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• Cyril's, nor Victor's, nor any other particular author's; but is a collection out of many fathers:' which way of speaking seems to me not to be exact; for though it be a collection out of several, and a kind of chain, that collection was made by some one author. And since it is evident, that it is not Origen’s; and very probable, that it is not Cyril's; it may be titly allowed to be Victor's, to whom it is ascribed in most manuscripts.

2. There are in it divers things which to me appear well worthy of notice. Du Pin says: • This author confines himself to the literal and historical sense, which he illustrates by very sólid • and judicious remarks.' There has been an edition of it in Greek and Latin; but as I have it not, I must content myself with the Latin translation, in the Bibliotheca Patrum.

3. At the very beginning, the author owns, that his Commentary was collected out of several. Many, he says, had written Commentaries upon the gospels of Matthew and John; a few only upon Luke's; none at all upon Mark's, so far as he could find, upon careful enquiry into the writings of the ancients : he determined, therefore, to put together, in a short compass, what ecclesiastical writers had occasionally said in their works, by way of explication of this gospel.

4. That is a good testimony to the four gospels. The composer of this work then proceeds: This - Mark, called also John, who wrote a gospel after Matthew, was son of Mary, mentioned • in the Acts of the apostles, in whose house at Jerusalem the apostles were wont to meet. [See • Acts xii. 12...17.) For a while, as appears from the same book of the Acts, he accompanied • his relation Barnabas, and Paul; but when he came to Rome, he joined Peter, and followed • him; for which reason he is particularly mentioned by Peter in his canonical epistle. (1 Pet.

v. 13.] Mark is also mentioned by Paul in his epistle to the Colossians [iv. 10.); and in his • second to Timothy. [2 Tim. iv. 11.] Mark, therefore, for a while dispersed the seed of the • heavenly doctrine, which he had received from the apostles, as elsewhere, so also at Rome; but • when he was obliged to go from thence, and was earnestly desired by the believers at Rome to • write a history of the preaching of the heavenly doctrine, he readily complied with their request. This is said to have been the occasion of writing the gospel according to Mark.'

5. Here we see whom this writer thought the evangelist Mark to be. He agrees with many ancient writers, whom we have already consulted, in saying, that Mark wrote his gospel at Rome, at the earnest request of the believers there; and he confirms the supposition of the late date of Mark's gospel, in that it was not written till after his acquaintance with the apostle Peter at Rome.

6. This Commentary contains many observations for reconciling the several evangelists; which seems to be the main design of it.

7. The author supposes Mark to write by inspiration. After which he presently adds an observation from Origen, upon the words of ver. 2, of this gospel : “ As it written in the prophets:” or, as in some copies, in Isaiah the prophet.'

8. He says, that 'Levi, in Mark ii. 14, and Luke v. 27, is the same with Matthew, as he calls himself, Matth. ix. 27.

9. Upon Mark iii. 7, 8, where it is said: “ And a great multitude followed him from Galilee, and from Judea,” and other places, he observes, that s the evangelists did not aim to

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· Vid. Fabric. Bib. Gr. T. v. p. 235.

cum alibi, tum Romæ quoque; ad tempus proseminavit. At b Victor, Presbyter Antiochenus, in sacrosanctum J. C. vero cum alio jam avocaretur, ab iisque, qui Romæ Christo Evangelium secundum Marcum. Ap. Bib. PP. Lugdun. T. per fidem adjuncti fuerunt, ut salutaris prædicationis seriem iv. p. 370. . . 414.

scripto exponeret, enixe rogaretur, haud gravatim annuit. Quandoquidem permulti in Matthæi et Joannis, pauci Atque hinc evangelium, quod secundum Marcum inscribitur, vero in Lucæ, nulli autem omnino, ut equidem arbitror, in natum traditur. Ibid. H. Marci evangelium scripserunt: (Certe veterum monumento- • Evangelista Marcus, Spiritu illo, qui e sublini in hominum rum indices studiose evolvens, nullum qui illud disseruisset, in corda demittere solet, afflatus, a propbetico oraculo evangehodiernum usque diem comperi :) visum est mihi, quæ eccle- lium orditur. In Marc, cap. 1. ib. p. 371. A. siä doctores sparsim et per partes in præsentem evangelistam f Est autem Levi hic idem omnino cum evangelista Mate annotârunt, in unum quasi corpus redigere, succinctamque in thæo. Et quidem Marcus et Lucas nomen, quod illi familiare lioc ipsum quoque evangelium explanationem conscribere. erat, primævâ appellatione obnubunt. At ipse vero Levi, Ibid. p. 370. G.

