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chapters of St. James and St. Jude to their epistles. He should have taken also the chapter concerning St. Paul, and have placed it before his epistle to the Romans. Why he omitted it, I do not know, unless he thought it too long. Moreover, these chapters, so far as taken, are in
Stephens, and Mill, called Sophronius's. But, if I may be allowed to speak my mind, it seems to me, that those articles had been better put in St. Jerom's own original Latin, even supposing, that the Greek version had been made by his friend Sophronius : but as that is not certain, the version is still less proper. I formerly took the liberty to make some remarks upon some of the testimonies prefixed by Mill to the gospels.
C H A Pa CXIII.
THEODORE, BISHOP OF MOPSUESTIA IN CILICIA.
1. His time and history. II. Accounts of his works, particularly of his commentaries, from Pho
tius and others, and his testimony to the scriptures. III. A fragment concerning the four gospels, with remarks. IV. His character, as a preacher. V. Reflections upon him after his death.
1. THEODORE was mentioned in the chapter of Diodorus of Tarsus. He was descended of an honourable family, and in all probability was a native of the city of Antioch. He was an intimate friend and fellow-disciple of John Chrysostom under Libanius the sophist, and Andragathius the philosopher, and afterwards under the fore-mentioned Diodorus and Carterius.
Sozomen says, that he was well skilled in the sacred scriptures, and in the liberal sciences of the rhetoricians and philosophers. Theodoret' calls him the doctor of the whole church: he says, he was bishop sis and thirty years, and wrote against all heresies, particularly those of Arius, Eunomius, and Apollinarius.
And, as according to Theodoret's account, Theodore died in 429, it is concluded, that : he was ordained in 394. I do not therefore well know, why. Cave placed him as flourishing about the year 407; when, too, he supposeth him to have been bishop so soon as 392. And indeed, there are others also, who think, he' was ordained bishop in 392, and died in 428.
Theodore k had a brother, named Polychronius, who presided with honour over the church of Apamea, and was distinguished by his agreeable manner of preaching, and the holiness of his life.
II. Photius has given an account of several of Theodore's works.
1. The first in order is ' his Defence of Basil against Eunomius, consisting of five and twenty books. • Though his style is not clear,' Photius says, he is full of sense and argument, and • abounds with texts of scripture. He confutes Eunomius, almost word for word; and largely • shews him to have had little skill in profane learning, and yet less in our theology.'
2. The next is a Commentary upon the book of Genesis. Here Photius says, that - Theodore studiously shuns allegorical interpretations, and confines himself to the history. He moreover says, that in this work may be perceived the principles of Nestorianism, though the auihor was before Nestorius.
• Bios-ua7a18 xala u poviny. Ap. Stephan.
• Μοψεεςιας δε της Κιλικων Θεοδαρος, ανηρ και των ιερων βιβλων, και της αλλης παιδειας ρητορων τε και φιλοσοφων ικαVOS ET157,wr, Soz. 1. viii. c. 2. p. 757. A. B.
Θεοδωρος, ο Μούρεσιας επισκοπος, πασης μεν εκκλη0125 disagrados. %... Thdrt. l. v. c. ult.
& Vid. Pagi Ann. 423. xvi. et 427. xii. Et Conf. Asseman. Bib. Or. T. i. p. 400. not. 3.
h Claruit anno 407. Quin si mortis ejus tempus recte assequor, jam ab anno 392 episcopatum tenuit. Obiisse enim videtur anno 428, postquam ecclesiam Mopsuestenam per 36 annos gubernâssct. H. L. T. i. p. 385.
i Vid. Basnag. Ann. 428. 11. v.
I Cod. 4. p. 7.
3. The third • is a small volume in three books, against the Persian Magic, and shewing the preference of true religion. Here again Photius says, that the author favours Nestorianism.
