Mani's deliverance is not ascribed to magic, or any such like thing, but to a large sum of money, by which he bribed his keepers. As for the journey to heaven, mentioned by some eastern writers, I suppose that no one can think it worthy of any regard. In a word, the Manichees, as it seems, were rather a sect of reasoners and philosophers, than visionaries and enthusiasts.

It is observable, that Gregory Nazianzen, mentioning altogether the Montanists, Manichees, Novatians and Sabellians, distinguishes the first by their pretence of inspiration, without imputing any such thing to any of the rest. And in like manner in another place, where, beside the forenamed, are also mentioned Valentinus, Marcion, and some others.

Not that the Manichees were silent about the Spirit. No, for certain they, as well as other Christians, claimed an interest in the promise of the Spirit made by Christ: but, whereas Augustine says they pretended that the Spirit came to us by Mani, I am not fully satisfied about the justness of his expression. One might be rather apt to conclude from words of Faustus, and even from those words of Augustine just cited, came to us,' that they considered the gift of the Spirit as a blessing common to believers under the gospel dispensation.

If they had gone upon the ground of a particular inspiration in Mani, it might be expected that the traces of that high notion concerning their master should appear more distinctly than they do, in the discourses of the Manichees, with whom Augustine disputed. Fortunatus seems to use strong expressions to the contrary, when he says: "He knows that he cannot by any means shew his faith to be right, unless he proves it by the authority of the scriptures.'

Upon the whole, I do not chuse to deny that Mani was an impostor; but I do not discern evident proofs of it. I plainly see that he was an arrogant philosopher, and a great schemist : but whether he was an impostor, I cannot certainly say. He was abundantly too fond of philosophical notions, which he endeavoured to bring into religion : for this he is to be blamed. But every bold dogmatizer is not an impostor.

I put down Beausobre's judgment upon this point, when I entered upon the consideration of this question. I must here take notice of several other of his places, where he delivers his opinion concerning this matter. I do it for the sake of my readers, as well as myself, that none, who are desirous of information and judging rightly, may be destitute of any helps that can be obtained for these purposes.

He says, in the preface to his work, that “Mani took the character of an apostle of Christ, and a prophet immediately inspired by the Paraclete, to reveal to the world truths, in which our • Lord thought not proper to instruct his first disciples. This was his imposture or fanaticism. • For whatever the ancients may say, there are no evident proofs that he ever endeavoured i to pass for the Paraclete, or the Spirit.' He elsewhere speaks of Mani's pretending to a divine vocation. However, he likewise expresseth himself after this manner, speaking at the same time both of Mani, and some others called heretics: In' what then consisted their error ? • These heretics were philosophers, who, having formed certain systems, accommodated revela• tion to thems which was the servant of their reason, not the mistress. Mani, in particular, • boasted of having a perfect knowledge of all things, of having banished mysteries, and given a • true account of every thing; which the Manichees call the knowledge of the beginning, middle, • and end of all things. St. Augustine confesseth, that what seduced him in his youth was the

hope of understanding every thing by demonstration, and of knowing God by the sole light of « reason, without the help of faith. Again, says the same learned author : · Ask for his heresy • in general , it was, properly speaking, a philosophical system, the

grounds of which he found in • the philosophy of the magi, and which he accommodated, as well as he could, to the revelation of Jesus Christ. Herein he did nothing but what had been done before by many Greeks, and both Greeks and Latins have been doing almost ever since. In all times have been seen philosophers, ( whose minds were filled with the ideas and notions of Plato and Aristotle; which, under slight pretexts, they have mingled with Christian truths, and erected into articles of faith.' * See the preceding note

perinde docet

ultro Jesus, cum eum promitteret, Μοντανε δε το πονηρον πνευμα, και το Μανε σκοτος, κ. λ.



dicit in Evangelio, Ipse vos inducet in omnem veritatem, et Greg. Or. 23. p.414. C.

