[ocr errors]


lle shall be like a tree that grows

spent or spoiled ; and if one of the number take a Near planted by a river,

touch a particle of the hoard, the others joining Which in his season yields bis fruit,

against him, and hanging him for the theft. And his leaf fadeth never.

There must be some very important advantages to So says our old version of the Psalms with respect account for an institution which, in the view of is to the fate of a righteous man, and Paley was a

above given, is so paradoxical and unnatural. righteous man whose mind yielded precious fruit,

The principal of these advantages are the follos. and whose leaves will never fade. This excellent


Í. It increases the produce of the earth. author was born at Peterborough in 1743. His father was afterwards curate of Giggleswick, York

The earth, in climates like ours, produces little shire, and teacher of the grammar-school there. At without cultivation ; and none would be found wil. the age of fifteen he was entered as sizar at Christ's ling to cultivate the ground, if others were to be adcollege, Cambridge, and after completing his aca

mitted to an equal share of the produce. The same demical course, he became tutor in an academy at is true of the care of flocks and herds of tame animals

Crabs and acorns, red deer, rabbits, game, and fish, Greenwich. As soon as he was of sufficient age, he was ordained to be assistant curate of Greenwich. are all which we should have to subsist upon in this He was afterwards elected a fellow of his college, of the soil; and it fares not much better with other

if we trusted to the spontaneous productios and went thither to reside, engaging first as tutor. countries. A nation of North American sarages, conHe next lectured in the university on moral philo-sisting of two or three hundred, will take up and be sophy and the Greek Testament. His college friend, half-starved upon a tract of land which in Europe, Dr Law, bishop of Carlisle, presented him with the and with European management, would be suficient rectory of Musgrave, in Westmoreland, and he re- for the maintenance of as inany thousands. moved to his country charge, worth only £80 per

In some fertile soils, together with great abundance! He was soon inducted into the vicarage of of fish upon their coasts, and in regions where clothes Dalston, in Cumberland, to a prebend's stall in Car- are unnecessary, a considerable degree of population lisle cathedral, and also to the archdeaconry of Car- may subsist without property in land, which is the lisle. In 1785 appeared his long-meditated Elements case in the islands of Otaheite: but in less favoured of Moral and Political Philosophy; in 1790 his Hore situations, as in the country of New Zealand, though Paulinæ ; and in 1794 his View of the Evidences of this sort of property obtain in a small degree, the inChristianity. Friends and preferment now crowded habitants, for want of a more secure and regular estain on him. The bishop of London (Porteous) made blishment of it, are driven oftentimes by the scarcity him a prebend of St Paul's; the bishop of Lincoln of provision to devour one another. presented him with the sub-deanery of Lincoln; and

II. It preserves the produce of the earth to matuthe bishop of Durham gave him the rectory of rity. Bishop-Wearmouth, worth about a thousand pounds

We may judge what would be the effects of a comper annum—and all these within six months, the munity of rigbt to the productions of the earth, from luckiest half-year of his life. The boldness and free- the trifling specimens which we see of it at present. dom of some of Paley's disquisitions on government, A cherry-tree in a hedgerow, nuts in a wood, the and perhaps a deficiency, real or supposed, in per-grass of an unstinted pasture, are seldom of much i sonal dignity, and some laxness, as well as an inve- advantage to anybody, because people do not wait for terate provincial homeliness, in conversation, pre- the proper season of reaping them. ` Corn, if any were vented his rising to the bench of bishops. When his sown, would never ripen; lambs and calves would name was once mentioned to George III., the mo

never grow up to sheep and cows, because the first narch is reported to have said • Paley! what, pigeon person that met them would reflect that he had better Paley?'-an allusion to a famous sentence in the take them as they are than leave them for another. * Moral and Political Philosophy'on property. As III. It prevents contests. a specimen of his style of reasoning, and the liveli- War and waste, tumult and confusion, must be ness of his illustrations, we subjoin this passage, unavoidable and eternal where there is not enough which is part of an estimate of the relative duties of for all, and where there are no rules to adjust the men in society


