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(3.) Nor am I satisfied, that it was the settled opinion of many other learned Christians of those times, that the gospel of Matthew, and the epistle to the Hebrews, were written in the Hebrew tongue. If they had been persuaded of this, they would, some of them at least, hate made inquiries after the originals. We have no proof that Eusebius, or any other of the Gentile Christian authors, quoted by him, or whose writings we have any where else met with, had seen any Hebrew copy of St. Matthew's gospel; nor any the least hint of a Hebrew copy of the epistle to the Hebrews to be found any where, or as used by any people whatever. Indeed, there was a Gospel called according to the Hebrews, much resembling Matthew's gospel, and in the Hebrew language: but it appears not to have been much respected by Eusebius, or any of the learned Christians whose works he was acquainted with : therefore it is manifest, they did not think it to be Matthew's original gospel.
If it should be said, that the ancient Christian writers, which we have any knowledge of, were Gentiles, and did not understand Hebrew; and for that reason they might not be inquisitive after the Hebrew originals, since they had a Greek translation ; I answer, that they were not at all strangers to the Hebrew language. And supposing only a very slight acquaintance with that language, and that there were but a very few only who had that, it is very likely there would have been inquiries made after the originals of those books by some, particularly by Origen and Eusebius, who were not absolute strangers either to the Hebrew language or learning. Even they who had none, or a very slight acquaintance with the Hebrew language, would have procured copies in the original language, and would have been at the pains to consult some Hebrew Christian, or even an unbelieving Jew, about the readings in them, to compare them with the copies of the Greek translations: Did not Origen in his Commentaries? Does not Eusebius in his Commentaries upon the Psalms, and Isaiah, often compare the Hebrew with the Septuagint, and other Greek translations ? and that, though the Septuagint version was in great esteem. Why then should they not have done the same in regard to the gospel of Matthew, and the epistle to the Hebrews, if they had thought the original to be Hebrew ? Besides, if Matthew's gospel, and the epistle to the Hebrews, had been indeed thought to have been originally written in Hebrew, it is highly probable, there would have been several Greek translations of them ; whereas we know not of any attempts of this kind, excepting only the first supposed translation.
Before I proceed, I would put the reader in mind, that I formerly examined the question, whether * Origen thought St. Matthew's gospel to have been written in Hebrew: and that, if I mistake not, I shewed, that the same great critic did not suppose the Epistle to the Hebrews to have been written in any other language than the Greek.
(4.) To these observations I shall subjoin the sentiments of some learned moderns, favouring our argument.
The very learned and laborious I. A. Fabricius was of opinion, that both · Matthew's gospel, and the d epistle to the Hebrews, were written in Greek. So likewise thought · Lightfoot, whose judgment upon this point may be reckoned as valuable as that of most men: and Dr. Whitby in his Preface to the four gospels earnestly contends, that St. Matthew did not write in Hebrew.
I would also insert here the sentiment of Beausobre, from his excellent preface to the epistle to the Hebrews.
• The ancients,' says ' he, had no other reason to believe, that St. Paul wrote in Hebrew, • than that he wrote to the Hebrews. But that reason, however probable it may appear, is not • convincing; because it is certain, that the Greek tongue was understood in judea, though it
a Vol. i. p. 573, 574.
b Ib. p. 538. Græcum Matthæi interpretem Jacobum alii, alii Paulum, alii Lucam denique, vel Joannem, incertà famâ tradiderunt; cum Matthæum ipsum Græce scripsisse, sit verius. Fabric. ad Hieron. cap. 3. de Vir. III. Vid. ejusd. Bib. Gr. T. iii. p. 126.
d--Sed Græca, quæ hodie habemus, originarium esse auctoris sacri contestum argumentis non contemnendis post Calviu m probat laudatus Spanhemius, -Milius-Heideggeris-Blondellus cum ex totà antiquitate ne unus possit proferri testis, qui Hebraïcum viderit. Bib. Gr. T. iii.
