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* By " the reed like unto a rod, which was given to him, (see Rev. xi. 1), that he might mea
sure the temple of God and the altar, and them that worship therein, is signified the power, "" which when set at liberty he exhibited to the churches; for he afterwards wrote his gospel. 1* Valentinus, and Cerinthus, and Ebion, and others of the school of Satan, were spread abroad
over the world, all inen (or all the churches] from the neighbouring provinces came to hini, and earnestly entreated him to put down his testimony in writing.'
4. • And we read in the Acts of the apostles, how, when he was discoursing with his dis“ ciples, he was taken up into heaven.' See Acts i. 9–11. Words of the Acts are elsewhere quoted without naming the book.
5. In the Fragment published by Cave, in his observations upon the seventh day, when God rested from all his labours, among other remarkable instances of that' remarkable number, he mentions this : · And seven churches in Paul.' Cave says, Perhaps it should be in the Apo: calypse : ' but the author means the seven churches which have epistles sent to them in the collection of St. Paul's epistles. This will be apparent to all from a passage in the Commentary "upon the Revelation ; where speaking of the seven churches mentioned in that book, to which likewise John sent epistles, he says : *That in the whole world are seven churches; and that " those churches called seven are one catholic church, Paul has taught: and that he might keep - to it, he did not exceed the number of seven churches; but wrote to the Romans, to the
Corinthians, to the Galatians, to the Ephesians, to the Philippians, to the Colossians, to the • Thessalonians. Afterwards he wrote to particular persons, that he might not exceed the * measure of seven churches : and, contracting his doctrine into a little compass, he says to
Timothy : “ That thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the church of * the living God.”
The reader cannot but recollect here what we formerly saw of the like kind in St.' Cyprian.
Here we have a very valuable testimony to St. Paul's epistles, like to that which we saw before to the gospels. It may be hence justly concluded that he received thirteen epistles of the apostle Paul; that is, the second, as well as the first, to the Corinthians, and to the Thessalonians, and all his epistles to particular persons; the first and second to Timothy, the epistles to Titu's .and Philemon. 6. But Victorinus makes no mention of the epistle to the Hebrews: and in what he says
of the rest seems entirely to exclude it from the number of St. Paul's epistles. Nevertheless, there are in the Commentary upon the Revelation some passages which seem to contain allusions to this epistle : I think they deserve to be taken notice of.
1. For “our prayers ascend to heaven. As therefore heaven is denoted by the golden altar, * which was the innermost, (for even the priests, who had the anointing, entered only once in • the year to the golden altar, the Holy Ghost this signifying, that Christ should do this once for all :) in like manner,' &c. Compare Hebr. ix. 7, 8, 12.
2. Again: • For 'Moses himself taking moist wool, and the blood of a calf, and water, * sprinkled all the people, saying: This is the blood of the Testament, which God has enjoined unto you. See Hebr. ix. 19, 20; and compare Exod. xxiv. 8, 9.
a Novissimam arundinem similem virgæ, ut metiretur Dei salonicenses. Postea singularibus personis scripsit, ne excetemplum, et aram, et adorantes in eà, potestatem dicit, quam deret modum septem ecclesiarum. Et in brevi contrahens dimissus postea exhibuit ecclesiis. Nam et evangelium postea prædicationem suam, ad Timotheum ait : Ut scias, qualiter scripsit. Cum essent Valentinus, et Cerinthus, et Ebion, et debeas conversari in ecclesiâ Dei vivi. In Apoc. p. 415. D. E. cæteri scholæ Satanæ diffusi por orbem ; convenerunt ad
i See p. 23. illum de finitimis provinciis omnes, et compulerunt, ut ipse He has more than once quoted the second epistle to the testimonium conscriberet. In Apoc. ib. p. 418. C.
Thessalonians. Et Paulus contra antichristum ad Thessaloni• Et nos legimus in Actis apostolorum, quemadmodum lo- censes ait: Quem Dominus interficiet spiritu oris sui. quens cum discipulis suis, raptus est in coelos. ib. p. 419. A. [2 Thess. ii. 8.) in Apoc. p. 415. C. Et Paulus apostolus © Sicut Petrus ad Judæos exclamavit: Dexterâ Dei exal
Ait enim ad Thessalonicenses : Qui nunc tenet, tatus acceptum a Patre Spiritum effudit, hunc quem
videtis. teneat, &c. [2 Thess. ii. 7.) ib. p. 418. F. (Act. ii. 33.) ib. p. 415. D.