IV. It improves the conveniency of living.
Of Property.

This it does two ways. It enables mankind to

divide themselves into distinct professions, which is If you should see a flock of pigeons in a field of impossible, unless a man can exchange the produccorn, and if (instead of each picking where and what tions of his own art for what he wants from others, it liked, taking just as much as it wanted, and no and exchange implies property. Much of the advanmore) you should see ninety-nine of them gathering tage of civilised over savage life depends upon this

. all they got into a heap, reserving nothing for them- When a man is, from necessity, his own tailor, tent: selves but the chaff and the refuse, keeping this heap maker, carpenter, cook, huntsman, and fisherman, it for one, and that the weakest, perhaps worst pigeon of is not probable that he will be expert at any of his the flock; sitting round, and looking on all the winter, callings. Hence the rude habitations, furniture, whilst this one was devouring, throwing about and clothing, and implements of savages, and the tedious wasting it; and if a pigeon, more hardy or hungry length of time which all their operations require. than the rest, touched a grain of the hoard, all the It likewise encourages those arts by which the ac others instantly flying upon it and tearing it to pieces ; commodations of human life are supplied, by approif you should see this, you would see nothing more priating to the artist the benefit of his discoveries and than what is every day practised and established improvements

, without which appropriation ingenuity among men. Among men you see the ninety-and- will never be exerted with effect.

with nine toiling and scraping together a heap of super- Upon these several accounts we may venture, fluities for one (and this one too, oftentimes, the a few exceptions, to pronounce that even the poorest feeblest and worst of the whole set—a child, a woman, and the worst provided, in countries where property a madman, or a fool), getting nothing for themselves and the consequences of property prerail

, are in a ! all the while but a little of the coarsest of the pro- better situation with respect to food, raiment

, houses, vision which their own industry produces ; looking and what are called the necessaries of life, than any quietly on while they see the fruits of all their labour are in places where most things remain in commot.


The balance, therefore, upon the whole, must pre- to feel pleasure in a display of knowledge, probity, ponderate in favour of property with a manifest and charity, and meekness unmatched by an avowed great excess.

advocate in a cause deeply interesting his warmest Inequality of property, in the degree in which it feelings. His Natural Theology is the wonderful exists in most countries of Europe, abstractedly con- work of a man who, after sixty, had studied anatomy sidered, is an evil; but it is an evil which flows from in order to write it; and it could only have been those rules concerning the acquisition and disposal of surpassed by a man (Sir Charles Bell) who, to great property, by which men are incited to industry, and originality of conception and clearness of exposition, by which the object of their industry is rendered added the advantage of a high place in the first class secure and valuable. If there be any great inequality of physiologists.' unconnected with this origin, it ought to be corrected.

In 1802 Paley published his Natural Theology, his [The World was Made with a Benevolent Design.] last work. He enjoyed himself in the country with

[From. Natural Theology.'] his duties and recreations : he was particularly fond of angling; and he mixed familiarly with his neigh- It is a happy world after all. The air, the earth, bours in all their plans of utility, sociality, and even the water, teem with delighted existence. In a spring conviviality. He disposed of his time with great noon or a summer evening, on whichever side I turn regularity: in his garden he limited himself to one my eyes, myriads of happy beings crowd upon my hour at a time, twice a-day; in reading books of view. The insect youth are on the wing.' Swarms amusement, one hour at breakfast and another in the of new-born flies are trying their pinions in the air. evening, and one for dinner and his newspaper. By Their sportive notions, their wanton mazes, their thus dividing and husbanding his pleasures, they gratuitous activity, their continual change of place remained with him to the last. He died on the 25th without use or purpose, testify their joy and the exof May 1805.

ultation which they feel in their lately-discovered No works of a theological or philosophical nature faculties. A bee amongst the flowers in spring is have been so extensively popular among the edu- one of the most cheerful objects that can be looked cated classes of England as those of Paley: His pero and so pleased : yet it is only a specimen of insect

Its life appears to be all enjoyment; so busy spicacity of intellect and simplicity of style are almost unrivalled. Though plain and homely, and life, with which, by reason of the animal being halfoften inelegant, he has such vigour and discrimina- domesticated, we happen to be better acquainted than tion, and such a happy vein of illustration, that he is

we are with that of others. The whole winged insect always read with pleasure and instruction.

