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was null and void, and that they who had received such baptism only ought to be baptised when they come over from heretics to the church. What was Stephen's opinion is a disputed; whether he held that baptism by all sorts of heretics was valid, and that they who came from them needed not to be baptised; or, whether he maintained the validity of that baptism only which was performed in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. The most remarkable of these three councils was the last, at which were present eighty-five or eighty-seven bishops, beside presbyters and others. It was held in 256, and the acts of it are still in being. Of these councils I give no farther account, that I may have the more room to shew the excellent conduct of Cyprian in some other matters, which deserve particular notice in this place.

About this time a pestilential distemper wasted the Roman Empire, raging in some part of it for several years. Some learned men think it begun in the reign of Decius, and increased very much under Gallus, about the year 252, in whose time it is placed by Eusebius in his Chronicle, and" by Eutropius, and byo several other ancient writers. Pagi " is of opinion, that this pestilence afflicted the Roman Empire fifteen years, beginning under Gallus and Volusian, in the year 252, and ceasing in 267. In this affliction Carthage had its share; and upon that occasioni Cyprian was not negligent in the duties of his episcopal function. His deacon Pontius informs us, that he called together his people, and discoursed to them of the obligation of compassion, shewing out of the divine scriptures, how acceptable offices of kindness are unto God; adding, that it would be no extraordinary thing, if we should take care of our own people: “ He only is perfect who does more than publicans and heathens ;” Matt. v. 45, 46. We are to

We are to propose to ourselves, said Cyprian, the imitation of our heavenly Father, who causeth his sun to rise, and sendeth rain upon all men ; and thereby to show that we are not unworthy of our high birth. This discourse had a good effect; and in the time of that calamity there were the most generous acts of goodness performed by the Christians at Carthage, as “ Pontius relates, and I sometime may have an opportunity to shew more at large. Upon this occasion, likewise, Cyprian wrote a treatise entitled, Of Mortality, or of the Plague; and, as is. coirputed, in the year 252.

There was another occasion, in which the virtue of Cyprian and the people under his care was very conspicuous. Some barbarous people of Africa made inroads into Numidia, and carried off with them captives a great number of Christians. The bishops of Numidia gave Cyprian notice of that disaster. Hereupon he made a collection at Carthage for the redemption of those who had been carried captive; and the whole sum contributed by Cyprian himself and his people, and some bishops and other Christians then at Carthage, amounted to about seven hundred and eighty pounds; which Cyprian sent to the bishops of the province of Numidia, together with his own and his people's prayers, that no such ecclesiam venientem denuo baptizari. August. de Bap. contr. sequio favereinus; eum perfectum posse fieri qui plus aliquid Donat. 1. i. cap. 18. p. 93, 94. T. ix. Bened. Ecce in unitate publicano vel ethnico fecerit.. .. . Et qui se Dei filium profitevideo Cyprianum et alios collegas ejus, qui facto concilio cen- tur, cur non exemplum patris imitatur? Respondere, inquit, suerunt omnes, qui extra ecclesiæ communionem fuerint bap- nos decet natalibus nostris, et quos renatos per Deum constat, tizati, baptismum non habere; et ideo eis dandum esse, cum degeneres esse non congruit. Pont. p. 5. h Id. p. 6. veniunt. ib. I. ii. c. 6. p. 100. D. Conf. Cypr. ad Jub. Ep. 73. Vid. Pearson. Ann. Cypr. p. 39. n. 17. et Basn. 258.n. 14. et Conc. Carth.

* Misimus autem sestertia centum millia nummorum,. a Vid. Tillemont Mem. Ecc. T. iv. St. Cyprien art. 42, et Et optamus quidem nihil tale de cætero fieri,.... Si tamen ad note xxxix. Du Pin Bibl. St. Cyprien Basn. Ann. 256. 0. 3, explorandam nostri animi caritatem, et examinandam nostri 4. Pagi Crit. in Bar. 256. n. 4, 5, 6.

pectoris fidem, tale aliquid accideret, nolite cunctari nuntiare ; There were present eighty-five bishops, one of which had hæc literis vestris ; pro certo habentes, ecclesiam nostram et (wo proxies, who

at the same time he voted himself gave in also fraternitatem istic universam, ne hæc ultra fiant, precibus the votes of two absent bishops, according to the power they orare; si facta fuerint, libenter, et largiter subsidia præstare. had given him. The number of votes therefore was in all Ep. 62. al. 60. eighty-seven.