4. The fourth and last is a work in five books, against those who said, that men sin by nature, not by will and choice. He considers it as a doctrine held by those in the west, and * from thence brought into the east, especially by an author, called Aram; who he is I do not • know, who had written several books in defence of it. The opinions of that sect he represents • in this manner. One of them is that men sin by nature, not by choice. By nature, however, • not meaning that, in which Adam was first formed; for that, they say, was good ; but that · which he afterwards had, when he had transgressed, being now bad instead of the good, and • mortal instead of the immortal nature, which he before had. Hence men being bad by nature, • who before were good, now 4 sin by nature, not by choice. Another opinion of theirs, and con* sequent upon that is, that` infants, though newly born, are not free from sin ; forasmuch as • from Adam's trangression a sinful nature, as they express it, is derived to all his posterity : for * this they allege those words, “ I was born in sin," and others. Here also, as Photius proceeds,
appear Nestorian principles, and the notion of Origen concerning the period of the punish•ments of the future state. He' also says, that man was at first made mortal; though death • be represented as the consequence of his transgression, the better to convince us of the evil • of sin. Photius concludes that article, saying, that this writer appeared to have studied the scriptures with care, though in many things he erred from the truth. 5. Photius did not know, who was meant by Aram, nor whether it was a real or fictitious
But learned men are now well satisfied, that: hereby is to be understood St. Jerom: and that in this work Theodore aimed to confute Jerom's three Dialogues against the Pelagians, And it is supposed, that he had also an eye to Augustine.
6. It is observable, that in the copies which Photius had of all these works, they were said to be written by Theodore of Antioch. Nevertheless Photius perceived, that they were written by Theodore bishop of Mopsuestia ; and had good evidence of it from some of his epistles, which he had read.
7. Theodore's works were translated into Syriac ; Ebedjesu gives this account of them: • Theodore' the Commentator composed one and forty tomes.--A Commentary upon the book • of Genesis in three tomes ; upon David in five tomes; upon the Twelve Prophets in two • tomes; upon Samuel (or the first two books of the Kings] in one tome; upon Job in two • tomes; upon Ecclesiastes in one tome; upon Isaiah, and Ezekiel, and Jeremiah, and Daniel, • each in one tome: there putting an end to his labours upon the Old Testament. Matthew he • explained in one tome; Luke and John in two tomes; the Acts of the apostles in one tome; • the epistle to the Romans, the two epistles to the Corinthians, in two tomes; the epistles to • the Galatians, to the Ephesians, to the Philippians, to the Colossians, and the two epistles to • the Thessalonians, both the epistles to Timothy, the epistle to Titus, and to Philemon, and to • the Hebrews; thus * completing his Commentaries upon the whole apostle in five tomes. • Ebedjesu afterwards mentions several other works of Theodore. A book concerning the sacra* ments: one book entitled Of the Faith: one tome Concerning the Priesthood: two tomes
concerning the Holy Spirit: a tome concerning the Incarnation : two tomes against Eunomius : • and two other against an author, who asserted sin to be in our nature: two other against
Magic:-and " moreover five tomes against the Allegorists:—and a book of Jewels, in which his epistles are collected: and a Discourse of Lawgiving, wherewith he put an end to his labours.' * B.67...apion -Cod. 81. p. 200.
Beaus. H. M. T. ii. p. 466, 167. Hod. de Bib. Text. p. 322. • Conf. Theod. de Mops. art. 6. Tillem. T. 12.
στρος τας λείονίας, φυσει και η γνωμη σαιειν τας h Vid. Cod. 177. p. 396. in. Et Conf. Cod. 4. p. 8. cod. 38. ανθρωπος. . Cod. 177. p. 396.
p. 24. cod. 81. p. 200.
Composuit quadraginta et unum tomum, Ebedjesu Catalog. μηδε τα παιδια, κράν αρλ./ενηλα η, μη απηλλαχθαι cap. 19. ap. Asseman. Bib. Οr. Τ. ii. p. 30. &c. αμαρλιας.
k Quinque autem tomis finem imposuit * Ει δε δε το λείειν αυτον, απ' αρχής μεν ενηλον πεπλασ
Commentariis suis in totum Apostolum. θαι τον Αδαμ, ενδειξει δε μονον ένα μισησαμεν την αμαρλιαν,
Ibid. p. 33. σχηματισαι όλο τον Θεον. Ιbid.
