« ElőzőTovább »
• But in this he is not generally followed by the Donatists: nor are there many, who are aware, ' that this was his sentiment. These heretics are called Mountaineers at Rome, to whom they
are wont to send a bishop from Africa, or else some bishops go thither, if they have a mind he o should be ordained there.'
Augustine has in another place · taken notice of Donatus's opinion concerning the doctrine of the Trinity.
II. I do by no means intend to write at large the history of the Donatists; I omit intirely their practice of rebaptizing. I shall only take some notice of the subject matter, or ground and reason of the difference between the catholics and them : and then obserye the rise and occasion of this controversy.
For other particulars I refer to divers writers, ancient, and modern. 1. At the beginning of his article just transcribed, Augustine mentions two objections of the Donatists against Cæcilian; one taken from crimes which he himself was said to be guilty of, the other is, that he was ordained by traitors. What the crimes were, which they accused Cæcilian himself of, may be seen in a passage of an anonymous Donatist writer, which I put at the bottom of the page. Whence it appears, that they also charged Mensurius, Cæcilian's predecessor, with betraying the scriptures. The whole story is indeed very unlikely: nevertheJess it was not forgot' by the Donatists in the conference at Carthage in 411.
Cæcilian's faulty ordination was always one' pretence. And, if Optatus may be relied upon, the only complaint, which the Donatists at first made against Cæcilian, was, that he had been ordained by Felix of Apthonga, who, they said, delivered up the scriptures to persecutors : whilst the catholics always denied the charge, as groundless.
Augustine, as we have seen, farther assures us, their opinion was, that the church of Christ subsisted in Africa only among themselves; and that every where else the church of Christ was lost and ruined, by communicating with unworthy persons, particularly, with such as adhered to Cæcilian, who had been ordained by traitors.
With what warmth and bitterness they expressed themselves upon this head, appears from a passage of an author of theirs, whom I have quoted more than once; as also from a place of * Petilian, in Augustine.
Augustine himself has mentioned a remarkable instance of their disdain of other men, which I
suppose may be relied upon.
a Ariani Patris & Filii & Spiritûs Sancti diversas -substantias surius, qui fuerat ante Cæcilianum ecclesiæ Carthaginis episcop esse dicunt. Donatistæ autem non hoc dicunt, sed unam Tri- pus, tempore persecutionis tradiderit persecutoribus sanctas nitatis substantiam confitentur. Et si aliqui ipsorum minorem scripturas, &c. August. Brev. Collat. D. iii. cap. xiii. n. 25. Filium esse dixerunt quam Pater est, ejusdem tamen substan- * Dicunt ordinatorein ejus sanctos libros tradidisse. Augó tie non negârunt. -Nec ipsa cum illis vertitur quæstio, Psalm. Contr. Donat. D. sed de solà communione infeliciter Jitigant. Ep. 85. al. 50. 8 Illo tempore a tot inimicis nihil in eum potuit confingi ;
sed de ordinatore suo, quod ab iis falso traditor diceretur, Vid. Euseb. H. E. 1. X. C. vi. p. 391, 392. De Vit. meruit infamari. Optat. 1. i. c. 19. Const. I. ii. c. 66. Optat. de Schism. Donatist. Aug. Opp. h Deinde Gesta Proconsularia, ubi Felix diligentissimo exa
T. ix. Ed. Bened. & passim. Philast. H.83. Theodoret. H. F. mine probatus est innocens. Aug. Ep. 43. al. 162. c. 2. n. 5. 1. iv. c. 6.
Vid. Gesta Purgationis Felicis Aptungitani. c Vid. H. Vales. de Sch. Donatist. ad calc. Annot. ad Igitur cum hæc ita sint, quisnam est divini juris peritiâ Euseb. H. E. Ittig. ad calc. Append. De Hæresiarchis. pollens, -qui judicii Dei memor -separat a stante lapsum, Leydeck. Hist. Ec. African. Witsii Diss. de Sch. Donat. ap. ab integro vulneratum, a justo reum, ab innocente damnatum, Misc. Sacr. T. i. p. 742. &c. Vitringa de Commun. Christian, a custode legis proditorem, a confessore Christi nominis ejus Observ. Sacr. T. i. p. 742. &c. Tillem. Mem. Ec. T. vi. negatorem -& unum atque idem existiinet & ecclesiam H. Norisii Hist. Donatist. ap. Opp. T. iv.
