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the Arians. It is concluded from · Epiphanius, that Marcellus died in 372, when he had been bishop almost sixty years, and had lived almost or quite a century.
3. In the year 334, or 335, he wrote a book against Asterius, and other Arians, which occasioned him a great deal of trouble. Socrates says, that in opposing Asterius, Marcellus went into a contrary extreme, and embraced the opinion of Paul of Samosata, who says, that Jesus Christ is a mere man.
4. The bishops assembled at Jerusalem in 335, for dedicating the church built by Constan, tine, required him to renounce his opinion, and burn his book. But those bishops were hastily summoned to Constantinople; where, in the year 336, the matter was resumed. Marcellus was deposed, and Basil put in his room: but he was restored by the synod at Sardica in 347. Nevera theless, Marcellus still lay under the suspicion of heresy with many.
5. Sozomen says farther, that the council of Constantinople wrote a letter to the churches of Galatia, admonishing them to reform their error, to search for the copies of Marcellus's book, and burn them.
6. That book was particularly answered by the famous Eusebius of Cæsarea, and by order of the council itself. Though Marcellus was not then young, Eusebius says it was the only book he had published. It was a very large work, consisting of a thousand lines or verses. Eusebius takes notice, that s he quoted heathen authors to illustrate the scriptures: he likewise chargeth “ him with a vain ostentation of secular learning; whether rightly or not, we can hence conclude, that Marcellus was learned. He did likewise quote very largely the books of the Old and New Testament: and we can plainly perceive from Eusebius's quotations and arguments, and from his own letter and confession of faith delivered to Julius, bishop of Rome, about the year 241, which are preserved in · Epiphanius, that Marcellus received the same scriptures that Other Christians did, and paid them a like respect.
7. Socrates * and Sozomen seem to have supposed that Marcellus went into the opinion of Paul of Samosata. Eusebius continually chargeth him with " Sabellianism. Theodoret, in " his Heretical Fables, speaks of Paul, Sabellius, Marcellus, and Photinus, in four distinct chapters one after another: and in his introduction to that work, he reckons him with Ebion and Photis nus, and elsewhere with Photinus and Paul of Samosata: and he particularly says of Marcellus, that · he denied a Trinity of persons. However, there were formerly, as well as · lately, different apprehensions concerning the real sentiments of Marcellus: and it must be owned, that there is a good deal of obscurity in some of his passages, cited by Eusebius: but it seems to me, that there is sufficient reason to think he was a Sabellian or Unitarian.
8. Montfaucon persuades' himself, and would persuade others, that not long before his death, about the year 372, Marcellus being uneasy at the accusations brought against him by St. Basil, as well as others, sent one of his deacons, with others of his church, as a deputation to Athanasius, carrying with them a confession of faith, completely orthodox: which confession Athanasius, and other bishops of Egypt then present with him, accepted of, and gave them a letter of recommendation to communion with the churches.
9. But it seems to me, that this story is not well supported. Montfaucon does not well · Epiph. H. 72. n. i.
P Φωλεινος γαρ και Μαρκελλος, και ο εκ Σαμοσαλων Παυλος, bΨιλον γαρ ανθρωπον--εθολμησεν ειπειν τον Χριςον. Socr. ανθρωπον μοναν ειναι λεψεσι τον κυριον ημων και θεον. Εpist. 1. i. c. 36. p. 72.
104. T. iii. p. 976. A. • Και ταις αυλοθι εκκλησιαις εΓραψαν, αναζήτησαι την Μαρ- 9 Τελω αρνηθη των υποτασεων τριαδα. Η. Ε. 1. i. c. 10. κελλο βιολον, και εξαφανισαι. Soc. 1. ii. c. 33.
Vid. Hieron. supra not. (a) p. 276. Epiphan. H. 72. - Vid. Eus. contr. M. 1. ii. p. 55. D.
Tillemont collects the opinions of several ancients about him « Contr. M. 1. i. c. 1. in.
f Ib. p. 2.
in Marcel. d'Ancyre. Mem. T. vii. p. 510-512. à Paris. & P. 14. B. C. - Ib, c. 3. P. 16.D.
• Vid. Zacagn. Pr. ad Collect. Monum. Gr. p. 42. &c. i H. 72. n. 2, 3. -836.
