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THE SENTIMENTS OF THE MANICHEES CONCERNING DIVERS POINTS.
1. Mani was a Christian. II. Divers particulars in which the Manichees agreed with other
Christians. III. Whether Mani was an impostor? The question proposed, and the opinions of several about it. IV. Reasons for thinking he was an impostor, with an examination of those reasons. V. Additional observations. VI. The Manichæan sentiments concerning the divine perfections. Whether they believed two gods? They believed God creator, and a Trinity. Whether they worshipped the sun ? VII. They held two eternal principles. VIII. Their account of the creation of the world. IX. Of the formation of man. X. That man has two souls. XI. Of the fall of man. XII. Of marriage. XIII. Of free will. XIV. Of fate. XV. Of the lawfulness of war. XVI. They held the transmigration of souls. XVII. They denied the resurrection of the body. XVIII. Of the future judgment, and the eternity of hell torments. XIX. Of the end of the world. XX. The grounds and reasons of their faith in Christ. XXI. They believed Christ to be God, but not man. XXII. Their opinion of Christ's crucifixion, death, and resurrection. XXIII. Whether they thought the death of Christ to be a propitiatory sacrifice ?
1. The first thing I observe for shewing Mani's sentiments is, that he was a Christian.
Entering into the debate with Archelaus, he is made to say : •I, brethren, am a a disciple and and an apostle of Jesus Christ. His letter to Marcellus, inserted in the work ascribed to Archelaus, is thus inscribed : Mani, an apostle of Jesus Christ, and all the saints with me, $ unto Marcellus my dear son, grace, mercy and peace from God the Father, and from the Lord • Jesus Christ.? In that letter he complains that some,' even Christians, did not believe the things * said in the gospels by our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.' At the village Diodoris, Mani is represented speaking to Archelaus in this honest, and resolute, and truly Christian manner : .Ifa
you have a mind to persecute me, I submit: if you would inflict punishments upon me, I do not 15 decline them: if you would kill me, I am not afraid. For we ought to fear him alone, who is • able to destroy both soul and body in hell :' see Matt. x. 28.
Faustus in his book usually proposeth difficulties and objections against their scheme in the way of question : Do you receive the gospel? Yes certainly.' Afterwards : · Do' * the gospel ; and do you ask me whether I receive the gospel, when in fact it appears that I * receive it by doing what it commands ?' which he there proceeds to shew in a variety of particulars. He speaks of the wholesome, or saving words of the Lord, and his divine dis* courses.' And, according to him, Christ " is light and truth itself, and' a teacher and model of all virtue.
Faustus readily professeth himself and the rest of the Manicheesk to be disciples of Christ and his apostles : nor' will they be prevailed upon by any to forsake Jesus, the son of God, their master. Our " Lord, and our Saviour, are characters and titles by which they continually speak of Jesus Christ.
• Ego, viri fratres, Christi quidem sum discipulus, apostolus vero Jesu. Arch. n. 13, p. 24, in. • Μανιχαιος αποστολος Ιησε Χρις8
χάρις, ελεος, ειρηνη απο θεα πατρος και κυρια ήμων Ιησε Χριςθ. κ. λ. η. 5,
credimus, tum præcepta salutaria ejus, tum parabolas, cunctumque sermonem deificum. Id. I. 32, c. 7.
Christum lumen, sanctinionium, divina omnia petentem. I. 14, c. i.f.- veritatis auctori. I. 16, c. 2.
Ουτε γαρ τοις ειρημενοις εν ευαγγελιoις παρ' αυτε το σωτηρος ημων και κυριε Ιησε Χριςο πιςευασιν. ib. p. 7.
Si persequi volueris, paratus sum : et si inferre supplicia, non refugiam. Si etiam interficere me vis, non reformido. &c. Arch. n. 47, p. 84. • Accipis evangelium ? Et maxime. Faust. 1. 2, c. i.
Accipis evangelium ? Tu me interrogas, utrum accipiam evangelium, in quo id ipsum accipere apparet, quia quæ jubet observo- - ? Ego patrem dimisi et interrogas, utrum accipiamevangelium? Nisi adhuc nescis, quid sit quod evangelium nuncupatur. 1. 5, c. i.
Quid vero et de magistro ipso dicemus ac sanctimonii totius auctore Jesu? 1. 30, c. 4.