ipse vobis annuntiabit omnia, et commemorabit omnia. • Μοντανά το πονηρον πνευμα, και γυναικειον Μανε την Faust. ap. Aug. 1. 32, cap. 6. υλην μετα τα σκοτες: Ναυατε την αλαζονείαν, κ. λ. Οr. 25. ' Et quia nullo genere recte me credere ostendere possum,

nisi eamdem fidem scripturarum auctoritate firmaverim. Disp. d-dicunt Spiritum Sanctum, quem Dominus disci- Fortun. 1. 2. n. 20. pulis se missurum esse promisit, per ipsum [Manichæum,] & T. i. Pr. p. x. xi. h T. i. p. 179, 180. ad nos venisse. De Util. Cred. c. 3. n. 7.

i B. Hist. de Manich. T. i. p. 91.

Ib. p. 179. et nobis Paracletus ex Novo Testamento promissus

p. 441. B.

So Beausobre.. I readily assent to him in what he says of the philosophical nature of Mani's system. Whether he pretended to divine inspiration, I cannot say. However, I leave every one to judge as he sees good. But I own I had rather vindicate a Christian from the charge of imposture, than pronounce him guilty, unless the evidence against him be clear and full.

We now proceed to a more distinct examination of the Manichæan principles.

VI. Mani had honourable sentiments of the Deity, as self-existent, eternal, completely happy, and perfect in goodness. So much is evident from the passage of Fortunatus above quoted, and from a passage of Mani himself, to be taken notice of presently.

They owned God to be Almighty: both • Fortunatus and · Faustus ascribe to God that. attribute. Indeed they did not believe this world of ours to be made out of nothing. However, perhaps that was not from a supposition of the want of such power in God, but because they imagined things would have been better than they are, perfectly good, without any mixture of evil

, if the matter of which they consisted had been of divine original. But Mani and his followers did not believe the divine immensity, or that, as to his nature, he was in all places. For part of space, according to them, was occupied by Hyle, the evil principle, matter. But though they limited the divine essence in point of space, they did not Iimit God in point of power and knowledge. This appears from Augustine, who owns the 8 Manichees taught that God had prepared an eternal prison for the nation of darkness. Therefore God's dominion must be over all.

Upon account of their doctrine of two principles, to be taken notice of hereafter, the Manichees are often charged with believing two gods. So Turbo, in The Acts of Archelaus, expressly says of Mani : · He worships two gods, self-existent, eternal, opposite to each other, • one good, the other bad.' And Socrates said, that ! Mani taught his disciples to worship many Gods.

Faustus particularly considers this point. • Is k there one God; or are there two gods ? • For certain, one. Why then do you say there are two gods ? That is no doctrine of ours.

Why do you suspect it to be so? Because you believe two principles, one good, the other bad. • It is true, we believe two principles : but one of these we call God, the other Hyle; or some• times, in common discourse, the devil. However, he adds afterwards : I own that we . sometimes call the adverse nature god : not that it is so esteemed by us, but by those who * worship it, even as the apostle speaks of the “ god of this world blinding the eyes of them • that believe not." See 2 Cor. iv. 4.

They likewise considered God as the creator of the heavens and the earth, and all things that are therein, as “ Augustine assures us; which is very different from what is said of them by * Athanasius and · Rufinus. Forasmuch therefore as some writers deny that the Manichees ascribed the creation of the world to the good principle, and some other heretics also are said to


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- See him also, T. i. p. 426, note 4, and T. 2, p. 253. vos duos asseritis ? Nunquam in nostris quidem assertionibus

a Deo omnipotente. Fortun. ap. Aug. Disp.i. n. 17. duorum deorum auditum est nomen. Sed tu unde hoc susquia et omnipotentem Deum colam. Faust.1.20.c.4. picaris, cupio scire. · Quia bonorum et malorum duo princi

Quomodo autem et condere potuit creaturas, non pia traditis. Est quidem quod duo principia confitemur ; sed subsistente materiâ ? Si enim de non extantibus, consequetur unum ex his Deum vocamus, alterum Hylen, aut, ut comhas visibiles creaturas meliores esse, et omnibus virtutibus muniter et usitate dixerim, dæmonem. Faust. 1. 21. in. plenas. Manes ap. Arch. n. 14. p. 27.