martyrum & conventicula traditorum. Quamobrem fuMaxime cum etiam Mensurius, Carthaginensis quon. gienda bonis, & vitanda est semper religiosis conspiratio tradidam episcopus, recenti scripturarum proditione pollutus, torum, hypocritarum don.us. ----Denique isti falsi sacrorum sceleris sui amentiam pejore cæpisset ferociâ publicare. ritus fictaque mysteria non tam in salutem quam in perniciem Quippe qui combustorum veniam librorum a martyribus pos- miserorum celebrantur, cum erigit altare sacrilegus, celebrat cere atque implorare debuerat, ut delicta sua majoribus fla- sacramenta profanus, baptizat reus, curat yulneratus, - legit gitiis cumularet, eo animo saviebat in martyres, quo divinas evangelia traditor, hæreditatem cæli promittit divinorum testradiderat leges. Etenim hic, tyranno sævior, carnifice cru- tamentorum exustor. Acta Saturnini, &c. cap. 19. ap. Du Pin delior, idoneum sceleris sui ministrum diaconum suum elegit Optat. p. 150. Cæcilianuin. Idemque lora & flagra cum armatis ante fores * Qui utique spiritus--sanctus in vos venire non potuit, quos carceris ponit, ut ab ingressu atque aditu cunctos, qui victum non vel pænitentiæ baptismus abluit: sed pænitenda, quod potumque in carcerem martyribus afferebant, gravi affectos verum est, aqua polluit traditoris. Aug. Contr. Lit. Petil. I. ii. injuriâ propulsaret. Et cædebantur a Cæciliano passim qui c. 36. n. 83. ad alendos martyres veniebant. -&c. Acta Martyr. Satur- Usque adeo ex ipso numero sunt, ut nuper in Collatione nin. & alior. cap. xvii. ap. Du Pin Optat. p. 156.
nostrâ, quod etiam in gestis ipsis legere potestis, cum eis a Tunc Donatistæ aliquantum prælocuti sunt, quod Men- cognitore esset confessus oblatus, ut sederent nobiscum, rem
But though the Donatists scrupled to communicate with the catholics, because they were traitors of the divine scriptures, the catholics retorted the charge, and called the Donatists the children of traitors, and averred, that they who were the first authors of the separation, were themselves traitors.
2. This shall suffice for a brief account of the ground of this difference, which had its rise after this manner;
Mensurius bishop of Carthage being dead, and Maxentius giving liberty to the Christians in Africa in 311, Cæcilian was chosen in his room, and ordained by Felix of Apthonga, and others. But some being dissatisfied, Majorinus was chosen and ordained by another party afterwards called Donatists, from Donatus, bishop of Casæ Nigræ in Numidia, who was exceeding active in the support of that interest.
of that interest. About this time, therefore, we may date the beginning of this difference.
Soon after that Constantine became master of Africa, upon the defeat of Maxentius, the Donatists sent a request to the emperor, by Anulinus proconsul of Africa, desiring that their cause might be heard and examined by some bishops of Gaul, who had lived under his father Constantius : and not having been persecuted, as other Christians had been in other parts of the world, were free from the charge of betraying the scriptures, and like faults, which many others had been guilty of.
The emperor received this petition in Gaul, and soon sent back orders to Anulinus. He likewise wrote a letter to Miltiades bishop of Rome. The emperor's appointment was, that * Majorinus with ten of his friends, and Cæcilian with ten others, favourers of him, should appear at Rome before Miltiades, and three bishops of Gaul. These were Maternus bishop of Cologne, Reticius of Autun, and Marinus of Arles. There were besides in this council fifteen Italian bishops, whose names may be seen in Optatus, making in all nineteen. This hearing was in the year 313, and Cæcilian' was acquitted by the unanimous vote of the council.
The Donatists not being yet satisfied, intreated the emperor, that their cause might be taken into farther consideration. In compliance with their request, was appointed the council of Arles, which sat in 314, when a like judgment was again passed.
