his nobler queen, the king from whom the Parliament of England, in the exercise of its ancient right, took away the crown of which he had shown himself unworthy. Thus around the shrine of Edward were gathered the successors who in life had sworn to keep his fancied laws, and who deemed it their highest honor to wear his crown and to sit upon his royal seat.

his royal seat. At last a king arose in whose eyes the wealth which earlier kings had lavished

on that spot outweighed the reverence with which so 13 many ages had surrounded Edward's name. One Henry

had reared alike the shrine and the pile which held it; the word of another Henry went forth to cast to the owls and to the bats all that earlier ages had deemed holy. And yet some remorse seems to have smitten the soul of the destroyer before the shrine of the royal patron and lawgiver of England. Elsewhere the shrines of more ancient saints were leveled with the ground; elsewhere the dust of kings and heroes was scattered to the winds. The wealth of Edward's shrine was indeed borne away to be sported broadcast among the minions of Henry's court, but the empty casket still stood untouched, and the hal

lowed remains found another, if a lowlier, resting-place 14 within the minster-walls. And the days yet came when

one translation more restored the corpse of Edward to its place of honor. And again it was from fitting hands that he received this last act of veneration. Translated first by the zeal of Henry and Eleanor, he was again restored to his old honors by the zeal of Philip and Mary. And now, while the dust of Edmund and Harold is scattered to the winds, Edward still sleeps in his shrine, unworshiped indeed but undisturbed.



The student will find an admirable sketch of Raleigh's life and character in the first volume of Dr. Hawks's “History of North Carolina." A somewhat different view will be found in Brewer's “Studies in English History and English Literature—Essay on Hatfield House.” Raleigh was one of those striking exhibitions of versatile genius so conspicuous during the Elizabethan age-scholar, historian, soldier, explorer. His relation to Spenser is one of the most attractive episodes in his history. Sir Walter was executed at Westminster in 1618. Among his contemporaries were Sidney, Essex, Southampton, the patron of Shakespeare, Bacon, Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, the Cecils, Leicester, Beaumont and Fletcher. What was the date of Raleigh's settlements on the coast of North Carolina? How long did they precede the Jamestown and Plymouth settlements ?

The name of Raleigh stands highest among the states-1 men of England who advanced the colonization of the United States. Courage, self-possession, and fertility of invention insured him glory in his profession of arms ; and his services in the conquest of Cadiz and the capture of Fayal established his fame as a gallant and successful commander. No soldier in retirement ever expressed the charms of tranquil leisure more beautifully than Raleigh, whose “swart verse" Spenser described as “sprinkled with nectar," and rivaling the melodies of the “summer's nightingale.” When an unjust verdict left 2 him to languish for years in prison, with the sentence of death suspended over his head, he, who had been a warrior, a courtier, and a seaman, in an elaborate “ History of the World,” “ told the Greek and Roman story more fully and exactly than any earlier English writer, and with an eloquence which has given his work a classical reputation in our language.” In his civil career he was jeala

ous of the honor, the prosperity, and the advancement of his country. In Parliament he defended the freedom of domestic industry. When, through unequal legislation, taxation was a burden upon industry rather than wealth, he argued for a change. Himself possessed of a lucrative monopoly, he gave his voice for the repeal of all monopolies, he used his influence with his sovereign to mitigate the severity of the judgments against the non

conformists, and as a legislator he resisted the sweeping 4 enactment of persecuting laws. In the career of discovery, his perseverance was never baffled by losses. He joined in the risk of Gilbert's expedition, contributed to that of Davis in the northwest, and explored in person “the insular regions and broken world” of Guiana. His lavish efforts in colonizing the soil of our republic, his sagacity which enjoined a settlement within the Chesapeake Bay, the publications of Hariot and Hakluyt, which he countenanced, diffused in England a knowledge of America as well as an interest in its destinies, and sowed

the seeds of which the fruits began to ripen during his 5 life-time. Raleigh had suffered in health before his latest

undertaking. He returned broken-hearted by the defeat of his hopes, the decay of his strength, and the death of his eldest son. What shall be said of King James, who would open to an aged paralytic no hope of liberty but through the discovery of mines in Guiana? What shall be said of a monarch who could, under a sentence that slumbered for fifteen years, order the execution of the decrepit man, whose genius and valor shone through the ravages of physical decay, and whose heart still beat with 6 an undying love of his country ? The family of the chief author of colonization in the United States was reduced to beggary by the government of England, and he himself was beheaded. After a lapse of nearly two centuries, the

State of North Carolina, in 1792, revived in its capital the “ City of Raleigh,” in grateful commemoration of his name and fame. Imagination already saw beyond the Atlantic a people whose mother idiom should be the language of England. “Who knows,” exclaimed Daniel, the poet laureate of that kingdom

“ Who in time knows whither we may vent

The treasures of our tongue ? To what strange shores
This gain of our best glory shall be sent

T'enrich unknowing nations with our stores ?
What worlds in th' yet unformed Occident

May 'come refined with th' accents that are ours ? "

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The development of literature constitutes an important phase of historical study. Hence this description of Stratford-on-Avon, the birth-place and burial-place of Shakespeare, as it was in the poet's life-time (1564–1616), is inserted. Warwickshire is rich in historic associations. Not far from Stratford-on-Avon are Warwick Castle, Coventry, Kenilworth, upon which the genius of Sir Walter Scott has conferred an additional immortality. Warwick, the king-maker, Leicester, Elizabeth, Amy Robsart, all come back to memory. Amid these stimulating influences Shakespeare's childhood was spent.

THOSE who would desire to realize the general ap-1 pearance of the Stratford-on-Avon of the poet's days must deplore the absence not merely of a genuine sketch of New Place, but of any kind of view or engraving of the town as it appeared in the sixteenth or seventeenth century. Its aspect must then have been essentially differ

ent from that exhibited at a subsequent period. Relatively to ourselves, Shakespeare may practically be considered to have existed in a different land, not more than glimpses of the real nature of which are now to be obtained by the most careful study of existing documents 2 and material remains. Many enthusiasts of these times

who visit Stratford-on-Avon are under the delusion that they behold a locality which recalls the days of the great dramatist, but, with the exception of a few diffused buildings, scarcely one of which is precisely in its original condition, there is no resemblance between the present town and the Shakespearean borough-the latter with its mediæval and Elizabethan buildings, its crosses, its numerous barns and thatched hovels, its water-mills, its streetbridges and rivulets, its mud-walls, its fetid ditches, its unpaved walks, and its wooden-spired church, with the

common fields reaching nearly to the gardens of the Birth3 Place. Neither can there be a much greater resemblance between the ancient and modern general views of the town from any of the neighboring elevations. The tower and lower part of the church, the top of the Guild Chapel, a few old tall chimneys, the course of the river, the milldam, and the outlines of the surrounding hills, would be nearly all that would be common to both prospects. 4 There were, however, until the last few years, the old

mill-bridge, which, excepting that rails had been added, preserved its Elizabethan form, the Cross-on-the-Hill, and the Wier Brake, the two latter fully retaining their original character. Now, alas, a hideous railway has obliterated all traces of the picturesque from what was one of the most interesting and charming spots in Warwickshire.

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