Montfauc. Diatriba de Causa Marcelli ap. Nov. Collect. Patr. Socr. 1. i. c. 6. 72. Conf. 1. ii.c. 19. p. 98, 99. & cap. 20. T. ii. Fabric. Bib. Gr. T. vi. p. 31. & 92. T. 8. p. 335. I Soz. l. ij. c. 33.
' Re compertâ, Marcellus, ut eorum conatus & molitnina -σως και δηλος αν γενολο, τον μεν Σαβελλιον υποδυομε- interpellaret, oratores qui causam apud Athanasium suam vos. Contr. Marc. 1. i. p. 5. A. Arlingus tov Sabedalov ara- agerent, ac sui, Ancyranæque ecclesiæ nomine fidei profesYeajeros. De Ec. Th. l. ii. seu contr. Marc. 1. iii. c. 1. p. sionem emitterent, delegavit. Cumque legatorum formula 104. Ορας Ιεδαιον αντικρυς, τον μονολενη υίον τ8 θεα. sanam prorsus & orthodoxam fidem præferret, huic Athanaapylsyon. Ib. cap. 2. p. 105. A.
sius, cum aliis qui aderant episcopis, adstipulatus, literas comn Hær. Fab. I. i. c. 8, 9, 10, 11.
mendatitias rogantibus concessit. Diatrib. de Marcell. cap. 5. Ταυτης δε της αιρεσεως ηρξε μεν Εβιων, μεχρι δε Μαρκελλα p. 63. Αγ. Νον. Collection. Patr. Τ. i. και Φωτεινε τας διαφορες επικοιας εδεξατο. Ηer, Fab. Conpead. T. iy. p. 188. D.
know when a that deputation to Athanasius was sent;, he placeth it in the ycar 572, hy guess only. St. Basil, though he corresponded with Athanasius, and others of Egypt, knew nothing of that letter of recommendation; and in a letter written after that supposed date in 377, reproves some people for communicating with the followers of Marcellus. Moreover, Chrysostom in his homilies in the latter part of the fourth century, often argues against Marcellus as a heretic: not now to say any thing more of Socrates, and Sozomen, or Theodoret, or others, who appear not to have known any thing of this. orthodox confession of Marcellus, or Athanasius's letter of communion.
It is indeed well known, and allowed, that for a while Athanasius had a kindness for Marcellus; and no wonder, when Marcellus, like himself, was so hard pressed by the Arians. But his respect for Marcellus seems to have abated afterwards: Hilary of Poictiers, and Sulpitius Severus' expressly say, that Athanasius separated himself from his communion. Nor do I perceive, thats what Epiphanius says, overthrows their accounts. For certain, he does not confirm, but weaken the credit of the story told by Montfaucon ; for he says nothing of it, though he had a fair occasion to mention it, and wrote but a few years after the death of Marcellus and Athanasius.
C H A P. LXXIV.
EUSTATHIUS, BISHOP OF ANTIOCH.
1. Sars Jerom, · Eustathius of Side in Pamphylia, first governed the church at Beræa, and afterwards at Antioch. As he wrote much against the Arian doctrine, he was banished in the
time of the emperor Constantine to Trajanopolis in Thrace, where he lies buried to this day. • There are extant his volumes concerning the soul, of the Pythoness against Origen, and an in. finite number of epistles, which it would be tedious to reckon up.'
2. Eustathius is placed by Cave at the year 325, when the council of Nice met: but as Eustathius was before that bishop of Beræa, if not also of Antioch, and was then so considerable, as to be thought by many to be the bishop who complimented Constantine in a short oration at his entrance into the council; I presume he ought to be placed sooner, about the year 320.
3. For a particular account of him I refer to · Cave, and others. I observe some few of the more material things, and briefly only.
4. By means of the intrigues of Eusebius of Nicomedia, and Theognis of Nice, he was deposed by a synod at Antioch, about the year 328,, as a Sabellian, and otherwise unworthy of the pastoral office: after which he was banished. The time of his death is not certain : some think he did not die before the year 360. Sozomen says, he had been assured, that.' Eustathius bore the hard treatment lie met with very patiently.