• Having said that Matthew's gospel was written in Greek, and afterwards translated into Hebrew, he adds: The same
is to be resolved concerning the original language of the
epistle to the Hebrews. The epistle was written to the "Jews inhabiting Judea, to whom the Syriac was the mother-, 'tongue; but yet it was written in Greek for the reasons • above named. For the same reasons the same apostle wrote
in Greek to the Romans, although in that Church there 'were Romans, to whom it might seem more agreeable to • have written in Latin : and there were Jews, to whom it "might seem more proper to have written in Syriac.' Lightfoot, Vol. ii. p. 104.
Préface sur l'Epitre de S. Paul aux lébrenx. sect. sv. -xviii.
' was not the vulgar tongue. All the writers of the New Testament wrote in Greek, though
they wrote for all believers in general, whether Hebrews or Gentiles. Barnabas, or whoever is• the author of the Epistle under his name, wrote to the Hebrews, and yet wrote in Greek. Works composed in this language were useful to more persons, and even to a great number of Jews; for they who lived in Egypt and Asia spake Greek. In a word, they who talked of a *Hebrew original, never saw it; and have supposed without proof what they imagined ought to · have been.—Indeed almost all the passages of the Old Testament are here quoted according "to the Seventy, not according to the Hebrew.-A man needs only to read the epistle to the • Hebrews to know that it is not a version; it has altogether the air of an original : there is • nothing of the constraint of a translator; nor are there those Hebrew phrases which are so * common in the translation of the Seventy, and in that of Ecclesiasticus: for which reason we may
be willing to assent to the opinion of Origen, who judges upon this question in a manner alto'gether worthy of his moderation and discernment. “ If I was to speak my own opinion, I should say, that the thoughts (or sentiments] are the apostle's, but the language and composition of • some one else, who committed to writing the apostle's sense, and as it were reduced into commen* taries the things spoken by his master.” The style then is not the apostle's: nevertheless that • hinders not but the Epistle may be his, as to the thoughts and matter.' So that learned writer, who also adds: What therefore seems most probable upon the question is, that St. Luke, who
accompanied St. Paul, and was with him at Rome, was his secretary: he wrote the epistle for the "apostle, and according to his instructions ; hence the difference of style and composition in this ' and the other epistles written by St. Paul alone.'
So writes Beausobre in the above-mentioned place. But since, he has said that he has been much disposed to think, that Apollos, of Alexandria, wrote this epistle. However, if he was the author, that can make no alteration in the opinion about the original language of the epistle : Apollos, very probably, would write in Greek.
XIII. I shall observe only a various reading or two:
1. We find quoted in our author more than once those words of Matt. xiii. 35, from Psalm lxxviii. 2, in this manner: “I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation:” without nools, of " the world,” which is now in our copies. It is probable therefore, that this text so stood in the copies used by Eusebius: and indeed, “ of the world,” is not necessary. Mill has not taken any notice of this.
2. It may be worth the while to observe, that in his Commentary upon the lxxxviithPsalm, Eusebius, quoting Luke ii. 2, does not say, “ Cyrenius governor of Syria,” but “this « was the first survey,” or enrolment,
or enrolment, “ of Cyrenius, who governed Syria. The reader, if he thinks fit, 'may consult what was said · formerly concerning this matter, before I had observed this passage of our author.
of our author. This reading is not in Mill: Eusebius's Commentary upon the Psalms was published since his time. Perhaps this ought not to be reckoned a various reading: for I do not affirm, that Eusebius had any copy of the New Testament where “ was written; he may here only give the sense of the text. I would add, that in his Comment upon the preceeding Psalm likewise he speaks of Cyrenius, as the person by whom that survey was made, and of his coming into Judea for that purpose. 3. In the Commentary upon Ps. xvi. 1, otherwise xvii. 1, · The next words are: “ Attend
Which may be well used by him who is tried, and in prayer 'sends up supplica• tions to God: who presents not little and common requests, nor asks of God earthly and ' mortal things. And this our Saviour also taught, saying: “Seek ye the great things, and • the little shall be added unto you."'. Compare Matt. vi. 33. our Saviour by Clement and Origen, I have spoken “ formerly. This particular citation of it is not inserted in Grabe's, or other collections of such things, this Commentary of Eusebius not having been published till lately.