* -ut fere Christo placet et ejus apostolis, et nobis profecto. l. 24, c. i. med. neque id temere aut præsumtive, sed a Christo discentes et ejus apostolis, &c. eod. cap. ad fin.
Nos vero quamvis de hac sententiâ nemo prorsus dejiciat, ex Deo accipiendi filium Dei. I. 23, c. 3, in.
m Et merito dixisse Dominum nostrum. Fortunat. Disp. i. c. 14. Evasimus igitur, quia spiritalem secuti sumus salvatorem. Nam illius tantum erupit audacia, ut si noster Dominus carnalis foret, omnis nostra fuisset spes amputata. Secundin, ad. Aug. c. 4.
Titus of Bostra owns that they honoured the name of Christ. Augustine observes, that b they would not say the doctrine of the apostles of Christ was in any respect false and mistaken.
By all which we may perceive how much the later ingenious Stephen Nye was mistaken, when he said that the Manichees never were accounted a sect of Christians.
I shall add but little more here.
Fortunatus, the Manichæan presbyter, in the dispute with Augustine, says, the soul cannot be reconciled to God but by the Lord Jesus Christ : thato Christ our Saviour has taught us what good we ought to do, and what evil we ought to avoid, in order to please God: that the doctrine of Christ is sound doctrine, by which the soul may be purified from its defilements, and brought back to the kingdom of God.
II. Mani then and his followers were Christians. It will appear farther from great numbers of things to be taken notice of as we go along. However, I would here add a few ing, in some measure, what opinions they held in common with other Christians. They believed a God and a Trinity, and that God made the world; so Augustine says,
Never theless we may hereafter observe some differences between them and other Christians heads.
They required and encouraged repentance, as Augustine likewise assures us.
And he observes that' he and the Manichees agree in saying that we ought to love God and our neighbour. But they denied that this was taught in the Old Testament.
Let me here add the confession of faith made by Fortunatus at the beginning of the dispute with Augustine in the year 392; though some expressions there used are not altogether agreeable to the catholic doctrine.
• Our belief,' says * Fortunatus, “is this, that God is incorruptible, glorious, inaccessible, • incomprehensible, impassible, dwelling in his own eternal light : that he produceth nothing • from himself that is corruptible, not darkness, not dæmons, not Satan: that he has sent a • Saviour like himself, the Word, born before the foundation of the world; who after the world
was made, .came among men to save the souls worthy of his holy favour, sanctified by his :heavenly precepts, through faith and reason endowed with the knowledge of heavenly things :
and that under his conduct those souls shall again return to the kingdom of God, according to * his holy promise, who said: “I am the way, the truth, and the door: and no man cometh unto * the Father but by me:” John xiv. 6. These things we believe, forasmuch as souls cannot
otherwise, that is, through any other mediator, return to the kingdom of God: for he himself says : “ He that hath seen me hath seen the Father also :” ver. 9. and, • He that believeth on me shall not taste death, but passeth from death to life, and cometh not into condemnation :"
αλλ' επειδη τετιμηται το ονομα τ8 Ιησε,--Tit. ' Atque in his duobus convenit mihi cum Manichæis, id 1. 3. in. p. 139.
est, ut Deum et proximum diligamus: sed hoc veteri testaNam illa vox altera Paganorum est, qui dicunt, Apostolos mento negant contineri. De Mor. Ec. Cath. c. 28, n. 57. Christi non recta docuisse. Contr. Faust. 1. 32, c. 16. in. k Et nostra professio ipsa est, quod incorruptibilis sit Deus,
· Nye's Def. of the Canon of the New Test. p. 87, &c. quod lucidus, quod inadibilis, quod intenibilis, impassibilis, d
et animam aliter non posse reconciliari Deo, nisi per æternam lucem et propriam inhabitet : quod vihil ex sese magistrum, qui est Jesus Christus. Aug. et Fortu. Disp. i. corruptibile proferat, nec tenebras, nec dæmones, nec Satan. 17.
nam; nec aliquid adversum in regno ejus reperiri possit : --auctore Salvatore nostro, qui nos docet et bona exer- Sui autem similem Salvatorem direxisse, Verbum natum a cere, et mala fugere. Disp. 2, n. 20, f.