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Mr. Marshall, in a note upon this epistle of St. Cyprian, p. c Sub hoc (Gallo) pestilens morbus multas totius orbis pro- 177, says, 'that sum was collected from his own church vincias occupavit, maximeque Alexandriam et Ægyptum, ut only, over and above the several sums contributed from such scribit Dionysius, et Cypriani de mortalitate testis est liber. • bishops as happened to be at Carthage when this case was Euseb. Chron. p. 47.

• laid before our author.' And so Fleury understood it; see Solâ pestilentiâ et morbis atque ægritudinibus notus eorum his Ecclesiastical History, B. vii. ch. 14. p. 420. But Tille[Galli et Volusiani) principatus fuit. Eutr.

mont takes it, as I bave done above, that the contributions of e Vid. Pagi Crit. 252. n. 25.

Cyprian's church, and of some bishops then at Carthage, all Vid. Pagi ib. 252. n. 24. et seqq. 265. n. 5.

together amounted to that sum. Tout cela ensemble fit une 8 Aggregatam primo in loco uno plebem de misericordiæ somme de vingt-cinq mille livres. Mem. Ec. St. Cypr, art. bonis instituit, docens divinæ lectionis exemplis, quantum ad 37. p. 210. Which is rightest, I am not much concerned to promerendum Deum prosint officia pietatis. Tunc deinde sub- determine. The thing is of no great importance. jungit, non esse mirabile, si nostris tantum debito caritatis ob


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like disaster might befal them again ; at the same time assuring them that, if there should, the Christians with him would be always ready to send relief to their brethren.

But the most glorious scene of Cyprian's life remains. The emperor Valerian, who for some time had been very favourable to the Christians, became their persecutor. Cyprian, having been brought before the proconsul, made a confession of the Christian faith, and was banished to Curubis. So far we are informed by * Pontius, who refers to the Acts for particulars ; and by the Acts which we now have, we are informed that, on the 30th day of August 257, Cyprian was brought before the proconsul Aspasius Paternus; and being examined by him, owned himself to be a Christian, and a bishop; declaring that he knew no other gods, beside the one true God, who made the heaven and the earth, the sea, and all things therein. Being stedfast in this profession, the proconsul banished him to Curubis. His deacon, Pontius, accompanied him to the place of his exile, where he arrived the 13th or 14th of September. Cyprian had many fellow sufferers, great numbers of Christians in the province of Numidia were apprehended, and sent to the mines. We have a letter of Cyprian, written in his exile, which is inscribed to nine bishops by name, and beside them to others, presbyters, deacons, and the rest of the brethren in the mines, martyrs of God the Father Almighty, and Jesus Christ our Lord. And those confessors, who were not all in one and the same place, but in mines at some distance from each other, answer him again in three several letters, which are still extant in St. Cyprian's works.

Whilst ' Cyprian continued at Curubis, Galerius Maximus succeeded Paternus as proconsul of Africa. He recalled Cyprian from his banishment, who then went to his gardens, or country house, near Carthage, by the orders, as it seems, of the proconsul. Those gardens had been sold by Cyprian, and the price of them given for the benefit of the poor, as was formerly observed: but, 5 by some favourable providence, they were again returned to the possession of our bishop.

Soon after his arrival there, Cyprian understood that there were orders given for bringing him before the proconsul, who was then at Utica, a city of Africa, about forty miles distant from Carthage; but, being desirous rather to die in the presence of his own people, he thought fit to

from his country seat, and conceal himself for a while. Of this he gives an account in his last letter to his clergy and people. The proconsul being come from Utica to Carthage, Cyprian returned to his gardens, where many persons of the best rank in the city came to him, entreating him to retire, and offering him likewise a safe place of retreat: but he would by no means comply with those proposals. This is written by his deacon Pontius.