-* to my cry:
· See that passage cited before. Vol. i. p. 532.
ο Αυτη η απο ραφη πρωτη εγενείο ήξεμονευσανθος της Συρίας Plus je lis Philon, plus je soupçonne, qu' Apollos pourroit Kuppuie. In Ps. p. 543. c. avoir écrit cette épitre. Car certainement on y trouve quantité See the first part of this work. Book ii. ch 1, sect. 5. de pensées & d'idées prises de Philon, dont apparemment Apol. f - όλε Κυρηνιος επιςας τη Ιεδαια τας απο ραφας εποιειίο. los avoit été disciple, étant Juif d'Alexandrie. Remarques sur le N. T. Tom. ii. p. 160.
8 Te7ον γBν και ο σωτηρ εδιδασκεν, λείων: Αίλεισε τα μεταλα, -- ερευξομαι κεκρυμμενα απο καλαζολης. In Ps. p. 462. και τα μικρα προσεθησεθαι υμιν. In Ps. p. 56. Α.
P. 543. E.
b See Vol. i. p. 564, 565.
D. Vid. supr.
XIV. Though my design relates chiefly to scriptures of the New Testament, I cannot forbear to observe, (what our great authorthought not proper to omit), that in his Ecclesiastical History there are three catalogues of the Books of the Old Testament, as received by the Jews. The first is that“ of Josephus from his books against Apion: The second is that of Melito bishop of Sardis : The third is taken from Origen's works.
XV. It will not be amiss to put down here some instances of general divisions of sacred scripture, which are to be found in this writer.
He frequently uses a Greek word, literally denoting in the testament,' and generally, as equivalent to canonical : he uses it, when he proceeds to put down Josephus'sd catalogue of the scriptures of the Old Testament. Clement of Alexandria, he says, wrote brief Commentaries upon all the scriptures in-the-testament, not omitting those that are contradicted. The title of the chapter in which he inserts Origen's catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testament is : How' he mentions the scriptures in-the-Testament. He uses the same word, when he alleges % Irenæus's testimony to the New Testament: he elsewhere speaks" of books acknowledged by all, and others not in-hc-Testament, but contradicted. The same word is used by Origen. In his treatise of Prayer he observes, that' the Jews do not receive the book of Tobit as in the Testament: it is also in Origen's passage alleged by our author. Epiphanius uses a somewliat like phrase, when he says, the Alogians were of opinion, that' St. John's gospel ought not to be placed in the Testament, or be reckoned canonical.
Old" and New Testament is another common division : as also prophets and apostles : gospel's ° and epistles.
XVI. The respect which the ancient Christians had for the scriptures of the Old and New Testament, appears in many things mentioned by this writer.
1. It is needless to insist here upon the epithets sacred and divine scripture, of which we have seen so many instances. To the like purposes are such expressions as these : the sacred gospel : according to the most certain testimony of the sacred gospels : the' divine scripture of the gospels.
2. He says, there is no error or mistake in the scriptures: the prophets, according' to his account, spake only as the Spirit dictated : they“ did not write their own words, but were employed by the Spirit of God.
3. In his Epistle to the church at Cæsarea, after signing the Nicene Crecd, he says, that * the use of unscriptural phrases had been the great cause of the dissensions and disturbances that had happened in the churches.
4. He says, the first successors of the apostles, leaving their home, and performing the office of evangelists, went forth and preached the gospel to such as had not heard it; and then delivered to them the scripture of the gospels. From which passage, as well as from many others, it appears, that the gospels were then understood to be for general use.
2 Η. Ε. 1. iii. c. 9. & 10.
η προφητικων δηλαδη και αποςολικων λοίων, οις εκκλησια το 1. iv. C. 26. f.
σωληρος ημιαν εποικοδομείται. In Ps. p. 414. Ε. 1. vi. c. 25. in.
• Τοις ευαίγελίκους και αποστολικους αναγνωμασιν. De Ec. 4 Τελων εν τω προθερω τον αριθμών της λείομενης παλαιας
Τh. 1. iii. p. 195. Β. των ενδιαθηκων γραφων τιθησι. L. iii, c. 9. p. 85. Α.