* Hæc porro legatio in annum 372 commode referatur. f Interjecto deinde tempore, Athanasius, cum Marcellum Diatrib. cap. 6. p. 64.
parum sanæ fidei esse penitus comperisset, a communione, • Cui frequens cum Athanasio epistolarum usus erat. Montf. suspendit. Sulp. Sev. Hist. 1. ii. c. 52. p. 382. Diatrib. ib.
& Vid. H. 72. n. 4. p. 837. At Basilius— quia semel conceptam de Marcelli impie- h Eustathius, genere Pamphylius, Sidetes, primum Berhææ, tate opinionem vis missam facere poterat, cum Diocæsariensi- Syriæ, deinde Antiochiæ rexit ecclesiam. Et adversum bus patribus non leviter expostulat, quod Marcellianos ad Arianorum dogma componens multa sub Constantino principe communionem, inconsultis aliis episcopis, admiserint. (Vid. pulsus est in exilium Trajanopolim Thraciarum, ubi usque Basil. Ep. 265. al. 293. T. ījip. 410. edit. Bened.] Hæc hodie conditus est. Exstant ejus volumina de Animâ, de Basilius, vel ignorans ea, quæ Alexandriæ in gratiam Marcelli Engastrimutho adversum Origenem, & infinitæ epistolæ, & asseclarum ab Athanasio gesta fuerant, vel, &c. Montf. quas enumerare longum est. De V. I. c. 85. Diatrib. ib. p: 66.
i Vid. Cav. Hist. Lit. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. viii. p. 166. &c. 4. Vid. in ep. ad Philip. hom. 6. T. xi. p. 234, 235. in
ep. Tillemont Mem. Ec. T. vii. Pagi Crit. in Baron. Ann. 324. ad Heb. hom. 2. p. 14, 15, 16. hom. 8, p. 89. T. xii. Bened. n. 26. &c. 325, p. 17. 327.n. 3. 340. n. 19. & passim.
* Vid. Socr. l. i. c. 24, Soz, I. ii. c. 19. Thdrt. I. i. c. 21. Nam, negatâ sibi ab Athanasio comumunione, ingressu Soz. I, i. c. 19. fin. sese ecclesiæ Marcellus abstinuit. Hilar. Fragm. 2. p. 1300,
5. Eustathius is placed by Jerom, in his letter to Magnus, among those Christian writers, who were remarkable for secular learning, as well as for their knowledge of the scriptures: but Socrates reckons him among those obscure persons, who had endeavoured to raise their own reputation by opposing Origen. Sozomen, however, commends him for his eloquence, as well as piety, and says, that his works were in his time well esteemed. Theodoret calls him the great Eustathius.
6. I need not give a particular account of Eustathius's works: the inquisitive may find sufficient satisfaction in the writers before referred to. The fragments collected by^^ Fabricius deserve to be read.
7. Eustathius's enmity to Arianismo is well known: whether he was not a Sabellian is doubtful.
8. Eusebius of Cæsarea accused him of Sabellianism soon after the council of Nice. Socrates's expressions in his account of the sentence passed upon Eustathius by the synod at Antioch are remarkable: • That he was deposed, as rather adhering to the doctrine of Sabellius, : than of the council of Nice.' And he presently after owns, that George of Laodicea, in his history of Eusebius of Emesa, relates, that Eustathius was deposed, Cyrus of Beræa accusing him as a Sabellian. The fragments collected by Fabricius may be thought to countenance this supposition: and there are learned moderns who think, that Eustathius of Antioch was of the same opinion with Marcellus of Ancyra, and that neither of them were orthodox.
CH A P. LXXV.
ATHANASIUS, BISHOP OF ALEXANDRIA.
1. His history. II. Select passages. III. His testimony to the scriptures in his Festal Epistle.
IV. In his other works: 1. To the Gospels. 2. The Acts. 3. Paul's Epistles. 4. Catholic Epistles. 5. The Revelation. V. Of the doctrine of the apostles, and the Shepherd of Hermas. VI. Various readings. VII. A Bible sent by Athanasius to the Emperor Constans. VIII. General titles and divisions, and respect for the scriptures. IX. The sum of his testimony. X. The Synopsis of sacred Scripture.
1. Athanasius succeeded Alexander in the see of Alexandria in the year 326, and died in the year 373, when he had been bishop 46 years' complete.