| Nam nec diffiteor, etiam interdum nos adversam naturam Ego duas naturas esse dico, unam bonam, et alteram nuncupare deum, sed non hoc secundum nostram fidem, vemalam, et eam quidem, quæ bona est, in quibusdam partibus rum juxta præsumtum jam in eam nomen a cultoribus suis, habitare. Si enim dicimus monarchiam unius naturæ, et qui eam imprudenter existimant deum, &c. ib. ad fin. omnia Deum replere, et nullum esse extra eum locum, quis

autem fatemini universum istum mundum, qui noerit creaturæ susceptor? ubi gehenna ignis ? ubi tenebræ ex- mine caeli et terræ significatur, habere auctorem et fabricatoteriores ? ubi fletus? Manes. ap. Arch, n. 14.

rem Deum, et Deum bonum. De Mor. Manich. c. x. n. 16. See Beaus. T. i: p 505, 506.

η Και γαρ κακεινοι [Μανιχαιοι] μονον αχρις ονομαίος αγα8 Ipsi enim dicunt, Deum genti tenebrarum æternum car- θον θεον ονομαζεσι, και εργον μεν αυλα ουτε βλεπομενον ουτε cerem præparare, quam dicunt esse inimicam Deo. Contr. αορατον δεικνυειν δυνανται τον δε αληθινον και οντως οντα θεον, Adim. c. 7. n. 1.

τον ποιητης ερανε και γης, και πανίων των αορατων, αρνεμενοι, Η Ουτος δυο σεζει θεες αγεννητες, αυτοφυεις, αΐδιος, ένα τα wavlɛws Eloi pudonojos. Ath. Ep. Enc. ad. Ep. Æg. et Lib. ένα αντικειμενον, και τον μεν αγαθον, τον δε πονηρον εισηγειται. n. 16. T. i. p. 285. E. ap. Arch. n. 7. p. 9.

• Tum deinde quod mundum a malo factum dicit, Deum πολλές θεας σεζειν ο Μανιχαιος προτρεπεται. Socr. creatorem negat. 'Ruf. in Symb. Ap. Hieron. Opp. T. 5. 1. i. c. 22. * Unus Deus est, an duo? Plane unus. Quomodo ergo

p. 26.


p. 142.

have disowned God as creator, I shall put down`a passage or two more from Augustine, and the author De Fide, where they allow that the Manichees spoke of God as the maker of the world. And Titus of Bostra, giving an account of their notion upon this head, says that the universe, according to them, consisted indeed of a mixture of good and bad, but was formed by the good principle, that is, God. For the evil principle knew nothing beforehand of the formation of the world. Besides, I remember that I alleged a passage to this purpose before, when I shewed their agreement with other Christians. And Beausobre might be consulted upon this head.

The Manichees believed a consubstantial Trinity, or three persons of the same substance. I' have already taken some notice of this. I observe here a few more particulars as proofs of this, though I do not design to examine their opinion nicely.

Augustine says the : Manichees never dared to deny that the Father and the Son are consubstantial.

Secundinus begins his letter to Augustine in this manner: "I"give thanks to the ineffable • and most sacred Majesty, and to Jesus Christ, his first-begotten, king of all lights. I also humbly give thanks to the Holy Spirit.'

Faustus has a remarkable passage where he says : We' worship one deity of God the Father Almighty, and Christ his Son, and the Holy Ghost, under a threefold appellation. But • the Father we believe to inhabit the supreme and most sublime light, which Paul calls inacces. •sible. [1 Tim. vi. 16.] The Son we think dwells by his power in the sun, by his wisdom in • the moon: the Holy Spirit, the third Majesty, has the air for his residence.'

Here therefore I observe that the Manichees are said to worship the sun. So Socrates expressly. Libanius too owned that they worshipped the sun in a secondary sense : and it is very likely that they paid some respect both to the sun and the moon on account of the resi: dence of the Son of God therein, as just mentioned by Faustus.