On the 13th of September 258, an officer, with * soldiers, was sent to Cyprian's garden by the proconsul to bring him before him. Cyprian then knew his end was near; and with a ready and constant mind, and a cheerful countenance, he went without delay to Sexti, a place about six miles from Carthage, where the proconsul was for the sake of his health. Cyprian's cause was deferred for that day. He was therefore ordered to the house of an officer, where he was

* His tam bonis et tam piis actibus supervenit exilium. Dei indulgentiâ restitutos, pro certo iterum in usus pauperum Pont. p. 6. Ut, imminentis martyrii pleniore fiduciâ, non vendidisset, nisi invidiam de persecutione vitaret. Pont. p. 8. fin. exulem tantummodo Curubis, sed et martyrem possideret. ib. 7. h Cum perlatum ad nos fuisset, fratres carissimi, frumen

. Et ut, quid sacerdos Dei Proconsule interrogante respon- tarics esse missos, qui me Uticam perducerunt, et consilio deret, taceam; sunt Acta quæ referant. ib. p. 6.

carissimorum persuasum esset, ut de hortis nostris interim Imperatore Valeriano quartum et Gallieno tertium Con- secederemus, justá interveniente causâ, consensi; eo quod sulibus, tertio Calendarum Septembrium, Carthagine in episcopum in eâ civitate, in qua ecclesiæ dominicæ præest, secretario Paternus Proconsul Cypriano dixit:... Exquisivi ego illic dominum confiteri, et plebem universam præpositi præde nomine tuo: quid mihi respondes? Cyprianus episcopus sentis confessione clarificari. Cypr. Ep. 81. [al 83.) init. p. 238. dixit: Christianus sum, et Episcopus. Nalos alios Deos novi, i Conveniebant interim plures egregii et clarissimi ordinis et nisi unum et verum Deum, qui fecit cælum et terram, mare, sanguinis, sed et seculi nobilitate generosi: qui propter amiciet quæ in eis sunt omnia. ... Poteris ergo secundum præcep- tiam ejus antiquam, secessum subinde suaderent: et, ne parum tum Valeriani et Gallieni exul ad urbem Curubitanam profi- esset nuda suadela, etiam loca in quæ secederet offerebant. cissi. Cypr. Pass. p. 11.

Ille vero jam mundum suspensâ in cælum mente neglexerat, Nam et me inter domesticos comites dignatio caritatis nec suadelis blandientibus annuebat. Pont. P: 8. ejus delegerat exulem yoluntarium. Pont. p. 7.

* Cum ecce Proconsulis jussu ad hortos ejus... cum militi • Ep. 76. al. 77.

bus suis princeps repente subitavit. id. ibid. Cumque diu ibidem moraretur, successit Aspasio Paterno 1. ...et in Sexti perduxerunt: ubi idem Galerius Maximus proconsuli Galerius Maximus, proconsul, qui sanetum Cyprie proconsul bonæ valetudinis recuperandæ gratiâ secesserat. anum episcopum ab exilio revocatum sibi jussit præsentari. Act. Pass. p. 12. Cumque Cyprianus sanctus martyr electus a Deo, de civitate m Sed dilatus in crastinum, ad domum principis a prætorio Curubitana, in quâ exilio præcepto Aspasii Paterni tunc pro- reyertebatur. ... Receptum eum tamen et in domo principis consulis datus fuerat, regressus esset, ex sacro præscripto in constitutum unâ nocte conținuit custodia delicata: ita ut conhortis suis manebat. Act. pass. p. 12.

vivæ ejus, et cari in contubernio ex more fuerimus. Pont. p.9 3 Ad hortos, inquam, quos inter initia fidei sus venditos, et

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kept that night, but was well accommodated, and his friends had free access to him. The news of this having been brought to Carthage, a great number of people of all sorts, and the Christians in general, focked thence to Sexti ; and Cyprian's people lay all night before the door of the officer, thus · keeping, as Pontius expresses it, the vigil of their bishop's passion.