1 Utique ad coelum ascendunt orationes. Sicut igitur ecSeptem candelabra aurea, -septem mulieres apud Jum intelligitur ara aurea, quæ erat interior; (nam et sacerIsaïam, septem ecclesiæ apud Paulum. de Fabr. Mund. ap. dotes semel in anno introibant, qui habebant chrisma, ad aram Cav. H. L. p. 149. a.
auream, significante Spiritu Sancto Christum hoc semel factu. e In toto orbe septem ecclesias omnes esse, et septem no- rum ;) sic et, -Victor. in Ap. ib. p. 418. B. minatas unam esse catholicam, Paulus docuit primo : Quod Nam et ipse tunc legis de populo, accepta lana succida, ụt servaret ipse, et ipsum septem ecclesiarum non excessit [forte coccinea,] et sanguine vituli
, et aqua, aspersit populum numerum. Sed scripsit ad Romanos, ad Corinthios, ad Ga- universum, dicens: Hic sanguis testamenti ejus, quod mandalatas, ad Ephesios, ad Philippenses, ad Colossenses, ad Thes- vit ad vos. ib. p. 417. E.
I have translated the former part of this passage nearly aecording to the Latin original ; but I suppose that to be corrupted : perhaps it should be scarlet, instead of moist or wet, wool, and some other emendations might be thought of.
3. Presently after the author says: “No law is called a testament: nor is any thing else called a testament, but what men make who are about to die : and whatever is within a testa• ment is concealed until the day of death :' See Hebr. ix. 16, 17,
Whether these will be allowed to be allusions to the epistle to the Hebrews; and, if they are, whether they can be sufficient, considering what he said before, to afford an argument that it was of authority with this writer ; I cannot say. We proceed.
7. I have not observed in the remains of this author any quotations of the epistle of St. James.
8. Upon those words of Rev. i. 6: ““ And hath made us kings and priests :" that is,' says he, the whole church of the faithful, as the apostle Peter says: [Ye are] “ a holy nation, a royal * priesthood:"' 1 Pet. ii. 9.
9. I do not perceive any references to the second epistle of St. Peter, nor to any of the epistles of St. John, nor to that of St. Jude.
10. The Fragment in Cave concludes in this manner: • These are they, who sit before the throne of God, who in the Revelation of John, the apostle and evangelist, are called elders.' And in the Commentary upon the Revelation he several times ascribes that book to John. • The opened book,' says he is the Revelation which John saw.” Afterwards he-.calls him apostle: and soon after he informs us when John saw and wrote the Revelation. • And' he • said unto me: “ Thou must prophecy again to people, and tongues, and nations:" (Rev. x. • 11.) that is, because when John saw this he was in the isle of Patmos, having been condemned
to the mines by the emperor Domitian: there he saw the Revelation. And when, being now old, he expected to be received up [to heaven] through his sufferings, Domitian was killed, and all his acts disannulled, and John was set at liberty from the mines. Then afterwards he • wrote the same Revelation, which he had received from the Lord. This is the meaning of * those words : “ Thou inust prophesy again.” : In another place he says: When the <scripture of the Revelation was published, Domitian was emperor.'