Still the Donatists were uneasy, and made fresh applications to Constantine, to examine the spondendum putârunt: Scriptum est nobis, cum talibus non Nam majores vestri-imperatorem Constantium, harum sedere, scilicet ne per contactum subselliorum ad eos velut rerum adhuc ignarum, his precibus rogârunt-Constantine, nostra contagio perveniret. Aug. Serm. 99. cap. 8. Tom. v. optime imperator, quoniam de genere justo es, cujus pater
inter cæteros imperatores persecutionem non exercuit, & ab Ipsi tradiderunt libros, & nos audent accusare.
hoc facinore immunis est Gallia. Nam in Africâ inter nos & Aug. Psalm. contr. Donat. B. cæteros episcopos contentiones sunt. Petimus, ut de Gallia Dixerunt majores nostri, & libros fecerunt inde,
nobis judices dari præcipiat pietas tua. Optat. k. i. c. 22. Vid. Qui tunc causam cognoverunt, quod recens possent probare. & August. Ep. 88. al. 65. Erant quidam traditores librorun de sanctâ lege, &c. D.
a Vid. Euseb. H. E. l. x. c. 6. & Collat. Carth. D. 3. 'Sed hoc libenter finxerunt, quod se noverunt fecisse. Ib. E. 116. & August. Brev. Col. D. 3. cap. vii & xii. ·
Quidquid invicem abjicimus de traditione codicun. divino- e Et tamen dati sunt judices, Maternus ex Agrippinâ civirum, de thurificatione. Id. De Unit. Ec. cap. ii,
tate, Reticius ab Augustoduno civitate, Marinus Arelatensis. Deirde non post longum tempus iidem ipsi, tot & tales, ad Ad urbem Romam ventum est ab his tribus Gallis, & ab aliis Carthaginem profecti traditores, thurati, Majorinum- quindecim Italis. Optat. 1. i. c. 23. His decem & novem post ordinationem Cæciliani ordinaverunt, schisma facientes. Et considentibus episcopis, causa Donati & Cæciliaui in medium quoniam traditionis reos principes, vestros fuisse monstratum missa est. c. 24. est. Optat. 1. i. c. 15.
* Cæcilianus omnium supra memoratorum sententiis innoSi traditoribus non licet, vobis licere non debuit, quorum cens est pronunciatus. Optat. I. i. c. 25. principes probamus fuisse traditores. Id. ib. cap. 5.
$ Deinde diximus, aliquanto post Majorini ordinationem, Paulo ante docuimus vestros parentes fuisse traditores & quem contra Cæcilianum nefario scelere levaverunt eos schismaticos ; & tu ipsorum hæres.—Omnia igitur, quæ a petiisse a Constantino tunc imperatore judices episcopos, qui te in traditores & schismaticos dici potuerunt, vestra sunt. Id. de suis quæstionibus, quæ in Africâ exortæ - arbitrio medio 1. i. c. 28.
judicarent. Quod postea quam factum est, præsente CæciNec dicatur ad excusationem, quia traditoribus communi- liano & illis qui adversus eum navigaverant, judicante Melcare noluerunt; cum manifestissime probatum sit, eosdem chiade tunc Romanæ urbis episcopo cum collegis fuis, quos ad ipsos filios fuisse traditorum. Id. l. iii. c. 8. p. 65. Vid. & preces Donatistarum miserat imperator, in Cæcilianum nihil 1. j. c. 1. in. & l. v.c. 1. in.
potuisse, ac per hoc illo in episcopatu confirmato - Quibus • Hoc apud Carthaginem post ordinationem Cæciliani fac- peractis rebus cum illi omnes in pertinacia —permanerent, tum esse, nemo est qui nesciai. Optat. 1. i. c. 17. Tempestas post apud Arelatum memoratum imperatorem eamdem causam persecutionis peracta & definita est. Jubente Deo, indulgen- diligentius examinandam curâsse. lllos vero ab ecclesi-' tiain mittente Maxentio, Christianis libertas est restituta. cap. astico judicio provocâsse, ut causam Constantinus audiret. 18. Et Majorinus, qui lector in diaconio Cæciliani fuerat, Quo postea quam ventum est, utrâque parte assistente, innodomesticus Lucillæ, ipsà suffragante, episcopus ordinatus est a centem Cæcilianum fuisse judicatum, atque illos recessisse traditoribus. Ib. cap. 19.
superatos, & in eâdem perversitate mansisse. Aug. Ep. 43. VOL. II.