The next morning, the 14th of September, he was led to the proconsul’s palace, surrounded by a mixed multitude of people, and a strong guard of soldiers. After some time the proconsul came out into the hall; and Cyprian being set before him, he said, “ Art thou Thascius Cyprian ?” Cyprian the bishop answered, “ I am.” Galerius Maximus the proconsul said, “ The most sacred emperors have commanded thee to sacrifice.” Cyprian the bishop answered, “ I do not sacrifice.” Galerius Maximus said, “Be well advised.” Cyprian the bishop answered, “ Do as thou art commanded : in so just a cause there needs no consultation.” The proconsul

having advised with his council, spoke to Cyprian in angry terms, as being an enemy to the * gods, and a seducer of the people ; and then read his sentence out of a tablet : “ It is decreed, • that Thascius Cyprian be beheaded.” Cyprian the bishop said, “God be thanked.” This is the account given in the Acts of St. Cyprian's passion ; and “ Pontius writes to the like purpose.

Cyprian was then led away to the field of Sexti, a' large level spot of ground, encompassed with trees, the boughs of which were then loaded with spectators; and, in the presence of a great number of people, Cyprian was there beheaded, according to the sentence pronounced

Lactantius, who himself & greatly commends the style of St. Cyprian's works, says they were despised by the learned heathens that had looked into them: and informs us, that." he had heard a person, a man of considerable eloquence, altering one of the letters of his name, call him Coprian ; thereby intimating, that when he was a man of good parts, and qualified for great things, he had followed silly fables. But it seems to me reasonable to suppose, that Cyprian, who was a man of bright natural parts, and no inconsiderable acquired abilities, had well informed himself, and had received some good evidence of those principles, for the sake of which he abandoned a reputable and profitable employment, if not an honourable and plentiful station, without

any worldly prospects whatever; and in the service of which he spent ten years, during his episcopate, in great labour and much opposition ; and at length cheerfully resigned his life, as a confirmation of the truth of them, and as an example of constancy, by which bis people, persons whom he tenderly loved, might be induced to suffer any thing rather than deny them. The whole tenor of Cyprian’s life, after his conversion, was peaceable, charitable, and beneficial to men of all characters in distress; the manner of his death, undaunted, willing, and ready, without seeking it, are a very valuable testimony in behalf of the truth and excellence of the principles of the Christian religion.

I have no design to draw at length Cyprian's character. What has been said just now may suffice. However, I cannot forbear observing, in the words of 'Mr. Marshall, for giving my readers some farther idea of our author, that he was the bishop of a most flourishing church, the

upon him.

à Plebs interim tota sollicita, ne per noctem aliquid sine e Et ita idem Cyprianus in agrum Sexti productus est. Act. conscientiâ sui fieret, ante fores principis excubabat. Con- Pass. p. 13. cessit ei divina tunc bonitas, vere digno, ut Dei populus etiam Ipse autem locus æqualis est ubi pati contigit, ut arboriin sacerdotis passione vigilaret. id. ib.

bus ex omni parte densatis sublime spectaculum præbeat. Sed 6. Egressus est domum principis,.... et agminibus multitu- pot enormitatem spatii longioris visu denegato per confusam dinis mixtæ ex omni parte vallatus est. Sic autem comitatui nimis turbam, personæ faventes in ramos arborum repserant. ejus infinitus exercitus adhærebat, quasi ad expugnandam mor

Pont. p. 10. tem manu factâ veniretur. ib. p.9.

& Unus igitur pracipuus, et clarus extitit Cyprianus, quo¿ Cumque oblatus fuisset," Galerius Maximus proconsul niam et magnam sibi gloriam ex artis oratoriæ professione Cypriano episcopo dixit : “Tu es Thascius Cyprianus ?' Cy- quæsierat... Erat enim ingenio facili, copioso, suavi, et (quæ prianus episcopus respondit, “Ego :' Galerius Maximus dixit, sermonis maxima est virtus) aperto ; ut discernere nequeas, • Jusserunt te sacratissimi imperatores cæremoniari.' Cyó utrumne ornatior in eloquendo, an facilior in explicando, an prianus episcopus dixit, ' Non facio.' Galerius Maximus ait, potentior in persuadendo fuerit. Lact. Divin. Inst. lib. v. cap.