constitutione mundi, cum mundum fabricaret, posl nundi f
si post admonitionem Salvatoris nostri, et sanam fabricam inter homines venisse; dignas sibi animas elegisse doctrinam ejus, a contrariâ et inimica sui stirpe se segregaverit sanctæ suæ voluntati, mandatis suis cælestibus sanctificatas, anima ; -Unde patet recte esse pænitentiam datam post, fide ac ratione imbutas cælestium rerum; ipso ductore adventum Salvatoris, et post hanc scientiam rerum, qua possit hinc iterum easdem animas ad regnum Dei reversuras esse, anima, acși divino fonte lota, de sordibus et vitiis tam mundi secundum sanctam ipsius pollicitationem, qui dixit : Ego totius, quam corporum in quibus eadem anima versatur, regno, sum via, veritas, et janua ; et nemo potest ad Patrem perveDei, unde progressa est, repræsentari. Fort. Disp. 2, c. 21. nire nisi per me. His rebus nos credimus, quia alias animæ,
Numquid propterea dicere non debemus, quod bonus id est, alio mediante non poterunt ad regnum Dei reverti, nisi Deus fecerit mundum; quia hoc dicit etiam Manichæus ? ipsum repererint, viam, veritatem, et januam. Ipse enim dixit : Item si interrogemur, utrum sit Deus ? et nos et Manichæi qui me vidit, vidit et patrem meum ; et, qui in me crediderit, respondemus : Est Deus.--De ipsa quoque Trinitate interro- mortem non gustabit in æternum, sed transitum facit de morte gati, utrique dicimus, Patrem et Filium et Spiritum Sanctum, ad vitam, et in judicium non venit. His rebus credimus ; et ejusdem esse naturæ. Aug. Op. Imp. I. v. c. 30.
hæc est ratio fidei nostræ, et pro viribus animi nostri mandatis A Nam, ut inter omnes sanos constat, et quod ipsi Mani- ejus obtemperare, unani fidem sectantes hujus Trinitatis, Patris chæi non solum fatentur, sed et præcipiunt, utile est poenitere et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. Fortunat. Disp. i. n. 3. peccati. Aug. de duab. Anim. c. 14, n. 22, m.
• chap. v. 24. These things we believe, and this is the ground of our faith ; as also, that with all the
powers of our mind we are to obey his holy commandments, holding the doctrine of the Trinity • the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.'
Thus Fortunatus ; who likewise just before had professed his belief and expectation of the future judgment of the just judge Jesus Christ: and Secundinus, in his letter to Augustine, reminds him of the just tribunal of the Great Judge; and asks him if it be not true which Paul says, “ that every one must give an account of his works ?” Rom. xiv. 12.
III. Before we proceed to a more particular examination of Mani's principles, it may be proper to consider what were his pretensions, or upon what grounds he recommended his peculiar doctrines; whether upon the foot of reason only or of a peculiar revelation.
We have already seen how Eusebius and some other catholic writers express themselves. Eusebius in particular says, he made an appearance of being Christ, and sometimes said he • was the Comforter, and the Holy Ghost himself; and that like Christ he chose himself twelve • apostles. Epiphanius says that he presumed sometimes to say he was the Holy Ghost, and at other times that he was an apostle of Jesus Christ. According to Cyril, Mani' said he was the Comforter, and the defender of truth: and in another place that he said he was the Holy Spirit.
In The Acts of Archelaus, at the beginning of the conference at Caschar, he is made to say: • I, brethren, am a disciple and apostle of Jesus Christ. I am the Comforter, promised to be • sent by Jesus, “ to convince the world of sin, and of righteousness :" John xvi. 8, as also • Paul sent before me said: “ We know in part, and prophecy in part;” 1 Cor. xiii
. 9, 10; • reserving to me that which is perfect, that I might “ do away that which is in part:
» receive therefore this third testimony by me, and own me as a chosen apostle of Jesus Christ. If
you * will receive my words, you will obtain salvation : if not, you will be consumed by everlasting fire.'
Theodoret says that.' Mani gave out he was the Christ, and called himself the Holy Ghost.
And, as Jerom expresseth it, some k pretended that Mani was the Comforter himself. And to the like purpose' Rufinus.