dum evangelii historiam contexit, palam quæ ad se pertined Cæterum Marcus hic, qui alio nomine Joannes appellatus bant, denuntiat. Ait enim : Cum transiret Jesus, &c. p. est, post Matthæum evangelii historiam contexuit. ... Et quidem initio, ut in iisdem illis apostolorum Actis proditum 8 Cum Evangelista Marcus magnam hominum turbam exstat, adhærebat Barnabæ cognato suo et Paulo. Verum Christum a Galilæa consecutam dicit, brevi compendio multa ubi Romam venisset, secutus est Petrum. Quare is in priori simul comprehendit. Neque enim ambitiose, magnoque suâ canonicâ ad hunc modum de illo scribit. ... Marcus verborum apparatu et poinpâ verba de Christo facere soliti itaque cælestis doctrinæ semen, quod ab apostolis hauserat, sunt evangelistæ, singula videlicet quæ vel aicta vel facta

375. B.

aggrandize Christ, their master, by writing prolixly every thing said and done by him; but • have omitted many of his words and works; and have used a concise and compendious manner • of writing.'

10. Here are many good observations upon the history of the cure of the damoniae, related Mark v. 1......20. When the dæmoniac answered, his name was Legion; he says, that word should not be understood to denote any certain number, but many, or a great multitude.

11. In his remarks upon the history of the woman with the hemorrhage, related ch. v. 21—34, he observes, that Mark has particulars omitted by Matthew.

12. Upon Mark vi. 7-13, particularly ver. 13, he says, that the like history is in Luke; : but that Mark is the only evangelist who speaks of the disciples “ anointing with oil them that were sick:” which method of healing is also mentioned by James, in his epistle.' See James v. 13-15.

13. Upon ch. v. ver. 39, he says: “ It was owing to modesty that our Lord said of Jairus's daughter; “She is not dead, but sleepeth:” though she was really dead, and he intended to • raise her up to life.'

14. He particularly considers the history in Mark x. 35—40. I put in the margin ' a part of his observations. The sum of what he says upon ver. 39, 40, is, that Christ is the judge, and the dispenser of all rewards; but the first places in his heavenly kingdom will not be disposed of by affection and favour, but shall be given to the most virtuous.

15. Upon Mark xi. 15—17, he argues, that Christ twice drove the buyers and sellers out of the temple. But some, it seems, thought that this was done by our Lord but once only; and at the time mentioned by St. John at the beginning of his gospel.

16. The evangelist John is here called the Divine.

17. The composer of this work seems not to have had, in his copies, our conclusion of St. Mark's gospel; for he explains the beginning of the sixteenth chapter of St. Mark's gospel to the end of the eighth verse, and no farther; there ends his commentary: nevertheless, he was acquainted with the remainder. And in his remarks upon the first verse of the 16th chapter, he says: “In 'some copies of Mark's gospel it is said: “ Now when Jesus was risen early the first • day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene:” and what follows. But that seemed • to be contrary to what is said by Matthew ch. xxviii

. 1: therefore, some had supposed Mark's gospel to have been interpolated: but he thinks there is no necessity for admitting that supposition; and he proposes a method of reconciling the difference.'