1 Ac duo alii adversus asserentem * Vid. T. Ittigii Diss. de Aramo scriptore ecclesiastico anti
Peccatum in nalurâ insitum esse. pelagiano. In App. ad Diss. de Hæresiarchis. p. 466. &c.
n Quinque præterea toinos composuit Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 387. Tillem. Theodor. de M. Art. 7.
Adversus Allegoricos, Mern, T. xii. Asseman. Bib. Or. T. i. p. 402. not. 4.
Et vnum pro Basilio.
8. Simeon, who was bishop of Beth-Arsam, or Arsamopolis, in Persia, from the year of Christ 510 to 525, says, that • Theodore wrote commentaries upon all the books of the Old and New Testament.
9. According to the Edessen Chronicle, he began to write commentaries in the year of Christ 402, or the ninth year of his episcopate.
10. I forbear to transcribe · Gennadius's chapter concerning Theodore ; but would refer to some learned moderns for a farther account of his works. For the present let us make a stand, and review what we have seen in ancient authors.
(1.) Ebedjesu having mentioned Theodore's Commentaries upon the Twelve Prophets, and upon Isaiah, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, and Daniel, adds, that he there put an end to his labours upon the Old Testament. Which may afford an argument, that Theodore did not receive, as sacred and divine scripture, any books written after those of the Jewish canon.
(2.) He is said ' to have spoken in disrespectful terms of the book of Job, and the Canticles. But as those accounts appear among the charges and accusations of enemies, there is, in all probability, some misrepresentation. Moreover, as we have seen in Ebedjesu, he wrote a Commentary upon the book of Job: which may amount to a confutation of one part of that charge.
(3.) Ebedjesu mentions commentaries upon the three gospels only of St. Matthew, St. Luke, and St. John, saying nothing particularly of St. Mark. Nevertheless there can be no question made, but he received four gospels, as other Christians did: and we may see proof of it in a fragment to be alleged presently.
(4.) Theodore, as we are also assured by Ebedjesu, wrote commentaries upon St. Paul's fourteen epistles, particularly upon that to the Hebrews.
(5.) None of the accounts of his commentaries, which we have seen, are sufficient to satisfy us, which of the catholic epistles were received by him. Unquestionably, he received those, which had been all along received by Christians in general. But what was his opinion concern. ing the rest, and concerning the book of the Revelation, does not as yet clearly appear, that I know of.
(6.) Most of Theodore's works are lost. But fragments may be found, chiefly in Latin, and perhaps not fairly represented, in the Acts of the second general council of Constantinople, or the fifth general council, held in 553, as also in Facundus, and in the Greek Chains. We are likewise assured by Fabricius, that ' his Commentary upon the Twelve Prophets is still in being, in manuscript, in the emperor's library at Vienna. D. B. de Montfaucon, in his Diarium Italicum, in his account of things in the library of St. Mark at Venice, speaks * of its being there, and in the library at Vienna, and in the Vatican : of which he speaks again in his
"Dr. Joseph Asseman, in a note upon Ebedjesu's Catalogue, Item librum Margaritarum,
says: Epistolas Pauli omnes a Theodoro fuse explicatas esse, In quo Epistolæ ejus collectæ sunt.
testatur Theodoritus. Præfat. in Comment. in easdem. Bib. Demum Sermonem de Legislatione,
Or. T. i. p. 32. Which led me to consult Theodoret's preQuo finem lucubrationibus suis imposuit.
face to his ommentaries upon St. Paul's Epistles, and his
Ib. p. 34. et 35. argument to the Epistle to the Hebrews. But I have not à Vid. Asseman. Bib. Or. T. i. 341.
found there any mention made of Theodore's Commentaries. A Diodoro accepit Theodorus, Mopsuestiæ in Cilicia, It seems that Dr. Asseman borrowed this from Dr. Cave, qui omnes quidem tum Veteris tum Novi Testamenti libros who still says in the new edition of his H. L. T. i. p. 337, in commentatus est. Sim. Beth-Ars. ap. Assem. ib. p. 348. his account of Theodore's Works : Commentarii in 14 D. c Vid. ib. p. 400.