No tribe, it is probable, are equally intent upon their reader is ever at a loss for his meaning, or finds him proper employments, and, under every variety of contoo difficult for comprehension. He had the rare stitution, gratified, and perhaps equally gratified, by art of popularising the most recondite knowledge, the offices which the Author of their nature has asand blending the business of life with philosophy: signed to them. But the atmosphere is not the only

Plants are The principles inculcated in some of his works have scene of enjoyment for the insect race. been disputed, particularly his doctrine of expediency and constantly, as it should seem, in the act of suck

corered with aphides, greedily sucking their juices, as a rule of morals, which has been considered as trenching on the authority of revealed religion, and ing. It cannot be doubted but that this is a state of also lowering the standard of public duty. ' The gratification : what else should fix them so close to system of Paley certainly would not tend to foster

the operation, and so long? Other species are running the great and heroic virtues. In his early life he is about with an alacrity in their motions which carries reported to have said, with respect to his subscrip- with it every mark of pleasure. Large patches of tion to the thirty-nine articles of the Church of ground are sometimes half covered with these brisk

If we look to what the waters England, that he was “too poor to keep a conscience;' produce, shoals of the fry of fish frequent the margins and something of the same laxness of moral feeling of rivers, of lakes, and of the sca itself. These are so pervades his ethical system. His abhorrence of all hypocrisy and pretence was probably at the root of happy that they know not what to do with them. this error. Like Dr Johnson, he was a practical out of the water, their frolics in it (which I have

selves. Their attitudes, their vivacity, their leaps moralist, and looked with distrust on any high; noticed a thousand times with equal attention and strained virtue or enthusiastic devotion. He did amuseinent), all conduce to show their excess of not write for philosophers or metaphysicians, but spirits, and are simply the effects of that excess. for the great body of the people anxious to acquire Walking by the sea-side in a calm evening upon a knowledge, and to be able to give a reason for the sandy shore and with an ebbing tide, I have frehope that is in them.' He considered the art of life quently remarked the appearance of a dark cloud, to consist in properly 'setting our habits,' and for this or rather very thick mist, hanging over the edge of no subtle distinctions or profound theories were necessary. His · Moral and Political Philosophy' is of the breadth of two or three yards, stretching along

the water, to the height, perhaps, of half a yard, and framed on this basis of utility, directed by strong the coast as far as the eye could reach, and always sense, a discerning judgment, and a sincere regard retiring with the water. When this cloud came to for the true end of all knowledge—the well-being of be examined, it proved to be nothing else than so mankind here and hereafter. Of Paley's other works, much space filled with young shrimps in the act of Sir James Mackintosh has pronounced the following bounding into the air from the shallow margin of the opinion :- The most original and ingenious of his water, or from the wet sand. If any motion of a writings is the Horæ Paulina. The Evidences of mute animal could express delight, it was this ; if Christianity are formed out of an admirable trans- they had meant to make signs of their happiness, lation of Butler's Analogy, and a most skilful abridg- they could not have done it more intelligibly. Supment of Lardner's Credibility of the Gospel His- pose, then, what I have no doubt of, each individual tory. He may be said to have thus given value of this number to be in a state of positive enjoyment; to two works, of which the first was scarcely intel- what a sum, collectively, of gratification and plealigible to most of those who were most desirous of sure have we here before our view! profiting by it; and the second soon wearies out the The young of all animals appear to me to receive greater part of readers, though the few who are more pleasure simply from the exercise of their limbs and patient have almost always been gradually won over | bodily faculties, without reference to any end to be attained, or any use to be answered by the exertion. however, was a man of forcible intellect, and of A child, without knowing anything of the use of lan- various knowledge. His controversial works are guage, is in a high degree delighted with being able highly honourable to him, both for the manly and to speak. Its incessant repetition of a few articulate candid spirit in which they are written, and the sounds, or perhaps of the single word which it has logical clearness and strength of his reasoning. learned to pronounce, proves this point clearly. Nor Dr BEILBY PORTEOUS, bishop of London (1731. is it less pleased with its first successful endeavours 1808), was a popular dignitary of the church, author to walk, or rather to run (which precedes walking), of a variety of sermons and tracts connected with although entirely ignorant of the importance of the church discipline. He distinguished himself at colattainment to its future life, and even without apply. ing it to any present purpose. A child is delighted with speaking, without having anything to say ; and with walking, without knowing where to go. And, prior to both these, I am disposed to believe that the waking hours of infancy are agreeably taken up with the exercise of vision, or perhaps, more properly speaking, with learning to see.