There is no need that I should write the history of Athanasius, or give a particular account of his works: the nature of my design allows me now to contract, since the life of Eusebius of Cæsarea; nor shall I transcribe Jerom's chapter * from his Catalogue of Ecclesiastical Writers, because it is not very important. I have referred to divers learned moderns, who have bestowed laudable pains in writing at large the history of this celebrated bishop; and the reader may also consult the Testimonies or Elogies of ancient writers, prefixed to the Benedictine edition of his works. As I do not there see the name of Epiphanius, I insert here his character of Athanasius; that he was the father of orthodoxy.
a Socr. 1. vi. c. 13.
* Καθαιρεσιν Eυςαθιον, ως τα Σακελλιά μαλλον φρονενία, η • Ανης τα τε αλλα καλος και απαθος, και επί ευγλωττια απερ ή εν Νικαια συνοδος εδο μάλισεν. Socr. 1. i. c. 24. in. δικαιως θαυμαζομενος, ως εκ των φερομενων αυ78 λοίων συνιδειν "Pour Marcel, le fait passe à présent constant. Il fut SaEsly. -Soz. I. ii. c. 19. fin.
bellien. A l'égard d'Eustathe, des savans le defendent, d'au«Της αληθειας προμαχος ο μετας Ευσταθιος. Theod. 1. i. c. tres l'accusent. Pour moi, je ne croi pas qu'on puisse l'ex21. p. 52. A.
Beausobre Hist. de Manich. T. i. p. 543, not. (2.) • Bib. Gr. T. 1. p. 172. &c.
Vid. ib. p. 542. et Worm. Histor. Sabellianismi, cap. 5.no € Eustathium nostrum, qui primus Antiochenæ ecclesiæ episcopus contra Arium clarissimâ tubâ bellicum cecinit. i Vid. Pagi Ann. 326. n. 3. 372, n.9, 10, 11. Basnag. Ann. Hieron. ad Evang. T. ii. p. 571. in. Vid. & Theod. 1. i. 373. n. 9. Cav. H. L. Athanas. Vit. a Benedictin. adornat, C. 8. in.
Tillem. Mem. Ec. T. viii. * Διαβαλλει δε Ευσταθιον, ως την Σαζέλλια δοξαν εισαΓονία. * De V. I, cap. 87. Socr. 1, i. c. 23. f. Conf. Soz, l. ii. c, 18.
II. Though I do not write the life of Athanasius, I may be allowed to transcribe some re. markable passages.
1. On account of the doctrine of the Trinity, he says, the heathen people of his time thought, that the Christians taught a plurality of Gods.
2. Athanasius's enmity to Arianism is well known: I formerly cited' a passage where he speaks of it as the worst of all heresies. He elsewhere says, the 4 devil was the father of it: nur will he by any means allow, that · Arians can be rightfully called Christians.
3. When he declaims against Arianism, as 'the worst and most hateful of all heresies, he makes this its peculiarity, that whilst other heretics endeavoured to support their opinions by sophistry, these s men have invented a new way, and have endeavoured to carry their point by external, that is, civil authority, or the power of the magistrate. • Whenever “ any man differs • from them, they have him before the governor, or the general: whom they cannot subdue by * reason and argument, they take upon them to convince by whippings and imprisonments ; · which is enough to shew, that their principles are any thing rather than religion: for it is the
property of religion not to compel, but to persuade. Our Lord himself does not use violence, • but leaveth men to the freedom of their own choice. Speaking to all, he says: “ If *
any man « will come after me:" and to the disciples: « Will?
" And on account of these violent methods in particular, he says, that " this sect, or heresy, had put on the devil complete.
4. Athanasius observes, that " Christian people never took their denomination from their own bishops, but from the Lord, in whom we believe. And though the blessed apostles are our masters, and have ministered to us the gospel of our Lord, we are not named from them. For from Christ we are, and are called Christians. But they who receive from others a new faith,. are justly denominated from them, whose property they are.
III. I proceed to his testimony to the scriptures: and here I begin with transcribing at large the fragment, which we have, of o what is called a Festal, or Paschal Epistle..