P. 524. E.
affair himself. Which he consented to, and after all decided, as the ecclesiastical judges had done already. This hearing before the emperor was at * Milain in 316. But the Donatists did not acquiesce any more in the judgment now passed than in the former.
Thus the difference was fixed : there was no reconciling the two parties. There was however a famous conference held at Carthage in 411, between the catholics and Donatists : by which, and by the writings of Augustine about that time, the Donatists seem to have been much weakened. Nevertheless, they subsisted in Africa till the end of the sixth century, or o later.
3. The Donatists were very numerous ; there must have been many of them in Numidia, and the proconsular province of Africa. Augustine intimates, that “ though there were Donatists in many places, yet in most cities, except those of Numidia, the catholics were much more numerous than they.
At the fore-mentioned conference at Carthage were present 286 catholic bishops: the Donatists counted but 279, and some of them absent. Tychonius ' speaks of a council of Donatists at Carthage, consisting of 270 bishops, but the time of it is uncertain. Augustine often speaks of a council of theirs, about the year 394, consisting of 310 bishops; and all these 310 were friends of Primianus: if the Maximianists, who were absent, were 100, their number in the whole were 410.
For certain this unhappy difference among the Christians of Africa affords an admonition to all men, to respect and hearken to Solomon's observation, and the council founded upon it; Prov. xvii. 14. “ The beginning of strife is, as when one lets out water. Therefore leave off contention before it be meddled with."
4. I forbear to enter into an account of the persecutions suffered by the Donatists. They were restrained by the imperial laws, which sometimes were very severe; but they were rarely executed in their utmost rigour. And the Donatists, who were not free from differences among themselves, often · shewed great bitterness toward each other: and in places where they were superior in number, they “ bore hard upon the catholics.
III. I add a brief account of some Donatist writers.
It ought to be observed, that I have already transcribed Jerom's article of Donatus, bishop of Carthage next after Majorinus: from whom, as some supposed, the party had its denomination.
1. Anonymous' author of the Acts of Saturninus, Felix, Dativus, Ampelius, and others; which appear to have been written not long after the beginning of the fourth century.
2. Cresconius, a learned " grammarian among the Donatists, wrote a book against the first part of Augustine's confutation of Petilian: which Augustine answered in four books, still extant, written in 406.
al. 162. c. 2. n. 4. Conf. libr. post Collat. cap. 33. Vid. centi decem episcopi Donatistæ. Contr. Ep. Petil. 1. i. c. 11. Aug. Ep. 105. al. 166. n. 8. Ep. 129. n. 4. & 185. al. 50. c.
Sic enim eos describunt trecenti decem plenarii con2. n. 6. Ep. 89. n. 3. Et recitatum est judicium Constantini. cilii. Contr. Ep. Parmen. 1. ii. c. 3. n. 7. Vid. & contr.
-Aug. Brev. Coll. D. 3. c. 19. in. Vid. & Monumenta Crescon. I. iii. c. 52, n. 58. & c. 53, 54. 56. & passim. Vetera ap. Du Pin Optat. p. 182.
ho Quæ res coëgit tunc primum adversus vos allegari apud * Vid. Pagi Crit. in Baron. A, 316. n. xiv. xv.
Vicarium Serranum legem illam de decem libris auri, quas Responderunt, etiam imperatorias aures pravis suggestioni- nullus vestrûm adhuc pendit, & nos crudelitatis arguitis. bus inflatas. Aug. Brev. Coll. 1). 3. cap. 19.
Contr. Lit. Petil. 1. ii. c. 83. n. 184. c Vid. Vales. de Schism. Donat. cap. ult. fin.
i Ita cæci & insani, ut cum schismaticos suos Maximianistas d Quod enim propterea se uviversos adesse dixerunt, & per potestates a catholicis imperatoribus missas de basilicis exeorum numerus appareat, quoniam eos paucos esse adversarii cluserint, & vi magnâ jussionum & auxiliorum cedere sibi sui sæpe mentiti sunt. Hoc si aliquando a nostris dictum est, compulerint, arguant catholicam, si pro eâ catholici principes de his locis dici verissime potuit, ubi nostrorun coëpiscoporum tale aliquid fieri præceperit. Contr. Parm. I. i. c. 10. n. 16. & clericorum & laïcorum longe major est numerus, & maxime k Nonne apud Hipponem, ubi ego sum, non desunt, qui in Proconsulari Provinciâ. Quamquam, exceptâ Numidiâ meminerint, Faustinum vestrum regni sui tempore præcipisse, Consulari, etiam in cæteris provinciis Africanis, nostrorum quoniam catholicorum ibi paucitas erat, ut nullus eis panem numero facillime superantur. Aug. Ep. 129. n. E.