But it is ni $ for youth alone that the great Parent of creation hath provided. Happiness is found with the purring cat no less than with the playful kitten ; in the arm-chair of dozing age, as well as in either the sprightliness of the dance or the animation of the chase. To novelty, to acuteness of sensation, to hope, to ardour of pursuit, succeeds what is, in no inconsiderable degree, an equivalent for them all, ' perception of ease. Herein is the exact difference between the young and the old. The young are not happy but when enjoying pleasure; the old are happy when free from pain. And this constitution suits with the degrees of animal power which they respectively possess. The vigour of youth was to be stimulated to action by impatience of rest ; whilst to the imbecility of age, quietness and repose become positive gratifications. In one important step the advantage is with the old. A state of ease is, generally speaking, more attainable than a state of pleasure. A constitution, therefore, which can enjoy ease, is preferable to that which can taste only pleasure. This same perception of ease oftentimes renders old age a Tomb of Bishop Porteous at Sunbridge, Kent condition of great comfort, especially when riding at its anchor after a busy or tempestuous life. it is lege by a prize poem On Death, which has been well described by Rousseau to be the interval of re

often reprinted : it is but a feeble transcript of pose and enjoyment between the hurry and the end Beattie the poet (whom he wished to take orders

Blair's Grave.' Dr Porteous warmly befriended of life. How far the same cause extends to other in the church of England), and he is said to have animal natures, cannot be judged of with certainty. The appearance of satisfaction with which most ani- assisted Hannah More in her novel of Calebs. mals, as their activity subsides, seek and enjoy rest,

DR SAMUEL HORSLEY, bishop of St Asaph (1733affords reason to believe that this source of gratifica- 1806), was one of the most conspicuous churchmen tion is appointed to advanced life under all or most of his day. He belonged to the high church party, of its various forms. In the species with which we and strenuously resisted all political or ecclesiastical are best acquainted, namely, our own, I am far, even

change. He was learned and eloquent, but prone as an observer of human life, from thinking that to controversy, and deficient in charity and the youth is its happiest season, much less the only milder virtues. His character was not unlike that happy one.

of one of his patrons, Chancellor Thurlow, stern

and unbending, but cast in a manly mould. He A new and illustrated edition of Paley's “Natural was an indefatigable student. His first public apTheology' was published in 1835, with scientific illus- pearance was in the character of a man of science. trations by Sir Charles Bell, and a preliminary dis- He was some time secretary of the Royal Society, course by Henry Lord Brougham.

wrote various short treatises on scientific subjects, Dr RICHARD Watson, bishop of Llandaff (1737- and published an edition of Sir Isaac Newton's 1816), did good service to the cause of revealed reli- works. As a critic and scholar he had few equals ; gion and social order by his replies to Gibbon the and his disquisitions on the prophets Isaiah and historian, and Thomas Paine. To the former he Hosea, his translations of the Psalms, and his Bibliaddressed a series of letters, entitled An Apology for cal Criticisms (in four volumes), justly entitled him" Christianity, in answer to Gibbon's celebrated chap to the honour of the mitre. His sermons, in three ters on the rise and progress of Christianity; and volumes, are about the best in the language : clear, when Paine published his Age of Reason, the nervous, and profound, he entered undauntedly upon bishop met it with a vigorous and conclusive reply, the most difficult subjects, and dispelled, by research which he termed An Apology for the Bible. Watson and argument, the doubt that hung over several also published a few sermons, and a collection of passages of Scripture. He was for many years theological tracts, selected from various authors, in engaged in a controversy with Dr Priestley on the six volumes. His Whig principles stood in the way subject of the divinity of Christ. Both of the come of his church preferment, and he had not magna batants lost their temper ; but when Priestley re, nimity enough to conceal his disappointment, which sorted to a charge of incompetency and ignorance, is strongly expressed in an autobiographical memoir it was evident that he felt himself sinking in the published after his death by his son. Dr Watson, I struggle. In intellect and scholarship, Horsley was


