became more enlightened, he found this connection less desirable; he was less pleased with the Society, and they were not more satisfied with him: His attendance on ministers who preached the Calvinistic doctrines soon procured his dismission.

He now became personally acquainted with the Rev. Mr. Whitefield, was particularly intimate with the Rev. Mr. Jones, Chaplain of St. Saviour's, Southwark, and had the happiness to class among his dearest friends the Rev. Mr. Romaine, for whom, to the day of his death, he ever expressed the most sincere regard, having sat for many years under his ministry.

In the religious world he was well known as an author. Many of his productions have met with general acceptance. He had been frequently solicited to exercise himself in public preaching, which he as often declined, under the impression of his not being called to glorify God in that service. Though he could never be prevailed upon to comply with the solicitations of his friends in that particular, yet his talents were not laid up in a napkin; for since his death his family have found among his papers, letters from correspondents in England, Scotland, Ireland, and America, expressing the spiritual benefits they derived from his publications.

He first appeared as a writer, in a pamphlet under the title of "Morality not Christianity; or remarks on a very extraordinary Sermon, preached at St. George's, Southwark, by the Rev. Mr. Wingfield, Curate of said parish; in a letter to that Gentleman, by a Layman of the Church of England."

In the year 1754, he published some "Plain Queries, humbly offered to the Clergy, with an expostulatory address to the Laity of the Church of England, on the Declension of scriptural Christianity."

He wrote, in the year 1758, "Remarks and Observations on the Morality and Divinity contained in Dr. Free's Certain Articles, proposed to the Court of Assistants of the worshipful company of Salters, in a letter to the Rev. Dr. Free." The motto in the title-page is, "AS FREE, and not using your liberty as a cloak of maliciousness," 1 Peter ii. 16. He evidences in these pieces, a knowledge of his subject, an acquaintance with the scriptures, and a concern for the glory of God. Though he much disapproved of the Armenian doctrines of free will, justification by works, universal redemption, &c. yet was he no less an enemy to the licentious tenets of the Antinomians; and, at the time when Mr. Relly disturbed the peace of the church, by his unscriptural preaching, and his Treatise of Union, he nobly appeared to defend that truth, "which is according to godliness," and printed a pamphlet under this title, "Antinomian Heresy Exploded, in an Appeal to the Christian World, against the Unscriptural Doctrines, and Licentious Tenets, of Mr. James Relly, advanced in his Treatise of Union.”

In a pamphlet which he published under the title, "Methodism displayed, and Enthusiasm detected; intended as an Antidote against the delusive principles and unscriptural Doctrines of a modern Set of seducing Preachers; and as a Defence of our regular and orthodox Clergy, from their unjust reflections; addressed to the Rev. Mr. Romaine, the Rev. Mr. Jones, &c." he might truly adopt the language of St. Paul, "I caught you with guile." Many eagerly bought it, who afterwards heartily repented of their purchase. A gentleman passing by a bookseller's shop, caught by the title-page, went in and bought it. In the evening, after the business of the day was over, he put it into the hand of his son, saying, he had purchased it as an antidote against that poisonous doctrine he had lately imbibed, and insisted upon his reading it, hoping it would prevent his running after a set of enthusiastic preachers. The son obeyed. While reading the first and second pages, the father frequently interrupted him by saying, Mind that: But proceeding a little farther, he soon perceived the design of the author; and altering his language, begged he would cast it behind the fire: the son replied, "Sir, I began to read it at your request, do suffer me to finish it."

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