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THE

ELEMENTS

OP

EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY,

BY

WILLIAM HENRY, MD. FRS.

Vice-President of the Literary and Philosophical, and Natural History Societies of

Manchester; Member of the Royal Medical and Wernerian Societies of Edinburgh;
the Medico-Chirurgical and Geological Societies of London; the Physical Society
of Jena; the Natural History Society of Moscow; the Literary and Philosophical
Society of New York, &c. &c.

THE NINTH EDITION,

COMPREHENDING ALL THE RECENT DISCOVERIES; AND ILLUSTRATED WITH TEN

PLATES BY LOWRY, AND SEVERAL ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD,

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. I.

LONDON;

PRINTED FOR BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND JOY, PATERNOSTER-ROW,

AND R. HUNTER, ST. PAUL'S CHURCH YARD.

C. Baldwin, Printer, New Bridge-street, London

то

JOHN DALTON, FRS.

President of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester ; Member

of the Academy of Sciences of the Royal Institute of France ; &c.

AS A

TESTIMONY OF RESPECT

FOR THE

ZEAL, DISINTERESTEDNESS, AND SUCCESS,

WITH WHICH

HE HAS DEVOTED HIMSELF TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF

CHEMICAL PHILOSOPHY,

THIS WORK IS INSCRIBED,

BY HIS FRIEND,

THE AUTHOR.

Manchester, April, 1823.

CORRIGENDA.

VOL. I. page 43, 1. 9 from bottom, for 11of the former to 88% of the latter,

or 1 to 74, read 11.1 to 88.9, or 1 to 8. p. 51, l. 5 and 7, for 74, read 8. p. 84, 1. 9. This, so far as it respects Petit and Dulong, is incor.

rect, for they assume that radiation is the same in air and other gases as in vacuo, the different velocities of cooling being due to

the conducting powers of elastic media. p. 102, 1. 13 from bottom, for precisely read pearly. p. 111, 1. 21, for (2020) road (1029). p. 126, 1, 3, after end, insert containing mercury. p. 141 in the Table. The specific gravity of nitric oxide, though

copied exactly from Berzelius and Dulong, is incorrect. p. 128, 1. 14, for condensing into one volume, read into two volumes. p. 160, 1. 19, for from 320 10 2129, read from - 40° to + 2120 p. 229, 1. 9 from bottom, after oxygen, insert chlorine. Passim, except when it is applied to potash of commerce, for potash

read potassa.

VOL. II. p. 166, 1. 11, for protoxide read peroxide.

PREFACE

TO THE

NINTH EDITION.

CHEMISTRY is, of all the sciences, that which is most emi. nently progressive, scarcely a year elapsing during which it is not enriched by a great variety of new facts,—by the resolution of compounds into more simple elements,—by combinations before unknown,--and sometimes by general laws of ex- .. tensive application and influence. Every new edition of a chemical book must necessarily, therefore, if it keep pace with the progress of discovery, differ essentially from the one which preceded it; for while it embraces every thing that is new and important, it must reject whatever recent experience has proved to be erroneous. It is by freely effecting the latter purpose, that I have been enabled to accommodate this work to the state of the science, without materially enlarging the size of the volumes. They will be found, however, by those who may be at the pains of comparing this edition with the last, to comprise a large proportion of new matter. I have been induced also, by mature consideration of those analogies which have of late years been unfolded among chemical substances, to adopt an entirely different arrangement, the principle of which is fully explained in the concluding pages of the INTRODUCTION. It is founded, as to its leading outline, on those relations of bodies to Electricity, which have been

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