It is not easy to conceive how any man should say all these things of himself; that he is the Christ, and an apostle of Christ, and the Holy Ghost himself. However, to reconcile these accounts, if possible, it may be observed, that perhaps some of these writers use words in a different sense from that in which they are now generally understood by us : and when it is said that Mani pretended to be Christ, the meaning may be that he acted like Christ in chusing for himself twelve companions; or, by Christ may be meant the Holy Ghost, with whom Christ was anointed, and whom Mani pretended to have received. So the word Christ is used in some ancient " writings, particularly in * The Acts of Archelaus.
As for his calling himself the Comforter, or the Holy Ghost, and an apostle of Christ, possibly the meaning is, that he said he had received the Holy Ghost, and was an apostle of Christ, eminently furnished with spiritual gifts.
That must be the highest pretension he made. This is Augustine's summary account of the
-et in futurà justi judicis Christi cxaminatione. scire, et ex parte prophetare se dixit; mihi reservans quod i6. n. 3.
perfectum est, ut hoc quod ex parte est destruam. Tero Quis igitur tibi patronus erit ante justum tribunal judicis, tium ergo testimonium accipite, apostolum me esse Christi cum et de sermone et opere cæperis te teste convinci. Se- electum. Et si vultis mea verba accipere, invenietis salutem; cund. ad Aug. n. 3.
nolentes antem, vos æternus ignis absumere habet. Arch. c An falsum in Paulo est, quod operum singuli suorum n. 13. p. 24. erunt reddituri rationem? ib.
a See before, p. 140.
ετολμησεν εαυτον ο σαμπονηρος και Χριςον προσαΕλεγε δε εαυτον ο Μανης ειναι το πνευμα το παρακλητον, γορευσαι, και πνευμα αγιον ονομασαι. Τhdrt. Η. Ε. 1. . και ποτε μεν αποςολον φασκει εαυτον Χρισε, τοτε δε πνεύμα c. 26. p. 214. wapaxaytoy. Epiph. H. 66. n. 12. p. 629. B. Conf. n. ig. * Sicut aliæ hæreses Paracletum in Montanum venisse con635. C.
tendunt, et Manichæum ipsum dicunt esse Paracletum, ad ο γαρ λεγων εαυτον παρακλητον, και της αληθειας Vigilant. Τ. 4. P. 2. p. 285. in. aywwisyy, x. Cyr. Cat. 6. n. 26.
vanitatis est, quod docet Manichæus: και Μανης, ο εαυτον ειπων το πνευμα το αγιον. Cat. 16. η. Χ. primo, quod seipsum Paracletum nominavit. Ruf. in Symb. p. 248. D.
ap. Hieron. T. v. p. 142. Ego, viri fratres, Christi quidem sum discipulus, aposto- m See Beaus. T. i. p. 115, and 255. las vero Jesu. -Sum quidem ego Paracletus, qui ab Jesu - Hic est Christus Dei, qui descendit super eum, qui ex mitti prædictus sum, ad arguendum mundum de peccato, et Marià est. Arch. a. 50. p. 93. ix. Vid. ib. n. 34. p. 59, 60. de injustitià, sicut et qui ante ne missus est Paulus, ex parte
matter in his book Of Heresies. They say that Our Lord's promise of sending the Com• forter, the Holy Ghost, has been fulfilled in their master Mani: and in his epistles he styles « himself apostle of Jesus Christ, forasmuch as Christ had promised him, and in him had sent the · Holy Ghost. Accordingly he had himself twelve disciples, in imitation of the number of the • apostles, which number is still kept up by the Manichees.' Again, Augustine says, the • Manichees pretended that Christ's promise of sending the Holy Ghost had been fulfilled in • their leader. And in another place, they said that the Holy Ghost, whom the Lord had • promised to send to his disciples, had come to them by him.' Once more Augustine says, that • Mani endeavoured to persuade men, that the Holy Ghost did personally dwell in him · with full authority.'
That this is all which Mani can be supposed to have pretended to, is evident from the arguments made use of in confuting him. The ancient writers, in their answers, shew that the promise of sending the Holy Ghost had been fulfilled in the apostles soon after our Lord's ascension: whereas Mani did not appear until long after the death of all the apostles, in the time of Probus, or Aurelian. This is largely argued by Archelaus, ' Epiphanius, and others.