Consule tibi.' Cyprianus episcopus respondit, . Fac quod 1. sub. fin. tibi præceptum est : in re tam justà nulla est consultatio.' 1 Hic tamen placere ultra verba, sacramentum ignorantiGalerius Maximus, collocutus cum consilio, sententiam vix bus non potest..... Denique a doctis hujus seculi, quibus ægre dixit verbis hujusmodi : Diu sacrilegâ mente vixisti, et forte ejus scripta innotuerunt, derideri solet. Audivi ego

plurimos nefariæ tibi conspirationis homines aggregásti. ...' quemdam hominem sane disertum, qui eum immutatâ unà Et his dictis, decretum ex tabella recitavit, In Thascium literâ Coprianum vocaret ; quasi quod elegans ingenium, et Cyprianu m gladio animadverti placet.' Cyprianus episcopus melioribus rebus aptum, ad aniles fabulas contulisset. ib. dixit, · Deo gratias.' Act. Pass. p. 13.

i See Mr. Marshall's preface, p. 14. Pont. p 9. f, 10. init.

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metropolis of a province; that he was a man made for business, had a diligent and active spirit, and talents equal to the charge wherewith he was entrusted ; and I would add, that he was not only a man of great authority in his life-time, but likewise of great reputation afterwards. This has appeared in part from what has been taken from Jerom and Lactantius. They who are desirous of knowing more of the praises that have been given Cyprian by ancient writers, may consult · Ruinart and • Tillemont. I shall observe only a few things from St. Augustine. In his time the day of St. Cyprian's martyrdom was a festival not only at Carthage, but in other places of Africa, as appears from five sermons of Augustine, still extant, delivered by him on that day at Hippo. It may be concluded from what he says, as well as from some other ancient writers, that the anniversary of Cyprian's martyrdom was then observed also in other parts out of Africa. Augustine calls Cyprian a most agreeable writer, as well as a blessed martyr. He assures us, that ' Cyprian was then generally well known in the world, partly for the constancy and fortitude of his sufferings, partly for the charms of his most agreeable writings. A remark of Augustine & upon the difference of style in Cyprian's works may be esteemed a proof both of his own judgment, and of the judgment and abilities of our author in that way.

As my history of St. Cyprian is but short, I would refer my readers to Cave, and others, who have written his life more at large; and particularly to ' Le Clerc, who has done the same, in the free way. I should have been well pleased to insist upon Cyprian's visions and revelations; but it would require more room than I can spare here: besides, though I have sometimes taken notice of such things, as in the histories of Gregory of Neocæsarea, and Dionysius of Alexandria, and perhaps occasionally in some other chapters, that I might not leave this matter altogether untouched ; there is another place in this work, where it may be proper to observe distinctly the continuance of miraculous powers, or extraordinary gifts of the Spirit, in the church after the time of the apostles; and for that place I reserve the farther consideration of Cyprian's claims to a share in such gifts.

II. St. Cyprian's works are distributed into two parts; Tracts, or Treatises ; and Epistles. The tracts are upon a variety of subjects. Some are defences of the Christian religion against Jews and Gentiles, some upon Christian morality, others concerning the discipline of the church. His epistles were written partly in the time of his retirement under the Decian persecution, partly afterwards. With them are joined divers epistles of others sent to him : they are very useful and entertaining ; I need not give a more particular account of them. However, it may not be amiss to observe, that St. Jerom' does not reckon Cyprian to have written any commentaries upon scripture; though in a chain upon St. Luke's gospel, mentioned by Montfaucon, Cyprian is said to be one of the ancient writers, from whom those interpretations are taken. James le Long" has put Cyprian among the commentators upon scripture; but it is only for the sake of his treatise on the Lord's Prayer.