• But P since we have spoken of heretics as dead persons, and of ourselves as having the • divine scriptures for salvation : and I fear, lest, as Paul wrote to the Corinthians, some few of • the weaker sort should be seduced from their simplicity and purity by the cunning and crafti• ness of some men, and at length be induced to make use of other books called apocryphal, · being deceived by the similitude of their names, resembling the true books: I therefore entreat you to bear with me, if I by writing remind you of things which you know already, as what
be of use for the church. And for the vindication of my attempt, I adopt the form of the • evangelist Luke, who himself says: Forasmuch as some have taken in hand to set forth writings
called apocryphal, and to join them with the divinely inspired scriptures of which we are fully • assured, as they delivered them to the fathers, who were eye-witnesses and ministers of the * word: it has seemed good to me also, with the advice of some true brethren, and' having • learned it from the beginning, to set forth in order these canonical books, which have been
p. 564. C.
-Αθανασι8 τ8 μακαρια, και παίρος της ορθοδοξιας. Η. την και εθως, ως σανθα μαλλον εςιν, η θεοσεβής. Θεοσεβειας 69. n. 2. p. 728. B.
μεν γαρ ιδιον, μη αναίκαζειν, αλλα αειθειν, ωσπερ ειπαμεν. κ. λ. • Ελληνων --φασκόντων και νομιζονίων, δια την τριαδα, Ιb. Ι. 67. p. 384. C. Aslev xai quas wiados Ofes. Or. iii. Contr. Arian. n. 15. k Matt. xvi. 24.
1 John vi, 67. ¢ P. 148.
η Ω καινης αιρεσεως, ολον ενδυσαμενης τον διαβολον εν ασεdus ó wling culins é dia bonos. Contr. Arian. Or. i. n. δεια και πραξει. Ιb. η. 66. in. p. 383. C. 1. p. 405. C
* Ουδε πωποτε γαρ λαος απο των οικείων επισκοπων εσχε την • Αλλα και οι τελες καλεντες Χριστιανός, πολυ και λιαν επωνυμιαν, αλλ' απο τα κυριε, εις ον και την αισιν εχομενπλανωνται. Ιb. p. 406. Α.
αλλ' απο τα Χρισε Χριστιανοι και εσμεν, και ονομαζομεθα. Οι * Η δε νεα και μυσαρα τελων αίρεσις.--Hist. Arian, ad δε σερι έθερων εχοντες την αρχην ης νομιζασι πιςεως, εκείνων Monach, n. 67. p. 384. B.
εικοθως εχεσι και την επωνυμιαν, ως αυτων γενομενον κίημα. ε Οι δε προςαίαι ταυλης, ορωντες εαυθες λοιπον ασχημονούλας, Contr. Arian. Or. n. 2. p. 406. C. και μηδεν ευλοίον εχονίας, αλλην όδον επενόησαν, και δια της • Ejusdem, ex trigesima nonâ epistola festali, initio mutila: εξωθεν εξασιας εκδικείν ταυτην επεχειρησαν. Ιb. n. 66. p. 383. T. i. p. 961. D. D. E.
p Ibid. p. 961. E. 962, 963. A. B. Α Και ει μονον τις αυλοις ανθειρηκεν, έλκεται προς τον ηγεμονα; -απαλωμενοι τη ομωνυμια των αληθινων βιβλίων. p. η τον εραθελαίην. Ιb. p. 384. Β.
981. E. λοιπον, ες μη δεδυνηθαι πεισαι λoίoις, τείες τη βια,
-και μαθονι αναθεν, εξης εκθεσθαι τα κανονιζομενα, και πληλαις, και δεσμωτηριους έλκεις επιχειρει, γνωριζοσα εαυν και παραδοθενία, τις ευθεία τε θεια είναι βιβλια. p 902. Α.