Somewhat like this may be seen in an “ Oration of Gregory Nyssen upon Christ's Resurrec

fuerant, prolixâ oratione exaggerando; verum, quo auditorum alius quispiam accesserit, qui una cum martyrio omnem aliam infirmitati consulant, oppositum sectati, omnia breviter et virtutem secum deportaverit, aut certe multo plura, multoque concise narrant. Et quæ sequuntur. p. 376. G.

excellentiora virtutum ornamenta in medium attulerit, quam · Vid. p. 380. G. ..381. G.

vos, ille utique præcedet. Neque enim quia vos amo, aliisque b. Et dicit ei: Legio mihi nomen est.' Non dicit nume- certâ quadam ratione antepono, ob id opulentiore repulso, rum præcise, sed simplici voce magnam adesse multitudinem primatum vobis assignabo. Illis igitur ejusmodi primatus indicat; siquidem exacta numeri discussio nihil ad rei quæ paratus est, qui per illustriora opera primis sedibus capessenquærebatur notitiam faciebat. p. 381. E.

dis præ cæteris idoneos se reddiderunt, &c. p. 397. D. E. • Quin hoc quoque signum Matthæus compendio absolvit. &.... Sunt tamen qui dicant, tres evangelistas, dum Christi Multa namque prætermittit ille, quæ Marcus addit. Marcus ad Hierosolymorum civitatem, ejusdemque in templum inenim præter alia scribit, Dominum retro conversum, quisnam gressum describunt, accuratâ temporis ratione missa, reni illam ietigisset, sciscitatum, mulieremque exterritam, tremen- ipsam tantum prosecutos esse : Joannem vero, qui historiam temque seipsam prodidisse, atque ita tandem a Christo Domino illam cæteris diligentius enarrat, satis aperte inisinoare, Chrisaudivisse: Fides tua te salvam fecit. p. 382. B.

tum Dominum ea primo ascensu patrasse, que reliqui paullo d His similia exponit Lucas quoque.

Verum quod de ante mortem contigisse commemorant, ke. p. 396. F. G. mysticâ unctione et olei usu hic subjungitur, hoc inter evan- Ut Joannes theologus loquitur. p. 376. G. gelistas solus Marcus commemorat. Interion quæ apostolus At quia in quibusdam evangelii Marci exemplaribus Jacobus in seâ canonicà narrat, ab his non dissentiunt. (Jac. habetur :· Surgens autem Jesus mane primo Sabbati

, appav. 14, 15.] In Marc. cap. 6. ver. 13. p. 383. F.

‘ruit primo Mariæ Magdalenæ,' &c. Hoc autem illi adver• Quin per hoc quoque, quod puellam extinctam dormire sari videtur quod legitur apud Matthæum. Hic enim' asserit, neque statim se illam exsuscitaturum promittit, omnem * pere Sabbati' Dominum resurrexisse scribit. Propterea fastum, omnemque inanem jactantiam ab opere illo secludit. comperti sunt, qui hunc Marci locum a falsariis vitiatum Ille ergo omni superbià vanâque gloriâ vacuitatem consecta- existiment. Verum, ne ad hic confugere videamur, ad quod tur. At vero operis excellentia famam illius longe lateque cuivis confugere proclive est, Marci contextum uno duntaxat diffundit. p. 382. F. G.

commate ab eâ quam offert difficultate vindicare possumns. "Quod itaque Christus dicit, ejusmodi est. Moriemini P. 414. A. B. quidem mei causà, eritisque in passione socii. At hoc interim * De Chr. Resurr. Orat. 2. p. 411. Tom. iii. sat non est, ut primas sedes jure vobis vindicetis. Si enim

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tion, and likewise in a Harmony of the Evangelists ascribed to Severus, who was bishop of Antioch. in 513, and afterwards; which has been published by · Montfaucon.

They who are curious may consult Mill, Bengelius, Wetstein, Wolfius, and others, upon this point.

18. I have selected out of this Commentary a few only, of many observations, that deserve notice. Upon the whole, it is a good performance: and we may hence perceive, that there were some, before our times, who read the scriptures with care and understanding.

19. My readers, I hope, will not omit to recollect, that beside the testimony to the four gospels, we have seen in this work quotations of the Acts, of several epistles of the apostle Paul, and of the first epistle of Peter. I would here add, that. the epistle to the Hebrews is quoted in this Commentary; and the epistle of James.

20. This writer, like many other of the ancients, asserts · free-will in strong terms.

C H A Pa CXXIII.

INNOCENT I. BISHOP OF ROME.

1. INNOCENT the First succeeded Anastasius, in the year 402. The seventh and last decree, or article of a letter of his to Exuperius bishop of Tholouse, contains a catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testament, which are in the canon.