Epiphanius, and others. And in the dispute itself Mani is represented explaining his claim in this manner, thats the Spirit came upon . him.' And Archelaus argues, that “the Holy Ghost was to descend upon and dwell in none but Christ, and Paul, and the other apostles; that is, in the most eminent and extraordinary
All therefore that Mani could say is, that he was an apostle of Christ, and had the spirit as an apostle.
But whether he said so much may be questioned. Godfrey' Arnold a learned German, who wrote a history of heresies in his own language, denies that Mani took upon him any extraordinary character: but Beausobre, though a man of great candour, thinks Arnold was mistaken herein. · Arnold " was in the right to say that Mani never pretended to be the Comforter; but • he was in the wrong to deny that be aimed to pass for the prophet of the Comforter; or a man • extraordinarily sent to reveal to the Christian church some truths which Jesus Christ had not • made known to his disciples. The Manichees themselves had this opinion of their patriarch.' So Beausobre.
I beg leave to consider this point distinctly. I have not had the advantage of seeing Arnold's work. I can only represent the case as it appears to me.
IV. In the first place I shall mention divers reasons and arguments for thinking that Mani was an impostor, and examine them, After which I shall mention some additional observations.
The reasons and arguments are such as these : 1. The ancient Greek and Roman Christian authors represent his pretensions as very extraordinary; 2. As do likewise the eastern writers. 8. Mani imitated Christ in chusing and sending out twelve apostles. 4. He called himself apostle. 5. Divers other of his expressions shew him to have pretended to a divine commission. 6. His followers conceived of him as an apostle, or an inspired teacher. 7. They rejected the book of the Acts, because of the evidence it afforded, that the promise of sending the Spirit had been fulfilled in the apostles, and therefore could not belong to Mani,
1. The ancient Greek and Roman Christian writers represent Mani's pretensions as very extraordinary
I answer, that we have shewn them to be mistaken in several things. In particular, divers of them
say that Mani called himself the Comforter, which is not true. We must therefore look • Promissionem domini Jesu Christi de Paracleto Spiritu tum consolatorem et ditatorem fidelium tuoruin, auctoritate Sancto in suo hæresiarchâ Manichæo dicunt esse completam. plenariâ personaliter in se esse persuadere conatus est. ConUnde se in suis literis Jesu Christi apostolum dicit, eo quod fess. I. 5. cap. 5. n. 8. Jesus Christus se njissurum esse promiserit, atque in illo mise
e Vid. Arch. n.
Ep. H. 66. n. 20, 21. rit Spiritum Sanctum. Propter quod etiam ipse Manichæus & Spiritum enim venisse super te dixisti, quem promiserat discipulos habuit, ad instar apostolici numeri ; quem numerum Jesus esse inissurum, Arch. n. 50. p. 92. m. Manichæi hodieque custodiunt. Aug. de Hær. c. 46.
Et sicut non super omnes homines spiritus habitare poMirâ cæcitate asserentes eamdem Domini promis- terat, nisi super eum qui de Marià natus est, ita et in nullum sionem in 'suo hæresiarchâ Manichæo esse completam. Aug. alium Spiritus Paracletus venire poterat, nisi super apostolos; ad. Ceret. Ep. 237. Cal. 253] n. 2.
et super beatum Paulum. Arch. n. 34. p. 59. m. • Nôsti enim, quod, auctoris sui Manichæi personam in Germanice illam epistolam (Fundamenti,) exhibet Go. apostolorum numerum inducere molientes, dicunt Spiritum thofredus Arnoldus in Historia sive Apologia Hæresium. Sanctum, quem Dominus se missurum esse promisit; per T. iv. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. v. p. 283. ipsum ad nos venisse. De Util. Cred. c. 3. n. 7.
Hist. de Manich. T. I. p. 239, 240, • Non enim parvi existimari se voluit, sed spiritum saoc
for some other evidence of his imposture beside their word. Mani published several new notions as doctrines of religion: some might therefore say: • A man that does this had need to be inspired. And thence some might be led to conclude, that he actually pretended to be inspired in an extraordinary manner, and sent by Christ to reveal new truths. Some might speak of him to this purpose; and others might take up this account without much examination.
2. The eastern writers, whether Persians or Arabians, whose account was formerly a taken, speak of him in the like manner.