However, let us likewise see what others say. We find Augustine himself charging them with." the worship of the sun and the moon. But in the dispute with Fortunatus, when called upon to declare if he had seen any thing criminal in their worship, he owned that he had observed nothing amiss in the prayers, at which he was present, except that they turned themselves toward the sun. In another place he informs us, that when they prayed they looked toward the sun in the day time, and toward the moon in the night. In another place he speaks of ? their kneeling to the sun, or toward it. Alexander of Lycopolis says they 'honour the sun and moon above all things, not as gods, but as the way by which we are to go to God. Titus


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Proinde mundum a naturå boni, hoc est a naturâ Dei colimus numen: sed Patrem quidem ipsum lucem incolere cre. factum confitentur quidem, sed de commixtione boni et mali, dimus summam ac principalem, quam Paulus alias inaccessibia quæ facta est, quando inter se utraque natura pugnavit. Aug. lem vocat: Filium vero in hac secundâ ac visibili luce consisde Hær. cap. 46.

tere ; qui quoniam sit et ipse geminus, ut eum Apostolus noIste autem, cujus nomen in eodem libro non comperi, de- vit, Christum dicens esse Dei virtutem et Dei sapientiam ; testatur Deum mundi fabricatorem; cum Manichæi, quan- virtutem quidem ejus in sole habitare credimus, sapientiam vero quam librum Geneseos non accipiant, atque blasphement, in luna : nec non et Spiritûs Sancti, qui est majestàs tertia, aëris Dèum tamen bonum fabricâsse mundum, etsi ex alienâ natura hunc omnem ambitum sedem fatemur ac diversorium. Faust. atque materiâ, confiteantur. Contr. adv. Leg. et Proph.l. i.c.i. 1. 20. c. 2. Manichæus enim duas dicit esse naturas, unam bonam, et

και τον ήλιον προσκυνειν διδασκει. Socr. 1. i. c. 22. alteram malam ; bonam, quæ fecit mundum, malam, de quâ p. 56. A.

See before, p. 144. factus est mundus. De Fid. c. 49. in.

quod vel tu, vel quilibet alius rogatus, ubinam Deum • Γεγονε τοινυν μιξις και κρασις, τ8τον φησι τον τροπον, της suum credat habitare, respondere non dubitabit, in lumine: τε κατανοθεισης δυναμεως τα αγαθε, και της καταπίεσης υλης: ex quo cultus hic meus omnium pene testimonio confirmatur. και έτως εξ αμφοιν εδημιουργηθη το δε τσαν, υπο τα αγαθα δη- Faust. ib. 1. 20. c. 2. f. λαδη 8 γαρ αν προενοησεν η κακια κοσμο γενεσεως. Τit. 1. i. a Solem etiam et lunam cum eis adorant et orant. Aug. P. 68. m.

T. 2. Ep. 236. al. 74. See before, p. 177, note 5.

Ego autem in oratione, qua interfui, nihil turpe fieri vidi: • See B. T. 2. p. 360, 361. * See p. 177, &c. sed solum contra fidem animadverti quod contra solem

Quia et numquam dicere ausi sunt, Patrem et Fi- facitis orationem. Adv. Fortun. Disp. i. n. 3. lium nisi unius esse substantiæ. Aug. Serm. xii. in PS. p Orationes faciunt ad solem per diem, quaquaversum cir

cuit; ad lunam per noctem, si apparet; si autem non appaHabeo et ago gratias ineffabili et sacratissimæ Majestati, ret, ad aquiloniam partem, quâ sol, cum occiderit, ad orientem ejusque primogenito omnium luminum regi Jesu Christo.

revertitur, stant orantes. De Hær. c. 46. Habco gratias, et supplex sancto refero Spiritui. Secund. ad 9 Sol iste, cui genu flectitis, &c. De Mor. Manich. cap. 8. Aug. Ep. io.

n. 13. i Igitur nos Patris quidem Dei omnipotentis, et Christi filii Τιμωσι δε μαλισα ηλιον και σεληνην, 8χ ως θεος, αλλ' ως ejus, et Spiritûs Sancti unum idemque sub triplici appellatione obor SS suv w pos Ssov apie dar. Alex. L. p. 5. D.