vastly superior to his antagonist. The political friends forsake us ; when sorrow, or sickness, or old opinions and intolerance of the bishop were more age comes upon us, then it is that the superiority of successfully attacked by Robert Hall, in his Apo the pleasures of religion is established over those of logy for the Freedom of the Press.

dissipation and vanity, which are ever apt to fly from GILBERT WAKEFIELD (1756-1801) enjoyed cele- us when we are most in want of their aid. There brity both as a writer on controversial divinity and is scarcely a more melancholy sight to a considerate a classical critic. He left the church in consequence mind, than that of an old man who is a stranger to of his embracing Unitarian opinions, and afterwards those only true sources of satisfaction. How affecting, left also the dissenting establishment at Hackney, and at the same time how disgusting, is it to see such to which he had attached himself. He published a one awkwardly catching at the pleasures of his translations of some of the epistles in the New Tes- younger years, which are now beyond his reach ; or tament, and an entire translation of the same sacred feebly attempting to retain them, while they mock volume, with notes. He was also author of a work his endeavours and elude his grasp! To'such a one on Christian Evidence, in reply to Paine. The gloomily, indeed, does the evening of life set in! All bishop of Llandaff having in 1798 written an address is sour and cheerless. He can neither look backward against the principles of the French Revolution, with complacency, nor forward with hope ; while the Wakefield replied to it, and was subjected to a aged Christian, relying on the assured mercy of his crown prosecution for libel ; he was found guilty, Redeemier, can calmly reflect that his dismission is and sentenced to two years' imprisonment. He at hand ; that his redemption draweth nigh. While published editions of Horace, Virgil, Lucretius, &c. his strength declines, and his faculties decay, he can which ranked him among the first scholars of his quietly repose himself on the fidelity of God; and at time. Wakefield was an honest, precipitate, and the very entrance of the valley of the shadow of death, simple-minded man; a Pythagorean in his diet, and he can lift up an eye dim perhaps and feeble, yet eccentric in many of his habits and opinions. He occasionally sparkling with hope, and confidently was,' says one of his biographers, ' as violent against looking forward to the near possession of his hea enly Greek accents as he was against the Trinity, and inheritance, to those joys which eye hath not seer, anathematised the final x as strongly as episcopacy.' nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heat

The infidel principles which abounded at the of nan to conceive. What striking lessons have we period of the French Revolution, and continued to had of the precarious tenure of all sublunary possesagitate both France and England for some years,

sions! Wealth, and power, and prosperity, how pecuinduced a disregard of vital piety long afterwards liarly transitory and uncertain! But religion disin the higher circles of British society. To coun- penses her choicest cordials in the seasons of exigence, teract this, MR WILBERFORCE, then member of par

in poverty, in exile, in sickness, and in death. The liament for the county of York, published in 1797 A essential superiority of that support which is derived Practical View of the Prevailing Religious System of from religion is less felt, at least it is less apparent, Professed Christians in the Higher and Middle Classes when the Christian is in full possession of riches and of this Country, Contrasted with Real Christianity fortune. But when 'all these are swept away by the

splendour, and rank, and all the gifts of nature and Five cditions of the work were sold within six months, and it still continues, in various languages, the true Christian stands, like the glory of the forest,

rude hand of time or the rough blasts of adversity, to form a popular religious treatise. The author attested, by his daily life , the sincerity of his opi: foliage, but more than ever discovering to the observ