P Ταυλα μεν το ιερον ευαγίελιον. Dem. Εν. p. 418. Β. πασης της εν διαθηκε γραφης.-1. iii. c. 14. in. η : καία την αψευδεςαλην των ιερων ευαγίελίων μαρτυ- όπως των ενδιαθηκων γραφαν εμνημόνευσε. L. vi. c. 25. ριαν. Denm. E. p. 30. Α.
τας πεδι των εν διαθηκων γραφων-παραδοσεις. 1 η θεια γραφη των ευαγίελιων. In Ps. p. 693. Ε. -1. V. c. 8. in.
• Ερίον δε θρασυ και τυροπελες είναι η μαι το αποτηνασθαι ανωμoλoίημενας γραφας, και τας αλλας παρα ταυ- τολμαν την θειαν γραφην ημαρίησθαι. In Ps. p. 129. Β. C. σας, εκ ενδιαθηκες μεν, αλλα και ανίιλείομενας. L. iii. c. 25. Conf. ibid. .
- δηλων ε7ι οριανον ην η προφηθικη γλωσσα, έλερα τα Τη δε τα Τοξης βιζλω αντιλείοσιν οι εκ περιτομης, ως μη χρωμενα αυξη, αλια πνευμαίος. In Ps. p. 167. D. ενδιαθηκαν. Orig. T. 1. p. 220. F.
* Ου γαρ οικεια ρημαία προσεφερον, τη δε θεια πνευματος εδε σως γραφων καλα λεξιν: Ουκ ανοηθεον δ' ειναι βελη διηκονοντο. Ιbid. p. 462. Ε. τας εν διαθηκες βιζλας, ως Εβραιοι παραδεδοασιν, δυο και εικοσι. *'- δια το απειρίειν αίραφοις χοησασθαι φωναις· δι' ο σχεδον L. vi. C. 25. 1ο.
p. 97. D.
η πασα γείτονε συσχισις τε και ακαΐαςασια των εκκλησιαν. Αp. 1 ΛεΓεσι δε το καλα Ιωαννην εταιγελιον-αδιαθελον ειναι. Socr. 1. i. c. 8. p. 26. D. Thdrt. 1. i. c. 12. p. 39. D. Η. 51. η. 18. p. 441. C.
Υερσον επιθελαν ευαγίελιεων, τοις έτι παμπαν ανηκοοις τ8 των ιερων γραφων της παλαιας διαθηκης καταλογε. τ8 της πιςεως λου- και την των θειων ευαγίελιων, παραδιL. vi. C. 25. 1ο..
της καινης διαθηκης γραφας. L. ii. c. 25. δοναι γραφην. Η. Ε. 1. ii. c. 38. p. 109. Β. C. in. & passim.
5. Eusebius says of Origen, that` from his childhood he was well versed in the divine scriptures.
6. According to our author, as cited formerly, the scriptures are the rule of faith, and the standard of orthodoxy. • There are,' says he, beside these, treatises of many others, whose
names we have not been able to learn ; orthodox and ecclesiastical men, as the interpretations of the divine scripture given by each one of them manifest.'
7. In his Oration in praise of the emperor Constantine, demonstrating the truth of the Christian religion, our author testifies the great respect that was paid to the scriptures of the New Testament, and the great number of translations which had been then made of them. · Who,' says he, ever delivered before-hand predictions of so many things, that were afterwards exactly
accomplished in the event, as our Saviour did----to take men, originally employed in fishing, • mean and illiterate, and constitute them lawgivers and masters of the universe of mankind · what and how mighty a work must this seem to you! • To engage to them by word and * promise, and indeed“ make them fishers of men ;” and “ to confer upon them so great a virtue • and power, as to compose writing, and publish books: and that these also should obtain such « esteem, as to be translated into every language, both of Greeks and barbarians, throughout the
whole world, and be diligently studied by all nations, and the things contained in them be • believed to be divine oracles. How evident a demonstration is this of his divinity.'
8. In the last chapter of the third book of the Evangelical Demonstration is a like argument; where he says, that` in a short space of time the gospel was preached throughout the whole world, for a testimony to all nations; and Greeks and barbarians had the scriptures conce
ncerning Jesus in their own letters and dialect.