11. We have already seen some forms of citation: a particular or two may be added. • The other three horses,' says he, signify the wars, famines, and pestilences, more plainly spoken of by the Lord in the gospel. For the Lord
· For the Lord says: “ This gospel shall be preached in all the • world, for a witness unto the nations, and then shall the end come:" Matt. xxiv. 14. Presently afterwards : * Ask we read in the gospel : “ Nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against
kingdom :”) ver. 7. ' And so the Lord says in the gospel : “ Then let them which are in Judea • flee to the mountains :"). ver. 16. And in like manner often. And the Jews saying, “Forty, and six years has this temple been building,
""the evangelist says: “ He spake of the temple of his body:" John ii. 20, 21. Having quoted Matth. xiii. 52. “ Therefore every scribe instructed to the kingdom of God is like
unto an householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old,” he says: “The" new things are the words of the gospel : the old those of the law and the prophets.' By “ the words of the gospel,” or evangelic words, meaning
• Nulla lex testamentum vocatur. Nec testamentum aliud Ibi ergo vidit apocalypsin. Et cum senior jam putaret se per dicitur, nisi quod faciunt morituri. Et quodcumque intrin- passionem accepturum receptionem, interfecto Domitiano, secus testamenti est, signatum est, usque ad diem mortis. ib. omnia judicia ejus soluta suni, et Joannes de metallo dimissus. p. 417. E, F.
Sic postea tradidit hanc eamdem, quam acceperat a Domino, • Et fecit nos regnum et sacerdotes ; id est, omnem fide apocalypsin. Hoc est, Oportet te iterum prophetare. ib. G. lium ecclesiam, sicut Petrus apostolus dicit: Gens sancta, & Intelligi oportet tempus, quo scriptura Apocalypsis edita regale sacerdotium. ibid. p. 414. H.
est, quoniam tunc erat Cæsar Domitianus-unus exstat, sub quos in Apocalypsi Joannis apostoli et evangelistæ quo scribitur Apocalypsis, Domitianus, scilicet. p. 420. C. seniores vocat. Ap. Cav. M. Lit. T. i. p. 149.
I Cæteri tres equi bella, fames, pestes in evangelio a DoLiber apertus Apocalypsis est, quam Joannes vidit. ubi mino prædicata manifestius significant. p. 417. H. supra, p. 419. E.
i Ait enim Dominus : Prædicabitur, &c. ib. H. * Sed quia dicit, se scripturum fuisse Joannes quanta lo- * Ut legimus in evangelio: Surget enim gens, &c. ib. cuta fuissent tonitrua, id est, quæcumque in veteri testamento Sic et Dominus in evangelio ait: Tunc qui in Judæa erant obscura et prædicata, vetatur scribere, sed relinquere ea sunt, &c. p. 419. H. signata, quia erat apostolus, nec oportebat gratiam sequentis m Evangelista inquit: Ille dicebat de templo corporis sui. gradas in primo collocari. ib. F.
Hoc 'est, quoniain quando hoc vidit Joannes, erat in ► Nova evangelica verba : vetera legis et prophetarum. ib. insula Pathmo, in metallum damnatus a Domitiano Cæsare. p. 415, B. VOL. II.
P. 418. G.
as it seems, the whole New Testament. After his long account of the four gospels, and their symbolical representations before transcribed, he observes: All these, though four, are one, • because they proceed from one mouth.' Explaining some words in the Revelation, he says: • They confute those who say that one spake in the prophets, and another in the gospel.' Again, · The doctrine of the Old Testament is connected with the New. He often speaks of the Old and New Testament.
12. We have seen then in Victorinus very valuable testimonies to the four gospels, the Acts of the apostles, thirteen of St. Paul's epistles, and some expressions which may be thought, allusive to the epistle to the Hebrews, as also a plain quotation of the first epistle of St. Peter, beside his express testimony to the author of the book of the Revelation, and his Commentary upon it. And there might be other books received by him, as of authority, though not expressly. mentioned in his few remaining works. Unquestionably he received all those scriptures of the New Testament, which were generally received by Christians in all times, and all over the world. We have also observed him to speak distinctly of a collection of sacred writings, called the Gospel, and the New Testament. Finally, we should not forget here the evidences we saw at the beginning of this chapter of Victorinus's writing Commentaries upon several books of the Old Testa-, ment, and some of the New; proofs of his application and industry, and of his unfeigned affection and ardent zeal for the holy scriptures, and for the Christian religion : which he recommended not only by the labours of his life, but also by the patience and fortitude of a violent, but willing, death for its sake.
C H A P. LVII.
METHODIUS, BISHOP OF OLYMPUS IN LYCIA.