erect and vigorous ; stripped, indeed, of his summe: nions. William Wilberforce was the son of a wealthy merchant, and born at Hull in 1759. He was edu- ing eye the solid strength of his substautial texture. cated at Cambridge, and on completing his twenty- Another distinguished volunteer in the cause of first year, was returned to parliament for his native religious instruction, and an extensive miscellaneous town. He soon distinguished himself by his talents, writer, was Mrs Hannah More, whose works we and became the idol of the fashionable world—danc. have previously enumerated. ing at Almack's, and singing before the Prince of Wales. In 1784, while pursuing a continental tour with some relations, in company with Dean Milner, the latter so impressed him with the truths of Christianity, that Wilberforce entered upon a new life, DR SAMUEL PARR (1747-1825) was better known and abandoned all his former gaieties. In parlia- as a classical scholar than a theologian. His serment he pursued a strictly independent course. For mons on education are, however, marked with cotwenty years he laboured for the abolition of the gency of argument and liberality of feeling. His slave-trade, a question with which his name is in- celebrated Spital sermon, when printed, presented separably entwined. His time, his talents, influence, the singular anomaly of fifty-one pages of text and and prayers, were directed towards the consummation two hundred and twelve of notes. Mr Godwin atof this object, and at length, in 1807, he had the tacked some of the principles laid down in this dishigh gratification of seeing it accomplished. The course, as not sufficiently democratic for his taste; religion of Wilberforce was mild and cheerful, un- for though a stanch Whig, Parr was no revolumixed with austerity or gloom. He closed his tionist or leveller. His object was to extend education long and illustrious life on the 27th July 1833, one among the poor, and to ameliorate their condition of those men who, by their virtues, talents, and by gradual and constitutional means. Dr Parr was energy, impress their own character on the age in long head master of Norwich school; and in knowwhich they live. His latter years realised his own ledge of Greek literature was not surpassed by any beautiful description

scholar of his day. His uncompromising support of

Whig principles, his extensive learning, and a cer. [On the Efects of Religion.]

tain pedantry and oddity of character, rendered him

always conspicuous among his brother churchmen. When the pulse bents high, and we are flushed He died at Hatton, in Warwickshire, the perpetual with youth, and health, and vigour; when all goes curacy of which he had enjoyed for above forty years, on prosperously, and success seems almost to anti- and where he liad faithfully discharged his duties as cipate our wishes, then we feel not the want of the a parish pastor. consolations of religion : but when fortune frowns, or Dr EDWARD MALTBY, the present bishop of Dur



[ocr errors][merged small]

ham, was the favourite pupil of Parr at Norwich school. He is author of a work on the Christian

[The Love of our Country.) Evidences; two volumes of sermons, 1819 and 1822; Whence does this lore of our country, this oniferss] a third volume of sermons preached before the so- passion, proceed? Why does the eye ever dwell with ciety of Lincoln's Inn, where he succeeded Dr Heber; | fondness upon the scenes of infant 'life! Why do we and also of a vastly improred edition of Morell's breathe with greater joy the breath of our youth ! Greek Thesaurus, which engaged his attention for Why are not other soils as grateful, and other heavens about eleven years.

as gay? Why does the soul of man erer cliug to that The Rev. SIDNEY SMITH, well known as a witty earth where it first knew pleasure and pain, and, un. miscellaneous writer and critic, is a canon residen- der the rough discipline of the passions, was roused to tiary of St Paul's. Mr Smith published two volumes the dignity of moral life? Is it only that our country of sermons in the year 1809. They are more re-contains our kindred and our friends! And is it bé! markable for plain good sense than för originality or thing but a name for our social affections! It cannot eloquence. A few sentences from a sermon on the be this; the most friendless of human beings has a Love of our Country will show the homely earnest country which he admires and extols, and which he ness of this author's serious style :

would, in the same circumstances, prefer to all others

under heaven. Tempt him with the fairest face of 1 [Dificulty of Governing a Nation.]

nature, place him by living waters under shadowy It would seem that the science of government is an

trees of Lebanon, open to his view all the gorgeous unappropriated region in the universe of knowledge. the rocks and descrts of his childhood better than all

allurements of the climates of the sun, he will love Those sciences with which the passions can never in these, and thou canst not bribe his soul to forget the terfere, are considered to be attainable only by study | land of his nativity; he will sit down and weep by and by reflection ; while there are not many young the waters of Babylon when he remembers thee, oh men who doubt of their ability to make a constitution, Sion!