9. Of reading the scriptures Eusebius speaks in this manner in his Evangelical Preparation : « So likewise the Jewish scriptures had before [Plato] required, that faith should precede the ' examination and understanding of the divine scriptures, in such expressions as these: “If : « will not believe, ye shall not understand ;” [so Eusebius from the Seventy, where we have, « « Ye shall not be established.”] Again, “ I believed: therefore have I spoken.” After which « same manner with us [Christians] also, to those who are just brought over to us, and are as yet but weak, and as it were but infants as to their minds, the reading in the divine scriptures [that is, the divine scriptures themselves] is barely put into their hands, recommending it to them to believe the things therein contained as the words of God. But to those who are confirmed and grown old in knowledge, it is allowed to penetrate farther, and search into the pro• foundest meaning of the words. Such as these the Jews call Deuterotæ, interpreters and expo• sitors of the scriptures.'
It is hence apparent, that reading the scriptures was recommended even to new converts from heathenism.
10. In his Ecclesiastical History Eusebius says, “that in his time it' was customary for • Christians, particularly the recluse and devouter sort, to be more especially engaged in the • attentive reading of the divine scriptures at the festival of our Saviour's passion.
11. I shall only add one passage more from the Commentary upon the Psalms; where Eusebius speaks of the public reading and explication of the scriptures. For he says, thatk in times
ταις θειαις γραφαις εξελι παιδος ενησκημενος. Η. Ε. θειων γραφων συνεσεως τε και θεωριας την αισιν προςατίει, δι' 3. vi. c. 2. p. 202. C.
ων φησιν Εαν δε μη πιςευσηιε, και μη συνηθε: Και αυθις, Επι6 Vol. i. ch. 32. p. 485.
σευσα, διο και ελάλησα. Ενθεν και παρ' ημιν τοις μεν αρτι εισα• Ορθοδοξων μεν και εκκλησιαςικων, ως γε δε η έκανε παρα- Γομενοις - απλέςερον ή εν ταις θειαις γραφεις αναΓνωσις δεικνυσι της θειας γραφης ερμηνεια. L. V. c. 27.
παραδιδοθαι, μετα τα δειν τις ευειν ως θεα λοίοις τοις εμφερομε« Και τοσαυτην αυτοις αρείην τε και δυναμιν παρασχειν, ως νοις παρακελευεσθαι. Τοις δε την έξιν προβεβηκοσι, και πολιοις. και γραφας συνλαξαι, και βίβλος παραδεναι και ταυλας εις το φρονημα, εμβαθυνεις και δοκιμαζειν τον νυν των λεπομενων τοσείο κραθυναι, ως καθ' όλης της οικεμενης σανθοια γλωσση επιλεγραπται. Τελες δε παισιν Εβραιων δευτερωθας φιλον ην βαρβαρων τε και Ελληνων μεταβαλλομενας παρα πασι τοις ονομαζειν, ωσπερ ερμηνευλας και εξηηθας ονίας της των γραφων εθνεσι μελετησθαι, και τις ευεσθαι θεια ειναι λοια τα εν αυλαις διανοιας. Prep. Εν. 1. xii. c. 1. p. 573. D. 574, Α. καλαβεβλημενα οσον εις αποδειξιν εναρίη της αυθε θεοληθος ; De 8 Ιs. vii. 9.
h Ps. cxvi. 10. Laud. Const. c. 17. p. 6ô2. C. D.
5 Η. Ε. 1. ii. c. 17. p. 57. Β. Κεκηρυκίο γεν το ευαγγελιoν εν βραχει χρονω εν όλη τη
εν γαρ τοις καιροις των διωίμων, καθ' ες πολλακις οικεμενη εις μαρίυριον τοις έθνεσι και βαρβαροι και Ελληνες τας κεκωλυνται
αι διδασκαλιαι και των θεοπνευσων γραφων περί τε Ιησε γραφας ταιριους χαρακληρσιν και πατριω φωνη με- αναγνωσμαλα-ως και ανευ της ανθρωπων διδασκαλιας απορ#αλαμβανον. Denm. 1. iii. p. 137. Α.