2. The scriptures of the New Testament are these: four books of the gospels; fourteen epistles of the apostle Paul; three epistles of John; two epistles of Peter; an epistle of Jude; • an epistle of James; the Acts of the apostles ; the apocalypse of John. After which, mention is made of some other writings, which ought to be rejected and condemned.

3. It should be observed, that many of Innocent's letters are suspected to be supposititious ; this in particular, and especially the last decree or article in it: for it is not very easy to conceive, what reason there should be for Innocent to send a catalogue of books of scripture to Exuperius: and it may not be amiss to take notice, that this letter of Innocent is not represented to be written, as in council, but only upon his own authority,

4. Nevertheless, after all, we cannot forbear to observe, with some satisfaction, that this catalogue of scripture is exactly the same with our own.

a Vid. Cav. in Severo. H. L. T. i. p. 499.

Severi, Archiep. Antiocheni. Concordantia Evangelistarum circa ea quæ in sepulcro Domini contigerunt. Item de Sabbatis, et de varietate Exemplarium S. Marci Evangelistæ. Ap. Montf. Bibl. Coislin. p. 68....75. Vid. in specie,

c P. 372. D. • Vid. supra, p. 627. not. • Vid. p. 377. A. et p. 379. G. H.

Qui vero recipiantur in canone sanctarum scripturarum, brevis adnexus ostendit. ... Item Novi Testamenti : evange

liorum libri quatuor, apostoli Pauli epistolæ 14, epistola Joannis tres, epistolæ Petri duæ, epistola Judæ, epistola Jacobi, Actus apostolorum, Apocalypsis Joannis. Cætera autem .... non solum repudianda, verum etiam noveris esse damnanda. Innoc. ad Exuper. Ep. Tholos. ap. Labb. Conc. T. Ü.

8 Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 379. Basnag. Hist. de l'Eglise 1. viii. c. 8. 8. vi. p. 439. Beaus. Hist. de Manich. T. i. p. 359.

p. 74.

p. 1256.

C H AP. CXXIV.

PAULINUS, BISHOP OF NOLA, IN ITALY.

I. His time. II. His testimony to the scriptures.

1. Pontrus Meropius Paulinus, or Paulinus Nolanus, ' placed by Cave at the year 393, was born about 358: ordained presbyter in 393; bishop of Nola in Campania, in 409, as some think; or, as Pagi argues, and with great appearance of probability, in 403. He died in 431, in the 78th year of his age.

II. I observe in him a few things :
1. His works, in prose, abound with texts of scripture, quoted, or alluded to.

2. As Paulinus quotes Ps. ciii. or civ. ver. 18, agreeably to Jerom's version, I place the quotation below, with a critical remark of 4 Jerom upon that text.

3. Paulinus often quotes the Canticles: I place below two of his quotations of that book. 4. He quotes' the book of Ecclesiasticus with great respect, as written by Solomon.

5. In a letter, supposed to be written in the year 400, to Amandus, then presbyter, and afterwards bishop of Bourdeaux, and successor to Delphinus, Paulinus speaks after this manner : • He says, that John outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre, because he was the

youngest: he also says, that it had been handed down by tradition, that John survived all the • other apostles, and wrote the last of the four evangelists, and so as to confirm their most • certain histories; but though he was last in time, he was first in point of sublimity: he there also • speaks of John as writer of the Revelation : and as he proceeds, he observes, that "in the • beginning of St. John's gospel all heretics are confuted, particularly Arius, Sabellius, Photinus, • Marcion, and the Manichees.

6. Paulinus often quotes the ' book of the Acts, and all St. Paul's epistles, particularly that * to the Hebrews.

• Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. Fabric. ad Gennad. cap. 48. Pagi sed majoris ævi pondere tardiorem, ad sepulcrum Domini Ann. 431, n. 53. Basnag. Ann. 394. n. 10. 11. 432. 0. 5. præcucurrit; ut resurrectionem corporis prior inspiceret, qui Paulin. Vit. ad Calc. opp. edit. Paris. 1685. Du Pin. T. iii. solus in pectore recumbebat. Unde geminos in alveum cordis p. 146. Tillem. Mem. T. xiv.