I. His history. II. His works. III. Testimonies to him. IV. Select passages of Methodius:
V. His testimony to the books of the New Testament: and first, of the four gospels : VI. Of the Acts of the apostles : VII. Of St. Paul's epistles:
VII. Of St. Paul's epistles: VIII. Of the epistle to the Hebrewsa IX. Of the catholic epistles : X. Of the Revelation. XI. Forms of quoting, general divisions, . and respect for the scriptures. XII. Texts explained. XIII. The sum of his testimony.
1. “Methodius," bishop of Olympus in Lycia, and afterwards of Tyre, a man of a neat and
correct style, composed a work against Porphyry in several books. He also wrote a Banquet of ten Virgins; Concerning the Resurrection, against Origen, an excellent book; and against • him likewise Of the Pythoness; and Of liberty, (or free will ;] Commentaries also upon Genesis 6 and the Canticles; and many other works, which are in the hands of every body. He obtained • the crown of martyrdom at Chalcis in Greece, at the end of the last persecution; or, as some say, under Decius and Valerian.'
So writes Jerom in his book of Illustrious men. Eusebius makes no mention of Methodius in his Ecclesiastical history. The reason of it has been supposed by many learned men to be, that Methodius had written against Origen, whom Eusebius greatly admired. Nay, Valesius says, moreover, it' was out of envy and hatred of Methodius, that Eusebius wrote after him against
a Hæ prædicationes, quamvis quatuor sunt, una est tamen, et de Autexusio. In Genesim quoque, et in Cantica Cantiquia de uno ore processit. p. 416. A
corum commentarios ; et multa alia, quæ vulgo lectitantur. • Arguit qui aliam in prophetis, alium in evangelio dicunt Et ad extremum novissimæ persecutionis, sive, ut alii affiressé locutum. p. 416. D.
mant, sub Decio et Valeriano, in Chalcide Græciæ, martyrio Conjuncta veteris testamenti prædicatio cum
coronatus est. De V. I. cap. 83.
Nam cum omnes ecclesiasticos scriptores in hoc opere d Sic nec prædicatio novi testamenti fidem habet, nisi ha- accurate commemoraverit, Methodium tamen de industria beat veteris testamenti prænuntiata testimonia. p. 417. A. prætermisit, eo quod Origenem, quem ipse præcipue miraba
e Methodius, Olympi Lyciæ, et postea Tyri episcopus, niti- tur, impugnavisset. Hinc etiam est, quod contra Porphyri di compositique sermonis adversus Porphyrium confecit libros, libros; post eumdem Methodium scripsit, quasi æmulatione et Symposium decem Virginum, de Resurrectione opus egre- quâdam et odi
quâdam et odio adversus Methodium incitatus. Vales. Ann. gium contra Origenem, et adyersuis eumdem de Pythonissà, in Eus. I. vi. c. 33. p. 128. B.
p. 417. É.
Porphyry. But this last supposition appears to me uncharitable: however, we are informed by Jerom that* Eusebius, in his Apology for Origen, complained of Methodius for writing against Origen, after he had more than once spoken of his sentiments without any censure or dislike. And from the accounts we have of the works of Methodius, and some remaining extracts out of them, it appears, that not only several of his pieces were written against Origen, but likewise that he sometimes treated that great man not very civilly.
Socrates writes, that Methodius, after he had long opposed Origen, as if he recanted what he had said, commended him in a dialogue, called Zeno. Tillemonto thinks Socrates is not to be credited herein : and Baronius long ago charged that ecclesiastical historian with being guilty of a manifest falsehood in this account: for he says the quite contrary is the truth, as we learn from Eusebius himself: Methodius first approved of Origen, and afterwards wrote against him. Besides, how should Socrates become acquainted with this recantation of Methodius, which is unknown to every body else; which Eusebius, Rufinus, and other defenders of Origen, say nothing of? Whereas, says Baronius, if they had known it they would have transcribed it in letters of gold, and shewn it every where. On the other hand • Valesius,' Huet, and® Pagi, maintain the truth of the relation in Socrates. But it seems to me not impossible that Socrates mistook the time of writing that dialogue, which might be written before Methodius had taken a disgust against Origen. Or, if indeed it was written afterwards, as Socrates supposed, I think it reasonable to conclude the commendation there given Origen was a small matter of no great moment, and far short of a recantation. Baronius's reasoning appears solid: if Methodius had recanted what he had written against Origen, it would have been mentioned by his apologists. I suppose the meaning of Eusebius's words above cited by Jerom to be this: That Methodius in his own writings, in several places, had treated of several sentiments that were disliked in Origen; and that Methodius in those more early pieces appeared to be much of the same opinion with Origen: but afterwards he wrote against him with a good deal of bitterness; of this conduct Eusebius complained. And it has been observed by Tillemont, that in the Banquet of the ten Virgins, probably one of the first books published by our author, there are several sentiments very near resembling those called Origen's. Methodius, says that learned writer, in one place" very nearly follows the opinion of Origen upon the pre-existence of souls, which are at length sent from heaven into bodies. He' seems also to say, (as Origen was accused,) that in the glory of heaven mer shall be changed into the nature of angels. These things, not to insist now on any other, are found in that Banquet.