Though I give no account of the several editions of St. Cyprian's works, I may be allowed to

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* Admonit. in Vit. et Act. S. Cyprian, ap. Act. Mart. Sin tissimâ fecunditate facundiæ, sed profusione nimiâ gravitati et. Sel. p. 198, 199.

displicent. Qui vero hæc amant, profecto eos qui non ita + Tillem. St. Cyprien. art. 62, 63, 64.

dicunt, sed castigatius eloquuntur, non posse ita eloqui existiSerm. 309. ...313. T. v. Bened.

mant, non judicio illa evitare. Quapropter ille vir sanctus et • Quis enim hodie, non dicam in hac nostra civitate, sed posse se ostendit sic dicere, et volle, quoniam postmodum plane per Africam totam, transmarinasque regiones, non nunquam. Aug. I)e Doctr. Chr. lib. iv. cap. 13. n. 31. Christianus solum, sed Paganus aut Judæus, aut etiam Hære. h Cay. Hist. Lit. and Lives of the Primitive Fathers. Tilticus, possit inveniri, qui non nobiscum dicat Natalem Mar- lemont Mem. T. iv. Part. i. Du Pin Bibl. Ruinart. Act. tyris Cypriani ? Aug. Serm. 310. al. de Diversis. 113. in. Mart. Sinc. et Sel. Vit. S Cypr. a Benedictino adornat. Bas

Nonne adspicimus, quanto auro et argento et veste suf- nag. Annal, Pagi Crit. Pearson Ann. Cypr. Dodwell. Diss. farcinatus exierit de Ægypto Cyprianus, doctor suavissimus, Cypr. et martyr beatissimus? quanto Lactantius, &c. Aug. de Doctr, i Bibl. Univ. T. xii. p. 207, &c. Chr. lib. ii. cap. 40. n. 61,

k It is said there are some letters of St. Cyprian at Venice, Verum quia non solum dixit quæ audirentur, sed scripsit which have not been yet printed. Vid. Montfaucon. Diar. etiam quæ legerentur ;. ... et innotuit regionibus multis, par. Ital. cap. 5. p. 75.

per famam fortissimæ passionis, partim per dulcedinem Beatus Cyprianus instar fontis purissimi, dulcis incedit et suavissimæ lectionis. Serm. 310. sub. fin.

placidus ; et quum totus sit in exhortacione virtutum occupaEst tale aliquid in epistolâ beatissimi Cypriani. ... Ait ergo tus persecutionum angustiis, de scripturis divinis nequaquam quodam in loco: Petamus hanc sedem : dant secessum disseruit. Hieron. ad Paulin. Ep. 49. [al. 73.] p. 567. in. vicina secreta : ubi dum erratici palmitom lapsus pendulis m Vid. Bibl. Coislin. p. 251. " nexibus per arundines bajulas repunt, viteam porticum fron-. * Vid. Le Long Bibl. Sa. T. ii. p. 693. Paris. 1723. *dea tecla fecerunt.' Non dicuntur ista nisi mirabiliter affluen


observe here, that` we have a beautiful edition of them in English, with useful and valu able notes, by the late Mr. Nathaniel Marshall, published ip the year 1717.

Some pieces have been ascribed to St. Cyprian which are not his; but learned men are now so generally agreed what are his genuine works, what not, that I need not enlarge upon that point. As several of those tracts which formerly had been reckoned his, and some others, are still usually bound up together with his works, and are useful, and written by good hands, I shall make some extracts out of them in a chapter apart, and there give a short history or account of each of them.

All St. Cyprian's works, both tracts and epistles, abound with texts of the scriptures of the Old and New Testament. But there is one tract, entitled Testimonies against the Jews, to Quirinus, in three books; which tract is little more than a collection of texts of scripture under several heads; for there is nothing in it properly Cyprian's, beside two short prefaces, and those several heads, or the titles of the chapters of the work, and the names of the books of scripture, from which he takes his testimonies. The genuineness of this tract has been called in question by some, particularly by Rivet. Here books of scripture are expressly quoted by name, which is seldom done in Cyprian's other works. Here also texts of scripture are cited, according to different readings from those found in his other writings. Nevertheless, it is generally thought by learned men, that these objections are of no great moment, this'tract having been quoted as St. Cyprian's by several ancient writers. Bishop Pearson . placeth these books in the year 248. The learned Benedictine before mentioned supposeth likewise that they were written whilst Cyprian was presbyter, or soon after he was made bishop; and he offers some arguments that deserve consideration. Bishop Fell thinks this one of the first of St. Cyprian's tracts; and upon the ground of this opinion, concerning the early date of this work, is founded a solution of the difficulty taken from the different citations of 'scripture, in this and other writings of this father, Mr. Simon, who dislikes Fell's solution, gives 6 another; but whether it be better than the bishop's I cannot say. . Basnage, who makes no doubt of the genuineness of this tract, and even thinks Pontius has referred to it, supposeth it written when Cyprian was bishop, and after the Decian persecution. Stephen Baluze maintains the genuineness of this work ; but then at the same time he allows that it has been much interpolated. The words of one, who was well furnished