sui traxerat fontes, quos in orbem idem postea revelationis et Ann. 403. n. 10... 13. Vid. Eund. A. 431, n. 53, evangelii præco diffudit. ... Idem, ultra omnium tempora • Montes' enim, inquit,'excelsi cervis, et petra refugium apostolorum ætate productâ, postremus evangelii scriptor fuisse herinaceis.' Ad Amand. Ep. 9. al. 22. n. 4. p. 45. Paris. memoratur; ut sicut de ipso vas electionis ait: [Gal. ii.] quasi 1685. 4to.

columna firmamentum adjiceret fundamentis ecclesiæ, priores d. Petra refugium berinaceis.'] Pro quo in Hebræo positum evangelii scriptores consonâ auctoritate confirmans; ultimus est Sphannim,' et omnes youporysunijas voce simili transtu- auctor libri tempore, sed primus in capite sacramenti. Quippe lerunt exceptis Septuaginta, qui · lepores' interpretati sunt. qui solus e quatuor Aluminibus ex ipso summo divini capitis Sciendum autem, animal esse non majus hericio, habens simi- fonte decurrens de nube sublimi sonat: 'In principio erat tudem muris et ursi. Unde in Palæstinâ apxtollus dicitur; verbum.' Transcendit Möysen. ... Iste et evangelistis cæteris, et magna est in istis regionibus hujus generis abundantia; vel ab humano Salvatoris ortu, vel a typico legis sacrificio, semperque in cavernis petrarum, et terræ foveis habitare con- vel a prophetico præcursoris Baptistæ præconio evangelium sueverunt. Ad Sunn, et Fret. Ep. 135. T. ii. p. 658.

resurrectionis exorsis, altius volans, penetravit et cælos. Ad quâ et in Canticis Canticorum voce blanditur: ‘Co- Amand. Ep. 21. al. 24. n. 1, 2. p. 114. lumba," inquit, mea, perfecta mea, quoniam caput meum Joannes igitur, beatus Dominici pectoris cubator,... · repletum est rore, et crines mei gittis noctis.' (cap. v. 2.] inebriatus Spiritu Sancto,... ab ipso intimo et infinito omniom Ad Sever. Ep. 23. al. 3, et 4. n. 33. p. 143.-Hæc oscula principiorum principio evangelii fecit exordium. Quo uno sponso suo jam tunc parabat ecclesia, quando cantabat : omnia diaboli, quæ in hæreticis latrant, ora clauduntur. Ibid. • Osculetur me ab osculis oris sui.' [cap. i. 2.] Ib. n. 37. n. 4. p. 115.

.. sicut illi in Actibus apostolorum, qui, beati Petri Nam in Ecclesiastico per Salomonem loquitur divina sa- prædicatione compuncti, crediderunt in eum quem crucifixepientia: 'Quia multi periclitati sunt auri causâ, et facta est rant. Ad Aug. Ep. 50. al. 43. n. 5. p. 295.

in facie illius perditio ipsorum.' [cap. xxxi. 6.] Ad Milit. k Itidem apostolus (Eph. vi.) spiritualiter exprimens arma Ep. 25. al. 39. p. 168.

cælestia,. . .gladium Spiritùs dicit verbum Dei, de quo ad 8 Subvenit itaque nobis, et de evangelio adolescentis apos- Hebræos ait: Vivus est sermo Dei, et efficax.” (Hebr. iv. tali beata velocitas illa, quà Petrum affectu currendi parem, 12.] Ad Aug. Ep. 50. n. 17. p. 302..

i

P. 146.

7. He a celebrates St. Luke as a physician for soul and body; whence it may be concluded, he supposed him to be spoken of in Col. iv. 14. At the same time he ascribes to St. Luke, two books; undoubtedly meaning his gospel, and the Acts of the apostles.

8. He often quotes the epistle of St. James, the first epistle of St. Peter, and the first epistle of St. John; but I do not recollect any quotations in him of the second epistle of St. Peter, or the epistle of St. Jude, or the second and third of St. John ; though it may be reckoned highly probable, that they were all received by him.

9. He often quotes, or refers to the book of the Revelation, which is ascribed by him to the apostle John, in the passage above cited, and elsewhere.

