Ink, Lithograph'ic. Prep. 1. Mastic (in tears), 8 oz.; shell-lac, 12 oz.; Venice turpentine, 1 oz.; melt together, add, of wax, 1 lb.; tallow, 6 oz.; when dissolved, further add of hard tallow soap (in shavings), 6 oz. ; and when the whole is perfectly combined add of lampblack, 4 oz.; lastly, mix well, cool a little, and then pour it into moulds, or upon a slab, and when cold cut it into square pieces.

of carbonate of soda, 1 oz. ; in water, 1 pint, slightly coloured with a little sap green or syrup of buckthorn, to enable the spots wetted with it to be afterwards known.

2. (WITHOUT PREPARATION.) Take of ni trate of silver, oz.; water, oz.; dissolve, add as much of the strongest liquor of ammonia as will dissolve the precipitate formed on its first addition, then further add of mucilage, 1 dr., and a little sap green, syrup of 2. (Lasteyrie.) Dry tallow soap, mastic buckthorn, or finely powdered indigo, to colour. (in tears), and common soda (in fine powder), Writing executed with this ink turns black of each 30 parts; shell-lac, 150 parts; lamp-on being passed over a hot Italian iron, or black, 12 parts; mix as last. Both the above are used for writing on lithographic stones.

3. (AUTOGRAPHIC.)-a. Take of white wax, 8 oz., and white soap, 2 to 3 oz.; melt, and when well combined, add of lampblack, 1 oz.; mix well, heat it strongly, and then add of shell-lac, 2 oz.; again heat it strongly, stir well together, cool a little, and pour it out as before. With this ink lines may be drawn of the finest to the fullest class, without danger, of its spreading, and the copy may be kept for years before being transferred.

b. From white soap and white wax, of each 10 oz.; mutton suet, 3 oz. ; shell-lac and mastic, of each 5 oz.; lampblack, 34 oz.; mix as above. Both the above are used for writing on lithographic paper. When the last is employed, the transfer must be made within a week. Obs. The above inks are rubbed down with a little water in a small cup or saucer for use, in the same way as common water-colour cakes or Indian ink. In winter the operation should be performed near the fire, or the saucer should be placed over a basin contain ing a little tepid water. Either a steel pen or a camel-hair pencil may be employed with the ink. See LITHOGRAPHY.

Ink, Mark'ing. Syn. INDELIBLE INK, PERMANENT I. Of this there are several varieties, of which the following are the most valuable and commonly used :-

1. Nitrate of silver, oz.; hot distilled water, 7 fl. dr.; dissolve, add of mucilage, oz.; previously rubbed with sap green or syrup of buckthorn, q. s. to colour. The linen must be first moistened with 'liquid pounce,' or 'the preparation,' as it is commonly called, and when it has again become dry, written on with a clean quill pen. The ink will bear dilution if the writing is not required very black.



held near the fire.

3. Terchloride of gold, 1 dr.; water, 7 fl. dr.; mucilage, 2 dr.; sap green, q. s. to colour. To be written with on a ground prepared with a weak solution of protochloride of tin, and dried._Dark purple.

4. (Rev. J. B. Reade.) Nitrate of silver, 1 oz., tartaric acid (pure), 3 dr., are triturated together in a mortar in the dry state; a little water is then added, by which crystals of tartrate of silver are formed, and the nitric acid set free; the latter is then saturated with liquor of ammonia, sufficient being added to dissolve all the newly-formed tartrate of silver, avoiding unnecessary excess; lastly, a little gum and colouring matter is added.

5. (Rev. J. B. Reade.) To the last is added an ammoniacal solution of a salt of gold. Mr Reade has used for this purpose the purple of Cassius,' the hyposulphate, the ammonio-iodide, the ammonio-periodide of gold, but any other compound of gold which is soluble in ammonia will do as well. This ink is unacted on by nearly all those reagents which remove writing executed with solutions of the salts of silver alone, as cyanide of potassium, the chlorides of lime and soda, &c.