Upon the whole, as Eusebius was not unacquainted with Methodius, and has been careful to mention a great number of ecclesiastical writers in his history, his silence about this bishop may be very probably ascribed to the cause above-mentioned, his displeasure against him for writing against Origen, and treating him roughly: that silence must also be reckoned an argument, that Methodius did never retract: for that would have been much for Origen’s honour; it would have reconciled his admirers to Methodius, and they would have spoken of it frequently, and Eusebius would not have failed to give him an honourable place in his Ecclesiastical History.
There are considerable difficulties about the place of which Methodius was bishop. Jerom said above, that he was at first bishop of Olympus. Socrates too says expressly, and at length, that he was bishop of a city in Lycia, called Olympus. Heo is now very commonly called bishop of Patara, and at other times of Tyre. Suidas says, Methodius was bishop of Olympus in Lycia, or of Patara, and afterwards of Tyre: in which words there is supposed to be an
• Eusebius, Cæsariensis episcopus, cujus supra memini, in sexto libro apoyas Origenis hoc idem objicit Methodio episcopo et martyri, quod tu in meis laudibus criminaris, et dicit: quomodo ausus est Methodius nunc contra Origenem scribere, qui hæc et hæc de Origenis loquutus est dogmatibus? Hieron. Apol. adv. Ruf. I. 1. p. 359. Bened.
• Μεθοδιος μεν εν πολλα καταδραμων τ8 Ωριγενες, υστερον, ως εκ παλινωδίας, θαυμαζει τον ανδρα εν τω διάλογω, όν επεγραψε Ζενωνα. Η. Ε. 1. vi. cap. 13. p. 320. Α.
h As before, p. 138.
i Ib. p. 136. -τη απο των ερανων εις τα σωματα καταβασει και XATATOUTTY TWY Yuxwe. Method. Conv. ap. Combef. Auct. Nov. P. i. p. 74. C.
'Αλλα μετα την χιλιονταετηριδα μεταβληθεντος απο τα σχηματος το ανθρωπινο και της φθορας, εις αγγελικών μεγεθος και καλλος. Ιb. p. 429. Α.
© Tillem. St. Methode. Mem, Ecc. T. v. P. iii. p. 139, 140;
Huet Origenian. I. ii. c. iv. oum. ii. 3 Pagi Crit. 402. n. iii.
m Tillem, as before, p. 132, & sur St. Methode, Note .
2 --Μεθοδιος, της εν Λυκια πολεως λεγομενης Ολυμπο επισκοπος. .
Socr. l. vi. c. 13.
Ρ Μεθοδιος, ΟλυμπΒ Λυκιας, ητοι Παταρων, και μετα ταυτα
ambiguity for they may mean, that Olympus was sometimes called Patara ; or, that it is doubtful which of those two places he was bishop of: but, that Patara and Olympus were two different places might be shewn. They are expressly named by Strabo, as two of the six large cities of Lycia: and how he should be bishop of both is not easy to conceive.
Jerom says that Methodius was afterwards bishop of Tyre; and so likewise Suidas from him, or from his Greek interpreter Sophronius : which yet is not easy to be accounted for, nor very probable; such removals or translations of bishops not being then very common. Tillemonto thinks that if Methodius was bishop of Tyre, he must have succeeded Tyrannio, a worthy pastor of that church, particularly mentioned by Eusebius, as one of the illustrious martyrs of Dioclesian's persecution, who was drowned in the sea near Antioch.