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cap. X. n. xi.

of Bostra ascribes their respect to the sun to their supposition that it was composed of parts of light entirely pure, and unsullied with a mixture of evil

. And Augustine seems to speak to the like purpose, or at least that they esteemed it a portion of light which God inhabits. Simplicius says they thought the sun and moon to consist of parts of the good substance, and therefore honoured them.

Upon the whole, I believe we need not surmise any great harm in the respect they shewed the sun, considering that Faustus assures us they believed one God under a threefold appellation, and considering what Augustine says of the prayers at which he was present. But it seems that when they prayed to God, for some reason or other they turned their faces toward the sun or the moon.

VII. · The Manichees,' to use Augustine's words, . held two principles, different and opposite, eternal and coeternal : and two natures and substances, one good, the other evil, following herein other ancient heretics.'

In this notion, as the same learned father says, they triumphed to a great degree, supposing it to afford the best account of the origin of evil.

And Epiphanius says that ' by this scheme. Mani endeavoured to free God from the charge of being the author of evil. To the like purpose speaks & Jerom, and Titus of Bostra, andi Simplicius.

Indeed this difficult question, of the origin of evil, was the ruin of these men, and of many others. They perplexed and confounded themselves, and they endeavoured to puzzle and confound all other people. Augustine k intimates as much.

Theodoret's account is to this purpose: · Mani' taught two eternal beings, God and matter. • God he called light, matter darkness : and the light good, matter evil. He called them also

by other names. Light is a good tree, full of good fruits: matter an evil tree, bearing fruits • agreeable to its root.

Photius, observing the contents of a work of Agapius, a Manichæan writer, says: • He** advanceth a bad principle, self-existent and opposite to God; which he sometimes calls nature, . sometimes matter, sometimes Satan, and the devil, and the prince and god of this world, and • the like.'

Their opinion is laid down by * Fortunatus at the beginning of his second dispute with Augustine.

Jeromo often takes notice of this doctrine of the Manichees.

This doctrine Mani teaches in his letter to Marcellus. He wonders how any Christians can think that God made Satan and other evil things. This notion, and the consequences of it, are much discoursed of in The Dispute of Archelaus. * 1 Επειδη δε ήλιον σεμνύνει, και αμιγη ειναι, ως υπειληφε, τα ----και το θαυμασον, ότι παντα ταυτα ανεπλασαν, δια xaxo do pista.. Tit. contr. Manich. 1. 2, p. 128. in.

θεοσεζη δηθεν ευλαβειαν μη βέλομενοι γαρ αιτιον τε κακά τον 6 Et ideo istum solem- isti sic colunt, ut particulam JEGV EITTEIV, 2C%Tv UWESTORYTO diay to max8, . . Simpl. in. dicant esse lucis illius in quâ habitat Deus. De Gen. contr. Epict. Enchir. c 34, p. 108. Man. 1. i. c. 3. n. 6.

k Qui, dum nimis quærunt, unde sit malum, nihil reperiunt • Ποση δε και η περι τοτο αλλοκοτια, το εκ παντων των εν nisi malum. De Ut. Cred. c. 18, n. 36. τω ερανα μονες τες δυο φωςηρας τιμαν, της τα αγαθε μοιράς 1 Ούτος δυο αγεννητος και αίδιες εφησεν ειναι, θεον και λεγοντας αυτες. κ. λ. In Epictet. c. 34, p. 167.