I answer, that those writers are not very ancient. Their account of Mani's imposture, particularly his journey to heaven, is taken from the history of Mahomet; who is much later than the person whose affairs we are examining. Therefore probably that story is a fiction, without any real foundation. I formerly observed a mistake of these writers (some of them at least) concerning the place of Mani's retirement. It is also very improbable, which is said by the eastern historians, as quoted by Herbelot, that numerous followers have been gained in China, or Turkestan; they all went into Persia upon the death of Sapor. Nor did Mani attempt to pass for a God. Once more, the eastern writers are not agreed about the time in which Mani lived, some placing him much later than others. The testimony of these authors therefore is not to be relied upon.
3. The third argument is, that Mani imitated Christ in chusing and sending out twelve disciples,
In answer to which I would say : supposing that he had twelve disciples, and sent them abroad to propagate his principles, it does not follow that he was an impostor; for we have been informed by " Augustine, that this was the ecclesiastical constitution of the Manichæan sect. There were twelve of the elect called masters, and a thirteenth, who was their chief or principal. If this was an institution of Mani himself, and put in practice in his own time, he must have been the principal; and perhaps only by way of an innocent, or at the worst an affected, imitation of the state of things at the first rise of the Christian religion in the time of Christ and his apostles: which, I suppose, is all that can be thought of their keeping up the same form in Augustine's time. But it
may be questioned whether Mani had twelve disciples distinguished from the rest. It is true Eusebius intimates as much : but what ground he had for it we cannot say. However, Augustine says it expressly, as does' Theodoret, about the year 420. But this is not to be found in more ancient authors, excepting Eusebius only, who has been just named; and there are two reasons to doubt of it. First, several ancient writers are silent about this particular, who would have mentioned it if true. In % The Acts of the Dispute with Archelaus there are but three of Mani's disciples named, whom likewise he is there said to have sent abroad to spread his opinions; one into the east, another into Syria, and the third into Egypt; Thomas, Addas, and Hermas: the same three that are mentioned by - Cyril and ' Epiphanius. Secondly, if Mani had twelve disciples, whom he called apostles, or employed as such, it is likely that their names would have been transmitted to us by some ancient authors: but there is no such catalogue any where to be found, except in the forementioned authors, Photius, Peter, and The Form of abjuring Manichæism: all which are too late to be of any authority, as was observed formerly, That catalogue too is itself liable to several exceptions. In * Photius their names stand thus : Sisinnius, said to have succeeded Mani in his chair ; Thomas, Budas, Hermas, Adamantus, and Adimantus ; Hierax, Hieraclides and Apthonius, called " commentators upon Mani; Agapius author of the Heptalogus, Zarvas and Gaurialius: and to the like purpose in the two other"
a See p. 167
Epiph. H. 66. n. v. et xii.
1 Σισιννιος, ο και το αξιωμα αυτ8 της δυσσεβες διδασκαλιας d See before, p. 135.
αναδεξαμενος. ib. • Propter quod etiam ipse Manichæus duodecim discipulos η Εξηγηται, δε αυτο και οίον υπομνηματςαι. ib. habuit, ad instar apostolici numeri. Aug. de Hær. c. 46. * Porro discipuli Maneti antichristo fuere duodecim: Sisin
roúros duoncidenz uafritas nata Toy xupiaxoy wolno Queros nius, qui Maneti successit : Thomas, qui Evangelium ManiTUTTON. Hær. Fab. 1. i. p. 214. C.
chæi novum condidit: Buddas, et Hermas, Adamantus et 8 Ταυτην δε σασαν την διδασκαλιαν παρεδωκε τους τρισιν Adimantus, quem in diversas orbis partes erroris præconem αυτ8 μαθηταις, κελευσας έκαςον εις κλιματα όδευειν. κ. λ. amandavit. Manetis interpretes et explanatores erant Hierax, Arch. c. xi. p. 22. Acquisivit etiam discipulos tres, quorum et Hieraclides, atque Aphthonius. Adjuncti his et alii terni nomina sunt hæc, Thomas, Addas, et Hermas. ib. c. 53. p.98. hujus sectatores, Agapius, qui Heptalogum commentus est,
h Tara μαθηται τρεις γεγoνασι, Θωμας, και Βαδδας, και Zarvas, et Gabrialius. Pet. Sic. de Man, ap. Bib. P.P.T. 16. 'Ep25. Cyr. Cat. vi. n. 31.
p. 758. A.