* delivered down to us, and believed to be divine scripture: that every one who has been • deceived, may condemn those who have deceived him: and that he who remains uncorrupted may have the satisfaction to be reminded of what he is persuaded of. The books of the Old • Testament, then, are all of them in number two and twenty : for so many are the letters of the
Hebrew alphabet said to be. The names and order of each one are thus : The first Genesis, • the next Exodus, then Leviticus, after that the Numbers, and then Deuteronomy. After that
is Joshua the son of Nun, and the Judges, and after that Ruth. And again, the next in order • are the four books of the kingdoms : of these the first and second are reckoned one book; and « in like manner the third and fourth are one book. After them, the first and second of the
Remains (or Chronicles] are in like manner accounted one book. Then the first and second of Esdras, also reckoned one book. After them the book of the Psalms, then the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs. Beside these there is Job, and at length the Prophets. The twelve are reckoned one book. Then Isaiah, and Jeremiah, and with him Baruch, the Lamen• tations, the Epistle. And after them Ezekiel and Daniel. Thus far of the books of the Old • Testament. Nor do I think it too much pains to declare those of the New. They are these : • The four gospels, according to Matthew, according to Mark, according to Luke, according to • John. Then after them the Acts of the apostles, and the seven epistles of the apostles called « catholic: Of James one, of Peter two of John three, and after them of Jude one. Beside these * there are the fourteen epistles of the apostle Paul, the order of which is thus: The first to the • Romans, then two to the Corinthians, after them that to the Galatians, the next to the Ephe• sians, then to the Philippians, to the Colossians, after them two to the Thessalonians, and the epistle to the Hebrews, then two to Timothy, to Titus one, the last to Philemon : and again,
the Revelation of John. These are fountains of salvation, that he who thirsts may be satisfied “ with the oracles contained in them : in these alone the doctrine of religion is taught : let no a man add to them, or take any thing from them. Of these our Lord spake, when he put the • Sadducees to shame, saying: “Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures." And he exhorted the * Jews: “ Search the scriptures : for these are they which testify of me.” However, for the • sake of greater accuracy, I add as follows: that' there are other books beside these, without: * not canonical indeed, but ordained by the fathers to be read to (or by those who are newly - come over to us, and are desirous to be instructed in the doctrine of religion. The Wisdom of • Solomon, the Wisdom of Sirach, and Esther, Judith, Tobias: the Doctrine of the Apostles, as • it is called, and the Shepherd. So that my beloved, those being canonical, and these read, - there is no mention of apocryphal books: but they are the invention of heretics, who wrote
them after their own pleasure : assigning to them, and adding to them, times ; that producing * them as ancient writings, they may take occasion to deceive the simple.'
Upon this erumeration, or catalogue of the books of the holy scripture, we may make a few remarks: and many are not necessary.
1. Here is mention made of these sorts of books only: "canonical,' such as are read' or allowed to be read, and apocryphal:' by which last the writer of this epistle means books of heretics, to which they affixed a high value. Athanasius here takes no notice of contradicted' books, so distinctly spoken of by Eusebius of Cæsarea.
2. The reader sees what books of the Old Testament are reckoned by this writer canonical : and how inany others besides are mentioned by him, as 'out of the canon, yet allowed to be read. And I would add here, with regard to the other works of Athanasius in general, that there the Wisdom of Solomon is often quoted, Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus, but seldom; and the books of Maccabees scarce at all; which last, as we see, are also quite omitted in this catalogue.
3. This may suffice for that part of the catalogue. Upon the latter part, concerning the scriptures of the New Testament, I think it incumbent on me to be more particular: and therefore I proceed as follows. * Μέθα ταύλα, Πραξεις Αποςόλων, και Επιςολαι καθολικαι
* Ως έλι εςι και έτερα βιβλια τελων εξωθεν" και κανονιζομενα καλεμεναι των αποστολων επlαΙb. C. 5 Προς τέθοις Παυλά αποστολε εισιν επιςολαι δεκατεσσαρες. αρλι προσερχομενοις.. 963. Α.
κεν, τείυπωμενα δε παρα των παθερων, αναξινωσκεσθαι τις Ib. D.
κακείνων κανονιζομενων, και τελων αναδινωσκομενων. • Ταυλα σημαι τα σωτηριο, ωσε τον διψωνία των εν τελους ibid. εμφορεισθαι λοιων. Εν τoίoις μονοις το της ευσεβειας διδασκα- -χαριζομενων δε και προςιθεντων αυθοις χρονος ν', ώς λειον ευαγίελιζεθαι. Μηδεις τεΐοις επιβαλλείο.-κ. λ. Ιb. D.
παλαια προφερονίες, προφασιν εχωσιν απαιαν εκ τ88 785 A Mait. xxii, 29.
e Jahn v.39.
ακεραιες. Ιb. Β.