υλης και προσηγορευσε τον μεν θεον φως, την δε υλην σκοτος. Iste duo principia inter se diversa et adversa, eademque x. a. Thdrt. H. F. 1. i. c. 26. p. 212. B. C. æterna et coæterna, hoc est, semper fuisse, composuit : duas- Τι Αρχην πονηραν αυθυπος ατον αντανιςησιν εξ αίδιο τω θεω, que naturas atque substantias, boni scilicet et mali, sequens ήν ποτε μεν φυσιν, αλλοτε υλην, και αλλοτε δε Σαταναν, και alios antiquos hæreticos, opinatus est. Aug. de Hær. c. 46. Διαβολον, και αρχοντα το κοσμο, και θεον το αιωνος τετε.

e Hic fortasse quis dicat, Unde ipsa peccata, et omnino x. à. Ph. cod. 179, p. 404, in. unde malum ? Si ab homine, unde homo ? Si ab angelo, unde n Disp. 2, sub in. angelus ? Quos ex Deo esse cum dicitur, quamvis recte vere- • Ut non juxta Manichæum, et cæteras hæreses (quæ facque dicatur, videntur tamen imperitis et minus valentibus torem et materiam ponunt), aliquid, unde creaturæ factæ sint, acriter res abditas intueri, quasi per quamdam catenam ad antecesserit creaturas, sed omnia ex nihilo substiterint. Hier. Deum mala

et peccata connecti. Hac quæstione regnare se in Ep. ad Gal. cap. i. T. 4. P. i. p. 435, in Vid. eund. ad putant. De Duab. Anim. c. 8, n. 10.

Ctes. Ep. 43. T. 4. P. 2, p. 480, infr. m. et Proi. D'al. adv. 1 Μανης, βελομενος κακιας υπεξαιρειν τον θεον, κ. λ. Epiph. Pelag. ib. p. 485, in. 16. p. 632. Vid. et n. 15, in.

P Και πως τον θεον το Σατανα, και των κακων αυτ8 πραγ& Inde Manichæus, ut Deum a conditione malorum liberet, ματων λεγειν τολμωσι ποιητης και δημιεργον, θαυμαζειν μοι alterum mali inducit auctorem. Hier. in Naum. cap. 3, T. 3, ETTEPWETAI. ap. Arch. c. 5, P: 7,

f. p. 1588. in.

9 Ego duas naturas esse dico, unam bonam, et alteram ma* Κακιας γαρ αναιτιον αποδείξαι τον θεον βεληθεις, κ. λ. lam. ib.c. 14, p.

26. Tit. contr. Manich. 1. i. p. 60, in. ap. Basnag. et Canis. Lect. Ant. T. i.

H. 66, n.



After all this, it may be still proper to put down, in the margin at least, the words of Mani himself, near the beginning of his Epistle of the Foundation, which was so much admired by his followers, and is largely cited by Augustine. • There * were,' says he, in the beginning, two substances, divided from each other.

The kingdom of light is held by God the Father, • unchangeable, all-powerful, true in his nature, eternal, having in himself wisdom and vital powers.

His most splendid kingdom is founded upon light and blessed land, not to be shaken moved by any.' But however, as he goes on, 'On one side of his illustrious and holy terri• tories was the land of darkness, deep and wide, where dwelt fiery bodies, and all sorts of pesti. ferous things : beyond which are muddy waters, boisterous winds, dark smoke; and at the • centre the dreadful prince and universal governor, having with him innumerable princes, of 6 which he is the soul and source. And these are the five natures (or elements] of the pestifer"ous country,

These five elements, as Augustine observes in plainer words, are darkness, water, wind, fire, &moke. Darkness is the outmost, within that water, within that wind, next fire, and the inmost smoke; all which regions have their several inhabitants. In another place « Augustine mentions again these five elements, but in a different order.

There were as many elements in the kingdom of light; air, light, fire, water, wind: which, at the formation of the world, were mixed with the bad elements. Hence it

appears thatî Mani ascribed to matter, the evil substance, the land of darkness, not only eternal existence, but likewise motion and life, animal passions, and, as one would think, reason or intelligence. If the inhabitants of those regions had not reason originally, they seem to have gained it afterwards.