coqueret? &c. Contr. Petil. 1. ii. c. 83. n. 184. e Respondit Officium, nomina Donatistarum episcoporum
Baluz. Misc. T. ii. p. 56. &c. & Optat. Milev. esse ducenta septuaginta novem, annumeratis etiam illis, pro ex Edit. Du. Pin. p. 150. &c. quibus absentibus alii subscripserant. Catholicorum autem m Vid. Baluz, Monitum. omnium præsentium nomina esse constitit ducenta octoginta n Grammaticus etiam quidam Donatista Cresconius, cum sex. Aug. Brev. D. 1. cap. 14.
invenisset epistolam meam, quâ primas partes, quæ in manus Dicit enim Tychonius, homo, ut dixi, vestræ communi- nostras tunc venerant epistolæ Petiliani, redargui, putavit mili onis, a ducentis & septuaginta vestris episcopis concilium Car- esse respondendum, & hoc ipsum scripsit ad me. Cui operi thagini celebratum. Aug. Ep. 93. al. 48. cap. x. 11. 43. ejus libris quatuor respondi. "Retract. I. ii. c. 26.
8 Sed ecce damnaverunt in concilio suo Maximianistas tre
3. Gaudentius, - bishop of Tamugada in Numidia. He was one of the seven Donatist bishops, chosen to defend their cause at the conference at Carthage in 411. Some time after that conference, the tribune Dulcitius, who was the emperor's commissary for executing the imperial laws against the Donatists, sent an admonition to him, to return to the unity of the catholic church; which Gaudentius answered, first by a short, then by a long letter. Dulcitius having sent those letters to Augustine, he answered them in one book. Gaudentius published a defence of his letters; and Augustine replied in another, or second book.
That is the substance of what Augustine himself writes. By which it appears, that Cave's account of this matter is not quite right: who supposeth Augustine to have written three books against Gaudentius.
Gaudentius seems to have been a man of a violent temper: for he had formed a design to set fire to his church, and therein to burn himself and some others. The only apology that can be made is, that the hard usage the Donatists met with made them desperate, and filled them with a rage, which they were not able to govern.
I have placed Gaudentius as flourishing about the year 411, the time of the fore-mentioned conference; but his letters to Dulcitius, and his answer to Augustine's first book, were not written until some good while after: for Augustine’s writings in this controversy are supposed to have been published about the year 420.
4. Says Gennadius, in the chapter next following in his Catalogue that of Vitellius, to be: hereafter transcribed: • Macrobius“ also, a presbyter among the Donatists, and afterwards their • secret bishop at Rome, whilst he was yet a presbyter of the church of God, wrote one book • addressed to confessors and virgins; a work of the moral kind, but very useful, especially for
preserving chastity. He first flourished among us in Africa, and afterwards among the Dona• tists, or Mountaineers, at Rome.'
Macrobius was the fourth Donatist bishop, who sat at Rome, and was living when Optatus of Melevi wrote, about 370. Optatus may be relied upon for that. But whether Gennadius be- . in the right in saying, that Macrobius was first a presbyter among the catholics, may be questioned. Nor is it easy to form a clear conception concerning the occasion, which a catholic presbyter should have about that time to write an exhortation to confessors. Insomuch, that it may be doubted, whether Gennadius did not confound two persons of this name. Tillemont has good remarks upon this account of Gennadius.
There is still extant a piece entitled 3 The Passion of Maximian and Isaac, Donatists: which is generally supposed to have been written by the above-named Donatist bishop Macrobius, in the year 348, or 319.
5. Parmenian succeeded ' Donatus in the see of Carthage about the year 350. Not long before the year 370, he wrote a book or epistle against the catholics, which was soon after answered by Optatus of Milevi, in a work still extant.