ρηθω δυναμει τρεφεσθαι. In Ps. 32. p. 128. Α. Β. 1 Εικοθως δε τα και η Εβραιων προλαβασα γραφη της των
of persecution, when discourses and readings of the divine scriptures are for the most part pro* hibited and hindered, and there are few or none found to impart spiritual food to the souls of * men; the providence of God by an influx of the divine Spirit nourisheth the souls of men, and
causeth them to be taught of God: so that without the instruction of men they are nourished by a secret influence.'
XVII. What we have seen in the works of this learned and laborious bishop, who flourished at about three hundred years after our Lord's ascension, is an invaluable testimony to the things concerning the Lord Jesus himself and his apostles, and to the swift and wonderful progress of the gospel, and to the scriptures of the Old and New Testament. The former were those received by the Jewish people. The number of the books of the New Testament does not appear to have been in his time settled by any authority, that was universally allowed of: but the books following were universally received, the four gospels, the Acts of the apostles, thirteen epistles of Paul, one epistle of Peter, and one epistle of John. These, I say, were universally received by Christians in our author's time, and had been all along received by the elders and churches of former times. Beside these, we now generally receive also an epistle to the Hebrews, an epistle of James, a second epistle of Peter, a second and third of Joltn, an epistle of Jude, and the Revelation. And it appears from this learned writer, that these books or epistles were then next in esteem to those before-mentioned, as universally acknowledged; and were more generally received as of authority, than any other controverted writings. Beside these, there was the Gospel according to the Hebrews, made use of by the Jewish Christians; being, probably, a translation of St. Matthew's gospel, with some additions ; and, as it seems, containing little or nothing contrary to the genuine doctrine of Christ and his apostles. The book called the Doctrine, or Doctrines of the Apostles, we have not now a distinct knowledge of; but, probably, it was a small book, containing the rudiments of the Christian religion, and fitted for the use of young people, and new converts, and never esteemed a part of sacred scripture. As for the rest, they were not very numerous, and their character is easily determined; for either they were useful ecclesiastical writings, as the Epistles of Barnabas and Clement, and the Shepherd of Hermas ; which, as we have seen from the quotations of them in the writers of the first three centuries, were never received as of authority, or a part of sacred and canonical scripture: or they were mean, absurd, and fabulous compositions, despised and disliked by the sounder Christians in general, both of our author's, and of former times. To the books of sacred scripture the greatest . respect was shewn; they were esteemed as of authority, and decisive in all points of a religious nature; they were publicly read and explained in the assemblies of Christian people; and they were open to be freely read by all sorts of people in private, for their instruction and improvement in religious knowledge, and their edification in virtue. Finally, it may be observed, that . this learned author makes little use in his works of apocryphal scriptures of the Old Testament: none at all of Christian writings, forged with the names of Christ's apostles, or their companions.
C H A P, LXXIII.
MARCELLUS, BISHOP OF ANCYRA IN GALATIA.
1. I put in the margin Jerom's article - of Marcellus; but I do not think it needful to translate it.
2. Marcellus is spoken of by Cave, as flourishing about the year 330; but that time seems too late. It is generally supposed, that he was present at a council of Ancyra in 314, as bishop of that city. He was also at the council of Nice in 325, where he signalized himself against
* Marcellus, Ancyranus episcopus, sub Constantino & Con- se non esse dogmatis cujus accusatur, sed communione Julii stantio principibus Aoruit. "Multaque diversarum UTCAEOWY & Athanasii, Romnapæ & Alexandrinæ urbis pontificum, se scripsit volumina, & maxime adversus Arianos. "Feruntur esse munitum. De V. I. c. 86. contra hunc Asterii & Apollinarii libri, Sabellianæ eum hære- b Vid. Epiph. H. 72. c. 2. p. 834, D. & Athan. Apolo seos arguentes. Sed & Hilarius in septimo adversum Arianos. contr. Arian. n. 32. p. 160. E. libro nominis ejus, quasi hæretici meminit. Porro ille defendit