Upon this point I shall mention a thoughts of Beausobre, which is to this purpose. • Titus of . Bostra observes this absurdity in the Manichæan scheme, that they ascribe an unreasonable • life only to dæmons : and yet those dæmons are represented shewing great art and skill. But,' says Beausobre, • Titus did not consider that the Manichees do not ascribe such ability to the • dæmons till after they had seized on the parts of light which were devoured by them, and became incorporated with them. Whether this be right I cannot say: I shall mention an observation concerning this matter by and by.

• As for the devil,' to take the words of Beausobre, · Mani did not believe him to be pro* perly eternal, forasmuch as he gave him a father: which supposition he built upon the words

of our Saviour in John viii. 44. According to him the father of the devil was matter agitated * in a violent, irregular, and tumultuous manner.' That learned writer does not refer to the proper vouchers for proof of this account.

I shall therefore add a few references in the margin, taken from The Dispute of Archelaus, wherek Mani is represented quoting the text of St. John's gospel in this manner, that the father of the


* Hæ quidem in exordio fuerunt duæ substantiæ a sese ordinat, ut exteriores cæteris sint tenebræ, a quibus numerare divisæ. Et luminis quidem imperium tenebat Deus Pater, in incipit. Intra tenebras, aquas constituit, intra aquas ventos, suâ sanctâ stirpe perpetuus, in virtute magnificus, naturâ ipsâ intra ventos ignem, intra ignem fumum. Et habebant istze verus, æternitate propriâ semper exsultans, continens apud se quinque naturæ sua quæque genera inhabitatorum. Contr. sapientiam et sensus vitales.-- Ita autem fundata sunt ejusdem Ep. Manich. c. 28, n. 31. splendidissima regna super lucidam et beatam terram, ut a nullo


elementa his nominibus nuncupant, fumum, unquam aut moveri aut concuti possint. Ap. Aug. contr. Ep. tenebras, ignem, aquam, ventum. Aug. De. Hær.c. 46. Manich, c. 13, n. 16.

e His quinque elementis malis debellandis alia quinque eleJuxta unam vero partem ac latus illustris illius ac sanciæ menta de regno et substantiâ Dei missa esse, et in illa pugnâ terræ erat tenebrarum terra, profundâ et immensâ magnitu- fuisse permixta : fumo aëra, tenebris lucem, igni malo ignem dine, in quâ habitabant ignea corpora, genera scilicet pestifera. bonum, aquæ malæ aquam bonam, vento malo ventum boHic infinitæ tenebræ, ex eâdem manantes naturâ inæstima

Id ibid. "biles cum propriis fetibus : ultra quas erant aquæ cænosæ ac αρ αν έκατερον των παρα τω Μανεντι νομιζομενων

WY EYDYTiwy, turbidæ cum suis inhabitatoribus, quarum interius venti horrí- ασια ζωσα τε και αγενητος ονομαζεται. Τit. 1. i. p. 65. biles ac vehementes cum suo principe et genitoribus. Rursus 5 See Beaus. Hist. de Manich. T. 2, p. 410.411. regio ignea et corruptibilis cum suis ducibus et nationibus. ή όθεν πεφευγασι προσομολογειν αυτη λογισμoν τε και γνωσιν. . Pari modo introrsum gens caliginis ac fumi plena, in quâ mora- Tit. I. i. p. 70, sub in. batur immanis princeps omniuin et dux, habens circa se innu- i B. T.i. p. 179, and see him again T. 2. p. 263. merabiles principes, quorum omnium ipse erat mens et origo. * Et alio in loco, patrem diaboli mendacem et homicidam Hæque fuerunt naturæ quinque terræ pestiferæ. ap. Aug. ib. c. esse confirmat (Salvator Christus). Manes, ap. Arch. c. 13, p. 14, n. 19.

24. -Cum loquitur mendacium, de suis propriis loquitur, • Animadvertimus quinque naturas, quasi partes unius na- quoniam mendax est, sicut et pater ejus. ib. n. 29, p. 48. turæ, quam vocat terram pestiferam. Hæ sunt autem, tene- Conf. Beaus. T. 2, p. 263, bræ, aquæ, venti, ignis, fumus; quas quinque naturas sic



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