6. (Redwood.) Nitrate of silver and pure bitartrate of potassa, of each 1 oz. (or 4 parts), are rubbed together in a glass or Wedgwoodware mortar, and after a short time liquor of ammonia, 4 oz. (16 parts, or q. s.), is added; when the solution is complete, archil, 4 dr. (or 2 parts); white sugar, 6 dr. (or 3 parts); and powdered gum, 10 dr. (or 5 parts), are dissolved in the liquor, after which sufficient water is added to make the whole measure exactly 6 fl. oz., when it is ready to be bottled for use. The last three are used in the same manner as No. 2.

7. (Dr Smellie.) From sulphate of iron, 1 dr.; vermilion, 4 dr.; boiled linseed oil, 1


oz.; triturated together until perfectly smooth. Used with type.

8. (Soubeiran.) Nitrate of copper, 3 parts; carbonate of soda, 4 parts; nitrate of silver, 8 parts; mix, and dissolve in liquor of ammonia, 100 parts. Used like No. 2.

9. (Ure.) A strong solution of chloride of platinum, with a little potassa, and sugar and gum, to thicken.

10. The fluid contained between the kernel and shell of the cashew nut. On linen and cotton it turns gradually black, and is very durable. This has been called ANACARDIUM


11. Sulphate of manganese, 2 parts; lampblack, 1 part; sugar, 4 parts; all in fine powder, and triturated to a paste with a little water. Used with types or stencil-plates; the part, when dry, being well rinsed in water. Brown.

12. Black oxide of manganese and hydrate of potassa are mixed, heated to redness in a crucible, and then triturated with an equal weight of pure white clay, and water, q. s. to give it due consistence. Used like the last. (Brown.)

13. (Aniline Black Marking Ink.) This ink is prepared by means of two solutions, one of copper, the other of aniline, prepared as follows:

(1.) COPPER SOLUTION. 8.52 grams of crystallised chloride of copper, 10.65 grams of chlorate of soda, and 5-35 grams of chloride of ammonium are dissolved in 60 grams of water.

(2.) ANILINE SOLUTION. 20 grams of hydrochlorate of aniline are dissolved in 30 grams of distilled water, and to this are added 20 grams of solution of gum Arabic (1 part of gum to 2 of water) and 10 grams of glycerin. By mixing in the cold 4 parts of the aniline solution, with 1 part of the copper solution, a greenish liquid is obtained which can be employed directly for the marking; but as this liquid can only be preserved for a few days without decomposition, it is advisable to keep the solution separately, until the ink is required for use.

The ink may be used either with a pen, or a stencil plate and brush; if it do not flow freely from the pen it may be diluted with a little water without fear of weakening the intensity of the colour. At first the writing appears of a pale green colour, but after exposure to the air it becomes black, or it may be changed to a black colour immediately, by passing a hot iron over the back of the fabric, or heating it over the flame of a spirit lamp. As, however, a dry heat is apt to make the fibre saturated with the ink, brittle, it is preferable to hold the marked fabric over a vessel, containing water in full ebullition; the heat of the vapour is sufficient to determine almost immediately, the reaction by which aniline black is formed. After the steaming, the writing should be washed in hot soapsuds, which

gives the ink a fine blue shade. The ink is not acted upon by acids or alkalies, and if care be taken that the fibres are well saturated with it, there is no danger of its being removed by washing. (Dingler's Journal.')

14. In addition to the above formulæ, the following of M. Henry may be worthy of attention in large establishments where economy is an object-Take 1 oz. of iron filings and 3 oz. of vinegar, or diluted acetic acid. Mix the filings with half the vinegar, and agitate them continually till the mixture becomes thick, then add the rest of the vinegar and 1 oz. of water. Apply heat to assist the action, and when the iron is dissolved, add 3 oz. of sulphate of iron, and 1 oz. of gum previously dissolved in 4 oz. of water; and mix the whole with a gentle heat. To be used with brush and stencil plates.

15. (Crimson Marking Ink.) Dissolve 1 oz. of nitrate of silver, and 14 oz. of carbonate of soda in crystals, separately in distilled water, mix the solutions, collect and wash the precipitate on a filter, introduce the washed precipitate still moist into a Wedgwood mortar, and add to it tartaric acid 2 dr. and 40 gr., rubbing together till effervescence has ceased; dissolve carmine 6 grains, in liquor ammoniæ (882) 6 oz., and add to it the tartrate of silver, then mix in white sugar, 6 dr., and powdered gum Arabic, 10 dr., and add as much distilled water as will make 6 oz. (Pharm. Journal.')