Pauli Epistolas; quas omnes a Theodoro fuse explicatas esse, d Gennad. de Script. Ec. cap. 12.
auctor est Theodoritus. Præf. in Comm. in Ep. S. Pauli. • Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. Oudin. de Scr. Ec. T. i. p. 895. This mistake is corrected by Fabricius, who seems to have Du Pin. Bib. T. ji p. 90. Tillem. Mem. T. xii. Fabric. had the same fruitless task imposed upon him by Cave, that Bib. Gr. 1. v. c. 33. T. ix. p. 153, &c. Pagi Ann. 423. n. I have bad from Asseman. Quod vero Epistolas Panli omnes XV.- xix.
fuse explicatas a Theodoro scripserit Theodoritus, in ejus ! Vid. Conc. Constant. ii. app. Labbé. T. v. p. 451, 452. Præfatione Commentarii in Epistolas Apostoli, quam laudat Conf. Tillem. T. xii. Theod. de M. ait. v. et Du Pin ubi eruditissimus Caveus, non reperio. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. ix. supr. p. 90. b.
p. 103. m. & On dit, que Theodore de Mopsueste (Garnier. ad Mar. i. In duodecim Prophetas Commentarius.' Integer foMercat. Diss. i. sect. I. p. 320.) regardoit le livre de Job liorum 223 servatur Græce in Bibl. Cæsareâ teste Lambecio. comme une fable tirée du paganisme, le Cautique de Fabr. B. G. T. ix. p. 162. Salomon comme une chanson d'amoureux j'ai de la k Theodori Antiocheni in xii. Prophetas.' Hic liber nonpeine à le croire- -Il n'y eut personne pendant sa vie, qui dom editus est. Exstat quoque in Bibliothecâ Cæsareâ Vienl'accusat d'erreur -Il ne fut condamné que près de cent nensi, et in Vaticanâ Bibliothecâ. Diar. Ital. p. 39. cinquante ans après sa mort, par la cabale de Justinien. J. ' In Bibliothecâ Cæsareâ Vindebonorum. Codex clxin. Basn. H. de l' Egl. L. viii. ch. v. n. 6. p. 430. · Vid. ib. I. X. bombycinus Græcus, Theodori Mopsuesteni in duodecim Proch. 6. n. 4.
Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum MSS. I am glad there is so good evidence that this work is still extant, and that there are several copies of it; I hope, it may some time be published: it might let us know more fully this writer's manner of interpreting scripture; and, possibly, we might there see his sentiments concerning the disputed books of the New Testament, about which we do not yet distinctly know his opinion.
(7.) The last work of Theodore in Ebedjesu’s Catalogue, is entitled, A Discourse of Law: giving, or of the Lawgiver. As it is not now extant, we cannot say what was in it: but if a conjecture were to be formed, we might be apt to think, the * design of it was to shew, that one and the same God was the author of the Old and the New Testament, or of the more ancient and the latter dispensation.
III. I shall now put down a fragment, or passage of Thcodore concerning the four gospels, which is prefixed by Dr. Mill to St. John's gospel, taken from Corderius's Chain upon that evangelist. As Dr. Mill's New Testament is very common, I need not transcribe the Greek here at length ; but I shall endeavour to make a literal version of it.
Says Theodore : -- After the Lord's ascension to heaven, the disciples stayed a good while * at Jerusalem, visiting the cities in its neighbourhood, preaching chiefly to the Jews; until the
great Paul, called by the divine grace; was appointed to preach the gospel to the Gentiles · openly. And in process of time, Divine. Providence, not allowing them to be confined to any
one particular part of the earth, made way for conducting them to remote countries. Peter went "to Rome, the others elsewhere. John, in particular, took up his abode at Ephesus, visiting how• ever at seasons the several parts of Asia, and doing much good to the people of that country by • bis discourses. About this time the other evangelists, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, published
their gospels; which were soon spread all over the world, and were received by all the faithful • in general with great regard. Nevertheless, the Christians of Asia, having a great opinion of “the abilities and faithfulness of John, and considering that he had been with Jesus from the • beginning, even before Mattirew, and that he had been greatly favoured by the Lord, brought • to him the other books of the gospels, desiring to know his opinion concerning them. And he * declared his approbation of them, saying, that what they had written was agreeable to truth; • but that some miracles, which might be of great use if recorded, were omitted. He said, * moreover, that whereas they had written of the coming of Christ in the flesh, it was fit that *the things concerning his Divinity also should be recorded. The brethren thereupon earnestly • desired him to write those things, which he esteemed needful to be known, and which he saw • to have been omitted by the rest : with which request he complied. And he was induced to • begin immediately with the doctrine of Christ's Deity. After which he proceeded to the • account of the things said and done by the Lord in the flesh.'