* Per idem tempus Dulcitius tribunus & notarius : hic erat vimus, Donatista, & suorum postea in urbe Româ occultus exsecutor imperialium jussionum contra Donatistas datarum. episcopus fuit. Scripsit, cum adhuc in ecclesià Dei presbyter Qui cum dedisset literas ad Gaudentium Tamugadensem Do- fuisset, ad confessores & ad virgines librum unum, moralis natistam episcopum, unum illorum septem, quos in nostrâ quidem, sed valde necessariæ doctrinæ, & præcipue ad cnstocollatione auctores suæ defensionis elegerant, exhortans eum diendam castitatem aptissimis valde sententiis communitum. ad unitatem catholicam, & dissuadens incendium, quo se ac Claruit inter nostros primum Africæ, & inter suos, id est suos cum ipsâ, in quâ erat, ecclesiâ consumere minabatur. Donatianos, sive Montenses, postea Romæ. Gennad. De V.I. -Ille rescripsit epistolas duas, unam brevem--aliain prolixam-Has mihi supra memoratus tribunus existimavit Ergo restat, ut fateatur socius vester Macrobius se ibi esse mittendas, ut eas potius ipse refellerem: quas ambas uno sedere, ubi aliquando sedit Encolpius.-- Optat. I. il. c. 4. libro redargui. Qui cum in ejusdem Gaudentii pervenisset | Les Donatistes. Note 21. manus, rescripsit quod ei visum est, ad meipsum. -Hinc & Apud Du Piu Optat. p. 199. &c. factum est, ut hi nostri ad illum duo libri essent. Aug. Retr. h See Tilleni. Donatistes Art. 48. 1. ii. c. 59. Conf. Opp. T. ix. sub fin.
i Non enim Cæcilianus exivit a Majorino avo tuo. Optat. Gaudentium, episcopum Tamugadensem, sectæ Dona- 1. i. c. 10. tistæ, qui Dulcitio tribuno, im eratoris apud Africam legato, In tribus libris contra epistolam Parmeniani Donatistarum duas epistolas apologeticas obtulit, ab Augustino totidem libris Carthaginensis episcopi, successoremque Donati. Aug. Retr, refutatas: quibus responsionem opposuit Gaudentius, ab Au
1. ii. c. 17. gustino itidem libro tertio eversam. Cav. H. L. De Gaudentio Dicant, unde natus est Majorinus, aut Donatus, vt per eos Brixiensi.
nasceretur Parmenianus atque Primianus. Aug. Cont. Parm. • Gaudeatius, -cum seipsum in ecclesià quibusdam sibi 1. iii. c. 2. n. 11. Vid. & c. 3. n. 18. adjunctis perditis incendere ininabatur. Aug. Contr. Gaud. k Vid. Du Pin Præf. ad Optat, & Tillcm. Les Donatistes 1. i. c. i. Vid. ejusd. Retract. supr. not."
Art. L. fin. d Macrobius, presbyter & ipse, ut ex scriptis Optati cogno
Parmenian afterwards wrote another letter against * Tichonius à Donatist, who differed in some things from the rest of his party. This letter was answered by Augustine in three books.
It does not appear with certainty when this letter of Parmenian was published: but' Augustine's answer was written about the year 400, and Parmenian was then dead. He seems however to have lived to the year 390, and the Donatist interest flourished greatly under him.
6. Petilian, bishop of Cirtha, called also Constantina, in Numidia: who a formerly pleaded at the bar as an advocate, wrote a letter to the Donatist clergy, which Augustine soon after answered in three books. He was one of the seven Donatist bishops, appointed to defend their cause at the famous conference at Carthage.
7. Says Gennadius, who wrote near the end of the fifth century, • Tichonius' of Africa, • well acquainted with the literal sense of scripture, and not ignorant in secular learning, and • well versed in ecclesiastical affairs, wrote three books concerning intestine divisions, an Expo• sition of several matters (or a Miscellany,] in which works he mentions some ancient synods • in defence of his own cause. By all which it appears he was of the Donatist party. He wrote • also a book of Seven Rules, for attaining the true Meaning of scripture. He likewise wrote a Commentary upon the Revelation of John, from the beginning to the end.'
That is a part of Gennadius's article: for the rest I refer to himself.