It is, however, very likely that Methodius was for some time, if not to the end of his life, bishop of Olympus in Lycia : since Socrates gives him that title, as well as Jerom. Besides, in one of his works, he d'informs us of a wonderful thing he had seen upon Olympus, a mountain of Lycia; which, according to' Strabo, adjoined to the city of the same name.
In Jerom's days there were two different opinions about the time of this person's death ; for some thought he suffered under Decius or Valerian : but this opinion is inconsistent with his writing against Porphyry, who did not publish his books against the Christians till about the year 270. The other is Jerom's own opinion, that Methodius had the honour of martyrdom at the end of the last, or Dioclesian's persecution : therefore in the year 311 or 312, as ' Tillemont shews; not in the year 302, or 303, as Du Pins says, if his numbers are rightly printed in my edition. Methodius is placed by Cave as flourishing about the year 290, against which I have no exceptions to make : for it is not unlikely that he was ordained bishop about that time.
But though the above-mentioned opinion of Jerom concerning the time of the death of Methodius may be reckoned very probable, yet what he says about the place of it is not very easy to be h received.
In this uncertainty are we about several material things relating to Methodius : which may be imputed partly to his own modesty, who had said little of himself in his works; and partly, and chiefly, to the neglect, or the resentment and ill-will of Eusebius : who, it is likely, could have left us good memoirs of him, if he had pleased.
Thus much we may rely upon, that he was bishop, and probably of Olympus in Lycia, as was before shewn; and that the same bishop suffered death for the Christian religion, probably in the persecution begun under Dioclesian: and, beside what we have already seen from Jerom and others, it may be observed here, that he is called bishop and martyr by. Photius, and by * Theodoret. Hereafter I may add some more passages confirming these particulars.
I shall conclude the brief history of this person with one observation: it is an obvious thought and a conjecture likely to arise in the minds of not a few, that since Methodius is said to have been bishop of so many places, and there were in Jerom's time two very different opinions concerning the time of his death, possibly there were two of this name in the third century, both bishops and martyrs; one somewhat obscure, the other well known, for his writings at least. :
II. Of these we have a pretty good account left us: and I must take some notice of them before I proceed to make extracts.
1. The first mentioned by Jerom in his Catalogue is the work or books against Porphyry, which in another place he says' amounted to ten thousand lines. St. Jerom has spoken of this work more than once in his Commentary in upon the book of Daniel, and" elsewhere. Of this work there is now nothing remaining, excepto a few fragments, which are but of small consequence. The three chief writers against Porphyry were Methodius, Eusebius, and Apollinarius : and Philostorgius, as we are informed by Photius, gave the preference to Apollinarius above the other two.
2. The next piece mentioned by Jerom, as above, is the Banquet of ten Virgins, or Of * Strab. 1. 14. p. 665. A.
| Methodius usque ad decem millia procedit versuum. · Eus. I. viii. cap. 13. p. 307, 308.
Hieron. Ep. 83. [al. 84.] Vid. Excerpt. ex libr. de Resurr. ad. Comb.
m. In Dan. Pr. et cap. xii. v. ult. Phot. Cod. 234. p. 924.
b As before
n Adv. Ruf. 1. 2. p. 433. in T. iv. P. ii. et Ep. 30. [al. 50) * See Till. as before, p. 133, and note 2.
p. 236. in ib.
Ap. Combefis. p. 442, &c. $ Du Pin Bibl. des Aut. Ecc. T. i. p. 195, à Amst.
Ρ 'Οτι, φησιν, Απολλιναριος, κατα Πορφυριε γραψας επι πολυ + Till. as. above, p. 133, and note 3.
κρατειν των ηγωνισμενων Ευσεβιω κατ' αυτό, αλλά και των i Cod. 235. p. 932. s Dialog. i. p. 37.
Μεθοδια κατα της αυτης υποθεσεως σπεδασμάτων. Philost.
e Ubi supra. P