It will now be proper to make some remarks.
1. This account of the occasion of St. John's writing his gospel agrees very much with that in · Eusebius of Cæsarea. I mention this observation in the first place, because it is likely, that the occasion of St. John's gospel was the thing primarily intended in that part of our author's work, from which this passage is taken.
2. The late date of the first three gospels is here supposed: they were not written, until after that the first twelve disciples had for a good while preached the gospel to the Jews at Jerusalem, and in the neighbouring cities; nor until after St. Paul had been called, and had openly preached the gospel to the Gentiles; nor until after that St. Peter had been at Rome; nor, as it seems, until after, or at least, about the time of St. John's taking up his abode at Ephesus in Asia.
3. It seems to be supposed, that all the first three gospels were written about the same time.
4. Those gospels were soon spread abroad among Christians all over the world. This is expressly said by our author, as well as that they were received by all with great regard. And indeed the accounts given, both by Theodore and by. Eusebius, of the occasion of St. John's writing his gospel, afford good evidence, that the first three gospels soon came into the hands of
phetas Minores. Biblioth. MSS. T. i. p. 546. Et vid. in
Ap. Balth. Corderii. Caten. in S. Joan, in Proom. Antv. 1030.
• Μετα την εις έρανες αναληψιν το κυριε επι πολλω μεν τοις Ιεροσολύμοις ενδιείριψαν οι μαθηλα, τω χρονω. κ. λ.
* Γινείαι τοινυν εν τετοις των λοιπών ευαίγελιεων εκδοσις, Ματθαια τε και Μαρκέ.• See p. 369.
many Christians. Before St. John wrote his gospel, the Christians in Asia had seen and réad the other three; and they asked St. John his opinion concerning them, and he approved them. There can be no reason to doubt, that about this time, and soon after they were written, those three gospels were delivered to other Christians, beside those in Asia.
5. The publishing of St. John's gospel, which he wrote now at the request of the believers at Ephesus, would contribute to their being yet more public, and looked upon by all with the greatest veneration. And from this time forward, it is reasonable to think, the four gospels were collected in one code or volume. And St. John's gospel, now added to the rest, would occasion a diligent comparing of all of them together, and a careful attention to the several accounts of each.
I now proceed.
IV. That Theodore was a celebrated commentator, we have seen: that he was also a celebrated preacher, and admired as such, at Antioch, and Constantinople, and all over the East, inay be collected from testimonies in • Facundus.
V. 1. Theodore, as the same Facundus says, lived and died in the communion of the church. And his great reputation is manifest from Sozomen and Theodoret, before cited. Nevertheless afterwards, upon occasion of the Pelagian and Nestorian controversies, there were great debates about his sentiments; and not a few moderns d called him the parent both of Pelagianism and Nestorianism: whilst others allow indeed his holding the Pelagian principle, but thinks the charge of Nestorianism not so clear. Divers passages of his, alleged by Facundus, seem not reconcileable therewith : however, we have seen, that Photius, in his account of Theodore's works, scruples not to accuse him of being in the Nestorian principle. And in his epistles he says, that . Nestorius borrowed his abominable doctrine from Diodorus of Tarsus, and Theodore of Mopsuestia : but bishop R. Montague, in a note upon Photius, vindicates both those great men.
2. I shall take here two passages of Theodore, one out of his commentary upon St. John's gospel, the other out of his commentary upon the Acts of the apostles; as they are cited, in Latin, in' the Acts of the fore-mentioned council of Constantinople, in 553, and in Greek, in the emperor Justinian's confession of the right faith, or his edict issued in * 545, or rather in '551; against the three chapters, as they are called, that is the works of our Theodore, the writings of Theodoret against Cyril of Alexandria, and the letter of Ibas bishop of Edessa, about the year 436, to Maris a Persian. They are alleged in the way of reproach, and are among charges brought against him: and perhaps the quotations are not quite exact and fair ; nevertheless, they may be of some use to us, in forming an idea of Theodore's judgment, or way of thinking.