Augustine in his answer to Parmenian gives Tichonius & the character of a man of good sense, and a great deal of eloquence. He was a modern Donatist. But then he is reckoned inconsistent: and he fell under the displeasure of his own party. Parmenian, bishop of Carthage, as we have seen, wrote against him. Du Pin says, he' flourished about the year 380. Tillemont's * computation is not very different. The book of the Civil War, or Intestine Divisions, may be the book referred to by Augustine, and against which Parmenian wrote. The Seven Rules for finding the true Meaning of Scripture, are still extant.
8. Vitellius, of Africa,' says " Gennadius, defending the schism of the Donatists, wrote a book, shewing, that the servants of God are hated by the world. In which, if he had not "treated us as persecutors, he delivered an excellent doctrine. He also wrote against the
Gentiles, and against us, as traitors of the divine scriptures in the persecution. He likewise « wrote several other books, relating to ecclesiastical discipline. He fourished under Constans, « son of the emperor Constantine, that is, as Cave computes, about the year 344.
As Gennadius's is the only account we have of this author, and none of his writings remaini, nothing farther can be added. We may however conclude from hence, that the Donatists were not concerned for the interests of their own party only: but employed themselves likewise in the defence of the common cause of Christianity against its enemies.
IV. The Donatists used the same scriptures that other Christians did: as is often owned by their catholic adversaries, " Optatus and ° Augustine.
a Nunc autem quoniam incidit in manus nostras Parmeniani, 1 App. Bib. PP. Mex. T. vi. quondam episcopi eorum, quædam epistola, quæ scribitur ad m Vitellius Afer, Donatianorum schisma defendens, scripsit Tichonium. Aug. contr. Parmen.l. i. c. 1. Conf. Aug. Ep. 93. de eo quod odio sint mundo servi Dei. In quo si tacuisset de n. 44,
nostro velut persecutorum nomine, egregiam doctripam edib See Tillem. Donatistes. Art. 59. c Id. ib. Art. 65. derat. Scripsit & adversum Gentes, & adversum nos velut id Vid. Aug. contr. Petil. I. iji. c. 16. Opp. T. ix.
traditores, in persecutione, divinarum scripturarum. Et ad iTichonius, natione Afer, in divinis literis eruditus, juxta regulam ecclesiasticam pertinentia multa disseruit. Claruit historiam sufficienter, & in secularibus non ignarus fuit, in ec- sub Constante, filio Constantini principis. Gennad. cap. iv. clesiasticis quoque negotiis studiosus. Scripsit de bello intes
n Cum constet merito, quia nobis & vobis ecclesiastica una tino libros tres, & expositiones diversarum causarum, in quibus
est conversatio-Denique possumus & nos dicere: Pares creob suorum defensionem antiquaruin meminit synodorum. E dimus, & uno sigillo signati sumus, nec aliter baptizati quam quibus omnibus agnoscitur Donatianæ partis fuisse. Com- vos. Testamentum divinum legimus pariter. Optat. 1. iii
. c. 9. posuit & Regulas ad investigandam & inveniendam intelli
Denique & apud vos & apud nos una est ecclesiastica congentiam scripturarum septem, quas in uno volumine conclusit.
versatio, communes lectiones, eadem fides.
Id. 1. v. c. 1. Exposuit & Apocalypsin Johannis ex integro, nihil in eo car- fin. nale, sed totum intelligens spirituale. Gennad. De V. I. c. 15.
• Proferte certe aliquam de scripturis canonicis, quarum 8-incidit in manus nostras Parmeniani
nobis est communis auctoritas, ab hæreticis venientem denuo scribitur ad Tichonium, hon:inem quidem & acri ingenio præ- baptizatum. Aug. contr. Crescon. I. i. c. 31. n. 37. ditum, & uberi eloquio, sed Donatistam. Aug. Contr. Parm.
In scripturis discimus Christum: in scripturis discimus ec1. i. c. 1.
clesiam. Has scripturas communiter habemus. Ep. 105. al. Tichonius-vidit ecclesiam Dei toto orbe diffusain. 166. c. 4. n. 14. Aug. ibid. Conf. ejusd. Ep. 93. c. X. n. 43.
Isti autem fratres utriusque testamenti auctoritate devincti i Hist. Donat. p. 12.
sunt. Ep. 129. n. 3. « Les Donatistes Art. 59. & note 31, 32.