a I have made but little use of Mr. Marshall's translation. Marshall was not aware of. Pe this remark will be All my passages out of St. Cyprian, except perhaps two or illustrated and confirmed by somewhat to be taken notice of three, or four at most, were collected, translated, and put in by and by, at numb. 6. the order they are now in, before I was acquainted with it. o. Si tamen libri illi (ad Quirinum] sunt Cypriani omnes. However, I have made some improvements by Mr. Marshall's Aliquos enim ad Quirinum scripsisse, ex Hieronymo, et aliis, performance, and have now taken care to make several refer- qui eorum mentionem faciunt, probavit Pamelius. Sed an ences to him, which I hope the attentive reader will perceive. sint ii ipsi libri, quos habemus, dubium reddunt citationes libro As I have not read over Mr. Marshall's translation, my testi- rum, quas his formulis enuntiat, præter Cypriaui in aliis opusmony can be of no great value. But so far as I have had culis morem, xata Lucam, xata Marcum, &c. Rivet. Crit. Leisure and opportunity to read and examine it, it appears to Sacr.. 1. ii. cap. 15. p. 1097. e,together with the notes, a work of much labour and study, c Vid. Notas Ed. Oxon. p. 17. Du Pin. Bibl. Tillemont. and to deserve great commendation. Nevertheless there is a Tom. iv. St. Cyprien. art. 64. et note 54. particular or two, which I must remark. Mr. Marshall, in d Ann. Cypr. p. 9. num. 1. his preface, p. 17, 18, expresseth himself in these very words. e Vit. S. Cyprian. p. 44. num. 4. I know not whether it be worth while to take notice of one .. varietatis istius....., vix alia ratio reddi poterit, particular liberty, which I have taken, of prefixing the title quam quod diversis temporibus scriberentur ; et proinde diof saint to the several apostles and evangelists, as they occur cendum tractatum hunc reliqua omnia quæ sequuntur præverin our author, though he himself has named them simply tisse. Edit. Ox. in not. p 17. and plainly, without any such appellation. And after- & Il [l'Evêque d' Oxford) n'a pas pris garde, que cette anwards he says : 'I have here and there also expressed my, cienne traduction, qui étoit entre les mains du peuple, et qu'

author's sense in the language of holy scripture, where he on lisoit dans les églises, n' empêchoit point ceux qui savoient • himself did not mean to quote it. But then in such cases, I la langue Grecque de traduire le Grec des Septante, et celui

never refer to the passage in the margin, as I always do du Nouveau Testament, á leur manière, quand ils le jugeoient. where he particularly cites any verse or chapter of the in- à propos. C'est principalement à cela qu' on doit attribuer spired writers.' But it appears to me, that both these are cette diversité de version des mêmes passages, qui est dans les unwarrantable and unjustifiable liberties, not proper to be differens livres de ce savant Evêque. R. Simon Critique des taken in translating ancient authors. With regard to the Comm. du N. T. chap, i. p. 15. first, though of no very great importance ; it seems to me to b Ni a vero aberret conjectura, non ex titulo, quo. Quirinus be rather better to shew primitive writers in their own original afficitur, sed ex verbis Pontii, librum ab episcopo Cypriano, simplicity and plainness, as near as possible. With regard to sed extincta Decii persecutione, confectum fuisse censemus; the other liberty, which Mr. Marshall says he has taken, it “Quis emolumentum gratiæ proficientis ostenderit?" quibus appears to me altogether unjustifiable. Ordinary readers will ipnuit libros ad Quirinum, quorum ad præfationem digitum be liable to be misled by that method : and I believe it must Pontius inlendisse videtur. Başn. An. 258. num. 14 be attended with some bad consequences, which good Mr.

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