In " his commentary upon St. John's gospel, he says, that when Thomas made that confes1 Theodosio Imperatori, qui per idem tempus mundi rege- dorus, et a Basilio, Chrysostomo, ac aliis laudantur. Nec nisi bat gubernacula, sic dicit : Theodorus enim, quem quando mortui in suspicionem hæreseos venere, et sequiorum calamis dicimus, virum dicimus in episcopatu clarum finem habentem, punguntur. Qui mihi non persuadent, fuisse hæreseos labe et quinquaginta pene annis fortiter repugnantem cunctis hære- infectos. Montac. Not. ad Phot. Ep. i. p. 46. sibus, et in expositionibus, quas in omnibus ecclesiis orienta- i Thomas quidem, cum sic credidisset, Dominus meus libus faciebat, et quibus in regiâ civitate valde esset compro- et Deus meus' dicit; non ipsum Dominum et Deum dicens, batus, apparet. &c. Facund. 1. ii. c. 2. p. 23. Vid. et I. x. (non enim resurrectionis scientia docebat et Deum esse eum cap. 1. p. 148. E.
qui resurrexit) sed quasi pro miraculo facto Deum collaudat. in cujus pace atque honore defunctus idem Theos Ut quum ad ipsum accessissent, tamquam Salvatorem, dorus. Id. I. *. c. 1. p. 148. C. Vid. et l. ii. c. 2.
et omnium bonorum auctorem, et doctorem veritatis, ab ipso, · Vid. S. Basnag. Ann. 550. n. vii.-ix. 551. n. x. &c. utpote auctore bonorum, et doctore veritatis vocarentur : sicut 353. n. xvii. &c. Tillem. Theodore de M. art. 4. Mem. T. xii. omnibus hominibus, quamcumque sec!am sequentibus, con
d Theodorus Mopsuestenus, Pelagianorum æque ac Nesto. suetudo est ab ipso dogmatis inventore vocari, ut Platonici et rianorum parens. Assem. ad Chr. Edess. Bib. Or. T. i. p. 402. Epicuræi, Manichæi et Marcionistæ, et siquidem tales dicuntur, not. 3.
Eodem modo et nos nominari Christianos judicaverunt Apostoli, Hinc Theodorus merito Pelagianorum pater audit, ejusque tamquam per hoc certum facientes, quod ipsius doctrinam sectatores Chaldæi Nestoriani de originali peccato usque in oportet adtendere, Conc. Constantin, ii. Col. iy.
Labbé. præsentem diem male sentiunt.
-Nam Nestoriani Pelagia- T. v. p. 440, 441. nom dogma expresse docuere, ut probat Pagius ad annum 428. * Vid. Cav. de Justiniano. H. L. T. i. p. 509. et Fabr. n. xvi. hac in re a magistro suo Nestorio desciscentes, qui de Bib. Gr. T. xi. p. 441. peccato originali recte senserat. Assem. Bib. Or. T. iii. p. 34. Pagi ann. 551. 11. v. Basnag. 'ann. 551. n. 7, 8. not. 1. Conf. Pagi Ann. 423. n. XV.-xviii.
η Ούλος δε και την ομολολιαν Θωμα, ην επι τη ψηλαφησει e Vid. S. Basnag. Ann.428. n. 7,
| Facund. I. ix. των χειρων και της πλευρας τα κυρια μετα την αναςασιν, το, και & Phot. Ep. 1. p. 7. f. Vid. et p. 11. m.
κυριος μα και Θεος με, ειπεν, μη ειρησθαι περι τα Χρισε παρα Intelligit Mopsuestenum, et Tarsensem episcopos, qui et σω Θωμα, (8 γαρ ειναι λείει τον Χριςον Θεον) αλλ' επι τω doctissimi et orthodoxi erant, aut habebantur, præcipue Dio- wapadotu tys avasacEWS EXTMATEyla toy @wuar vurycas Toy