10. He either read, or at least understood, the apostle's exhortation in 1 Cor. ix. 24, in this manner : So run, that ye may all obtain.'

11. I put also in the margin - his translation of that expression, 1 Cor. ix. 27; under my body.”

12. He quotes 1 Pet. ii. 23, after this manner: - But yielded (or committed] himself,' unto death, to him that judgeth unjustly."

13. In a letter written to St. Augustine, in 410, or f soon after, he 8 asks of him the solution of divers questions, taken out of the Psalms, the apostle, and the gospel : those from the apostle are taken out of the epistle to the Ephesians, to the Romans, and other epistles of Paul.

" I keep

C H A Pa CXXV.

PELAGIUS.

1. Cave speaks of Pelagius at " the year 405, the supposed time of his publishing his heresy : Basnage,' at 412: Pagi, at 410, and following years : in whom, as well as in many others, his history may be seen. It is generally allowed, that he was a Britain ; and many think of the country now called Wales. His name was Morgan, or Marigena; which he changed into Pelagius, of more agreeable sound, and the same meaning. His remaining works, beside fragments, or quotations in Augustine, and others, are, an " epistle to Demetrias, written in 413, or 414; a "Commentary upon all St. Paul's epistles, except that to the Hebrews; and, oa Confession of Faith, called Symbolum ad Damasum. The most beautiful edition of Pelagius's Commentaries that I know of, is in the twelfth tome of Le Clerc's edition of Augustine's works, which is an additional tome to the Benedictine edition ; but the edition of these Commentaries, which I shall refer to, is that in the fifth tome of Martianay's edition of Jerom's works.

2. In the Symbol he says, that P he receives the New and Old Testament in the same number of books that the catholic church does. In his Commentaries he vindicates the Old Tes

a Hic medicus Lucas prius arte, deinde loquela.

n. 9. p. 297. Restat ut aliquid et de evangelicis locis suggeBis medicus Lucas. Ut quondam corporis ægros ram beatitudini tuæ. Ib. n. 14. p. 299. Terrenâ curabat ope, et nunc mentibus ægris

" H. L. T. i. p. 381. Composuit gemino vitæ medicamina libro.

i Ann, 412. 17. 7. &c. P. 153. D. S. Felice Natal. 9. ver. 424. &c. h Ann. 410. 11. 32. &c. 1 Poteras, Roma, intentatas tibi illas in Apocalypsi ipinas | See Tillem. Mem. Lc. T. xiii. S. Augustin. Art. 212 non timere, si talia semper ederent munera senatores tui. ..217. Ad. Pamm. Ep. 13. al. 37. n. 15. p. 75.

m In Append. T. ii. Opp. Augustin. Bened. et T. v. Opp. < Quæ causa dicendi apostolo fuit : Sic currite, ut ap- Hieronym. p. 11. ...30. prehendatis omnes.' Quod in agone terreno contra est, ub: Apud Hieron. ibid. p. 925....1106. non potest lucta nisi dispari luctantium sorte finiri, ut unius Ap. Hieron. ib. 122. ... 124. et Baron. Ann. 417. n. 31 gloria alterius ignominia sit. Ad. Sever. Ep. 24. al. 2. n. 15. p. 161. Conf. Theodoret. in loc.

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p Novum et Vetus Testamentum recipimus, in eo librod Lividum facio corpus meum, et in servitutem redigo. rum numero, quem sanctæ catbolicæ ecclesie tradit aucioAd Aug Ep 50, 11. 13. p. 299.

ritas Symb. Expl. ap. Hieron. T. v. p 124. e Ad Aug. Ep. 50. al. 43 n.7. p. 296.

4 Si, clicentibus Manichæis, crudelis asseritur Deus Veteris r See S. Paulin. Art. 49. Tillem. Mem. T. 14.

Testamenti. .. quomodo hoc loco ab apostoło dicitur, a Deo 8 Hæc interim .de Psalmis. Nunc et de apostolo quod. Novi Testamenti vindiciam hominibus inferendanı ? Comm, cumque proponam. Dicit ad Ephesios. Ad Aug. Ep. 50. in Roin, cap. i. p. 928. M. Hieron. T. v,

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