i or to govern a kingdom : at the same time there cannot, perhaps, be a more decided proof of a superficial

DR HERBERT MARSH. understanding than the depreciation of those difficulties which are inseparable from the science of govern

DR HERBERT Marsh, bishop of Peterborough, ment. To know well the local and the natural man ; who died in May 1839 at an advanced age, obtained to track the silent march of human affairs ; to seize, distinction as the translator and commentator of with happy intuition, on those great laws which re- | . Michaelis's Introduction to the New Testament,' gulate the prosperity of empires; to reconcile prin one of the most valuable of modern works on diviciples to circunstances, and be no wiser than the nity. In 1807 this divine was appcinted Lady Mar. tiines will permit; to anticipate the effects of every garet's professor of divinity in the university of speculation upon the entangled relations and awkward Cambridge, in 1816 he was inade bishop of Llandaff

, complexity of real life ; and to follow out the theo- and in 1819 he succeeded to the see of Peterborough. rems of the senate to the daily comforts of the cot. Besides his edition of Michaelis, Dr Marsh published tage, is a task which they will fear most who know it Lectures on Divinity, and a Comparative View of the best-a task in which the great and the good have Churches of England and Rome. · He was author also often failed, and which it is not only wise, but pious of some controversial tracts on the Catholic question, and just in common men to avoid.

the Bible society, &c. in which he evinced great

acuteness, tinctured with asperity. In early life, [Means of Acquiring Distinction.]

during a residence in Germany, Dr Marsh published, It is natural to every man to wish for distinction; in the German language, various tracts in defence and the praise of those who can confer honour by their of the policy of his own country in the continental praise, in spite of all false philosophy, is sweet to wars; and more particularly a very elaborate Hisevery human heart; but as eininence can be but the tory of the Politics of Great Britain and France, from lot of a few, patience of obscurity is a duty which we

the Time of the Conference at Pitnitz to the Declaration owe not more to our own happiness than to the quiet of War, a work which is said to have produced a of the world at large. Give a loose, if you are young in Germany, and for which he received a Ferienta

marked impression on the state of public opinion and ambitious, to that spirit which throbs within you ; measure yourself with your equals; and learn, from siderable pension on the recommendation of Mr Pitt. frequent competition, the place which nature has al- About the year 1833 appeared the first of the lotted to you; make of it no mean battle, but strive celebrated Tracts for the Times, by Members of hard ; strengthen your soul to the search of truth, and the University of Oxford, which have originated follow that spectre of excellence which beckons you on a keen controversy among the clergy of the church beyond the walls of the world to something better of England, and caused a wide rent or schism than man has yet done. It may be you shall burst in that ancient establishment. The peculiar doeout into light and glory at the last; but if frequent trines or opinions of this sect are known by the failure convince you of that mediocrity of nature

term Puseyism, so called after one of their first and which is incompatible with great actions, submit most intrepid supporters, Dr EDWARD BOUVERIE wisely and cheerfully to your lot; let no mean spirit Pusey, second son of the late Hon. Philip Pusey, and of revenge tempt you to throw off your loyalty to your grandson of the Earl of Radnor. This gentleman country, and to prefer a vicious celebrity to obscurity was born in 1800, and educated at Christ-church crowned with piety and virtue. If you can throw new college, Oxford, where, in 1828, he became regius light upon moral truth, or by any exertions multiply professor of Hebrew. In conjunction with several the comforts or confirm the happiness of mankind, other members of the university of Oxford (Mr this fame guides you to the true ends of your nature Newman, Professor Sewell, &c.), Dr Pusey established but, in the name of God, as you tremble at retributive an association for spreading and advocating their justice, and, in the name of mankind, if mankind be views regarding church discipline and authority, and dear to you, seek not that easy and accursed fame from this association sprung the Tracts for the which is gathered in the work of revolutions ; and deem Times.' The tenets maintained by the tract writers it better to be for ever unknown, than to found a were chiefly as follows :--They asserted the threemomentary name upon the basis of anarchy and fold order of ministry-bishops, priests, and deacons irreligion.

They claimed a personal, not a merely official de


[ocr errors]
« ElőzőTovább »