This may

Obs. The products of the first two of the above formulæ constitute the marking ink of the shops. They have, however, no claim to the title of INDELIBLE INK,' "which no art can extract without injuring the fabric "-as is generally represented. On the contrary, they may be discharged with almost as much facility as common iron-moulds. be easily and cheaply effected by means of ammonia, cyanide of potassium, the chlorides of lime and soda, and some of the hyposulphites, without in the least injuring the texture of the fabric to which they may be applied. The only precaution required is that of rinsing the part in clean water immediately after the operation. The 'marking ink without preparation' is more easily extracted than that with preparation.' The former has also the disadvantage of not keeping so well as the latter, and of depositing a portion of fulminating silver, under some circumstances, which renders its use dangerous. The thinner inks, when intended to be used with type or plates, are thickened by adding a little more gum, or some sugar.

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Ink, Mark'ing. Syn. PACKER'S INK. Ink bottoms. Used by packer's for marking bales, boxes, &c.

Ink, Perpetual. Prep. 1. Pitch, 3 lbs.; melt over the fire, and add of lampblack, lb.; mix well.

2. Trinidad asphaltum and oil of turpentine, equal parts. Used in a melted state to fill in

the letters on tombstones, marbles, &c. Without actual violence, it will endure as long as the stone itself.

Ink, Print'er's.

The following are the most common and amusing sympathetic inks:-1. Sulphate of copper and sal ammoniac, equal parts, dissolved in water; writes colourless, but turns YELLOW when heated.-2. Onion juice; like the last.

See PRINTING INK. Ink, Purple. 1. A strong decoction of logwood, to which a little alum or chloride of tin-3. A weak infusion of galls; turns BLACK has been added.

2. (Normandy.) To 12 lbs. of Campeachy wood add as many gallons of boiling water, pour the solution through a funnel with a strainer made of coarse flannel, or 1 lb. of hy-ened with infusion of galls.-5. The diluted drate, or acetate of deutoxide of copper finely powdered (having at the bottom of the funnel a piece of sponge); then add immediately 14 lbs. of alum, and for every 340 galls. of liquid add 80 lbs. of gum Arabic or gum Senegal. Let these remain for three or four days and a beautiful purple colour will be produced.

Ink, Red. Prep. 1. Brazil wood (ground), 4 oz.; white-wine vinegar (hot), 14 pint; digest in glass or a well-tinned copper or enamel saucepan, until the next day, then gently simmer for half an hour, adding towards the end gum Arabic and alum, of each oz.

2. Ground Brazil wood, 10 oz.; white vinegar, 10 pints; macerate for 4 or 5 days; then boil as before to one half, and add of roach alum, 41 oz.; gum, 5 oz.; and when dissolved, bottle for use.

3. As the last, but using water or beer instead of vinegar.

4. Cochineal (in powder), 1 oz.; hot water, pint; digest, and when quite cold, add of spirit of hartshorn, pint (or liquor of ammonia, 1 oz., diluted with 3 or 4 oz. of water); macerate for a few days longer, and then decant the clear. Very fine.

5. (Buchner.) Pure carmine, 20 gr.; liquor of ammonia, 3 fl. oz.; dissolve, then add of powdered gum, 18 gr. Half a drachm of pow dered drop lake may be substituted for the carmine where expense is an object. Colour superb.

6. (Henzeler.) Brazil wood, 2 oz.; alum and cream of tartar, of each oz.; rain water, 16 fl. oz.; boil to one half, strain, add of gum (dissolved), oz.; and when cold, further add a tincture made by digesting powdered cochineal, 1 dr., in rectified spirit, 14 fl. oz.

7. (Redwood.) Guarancine and liquor of ammonia, of each 1 oz.; distilled water (cold), 1 pint; triturate together in a mortar, filter, and dissolve in the solution, gum Arabic Ink, Se pia. See SEPIA. Ink, Silver. From silver leaf or powdered silver, as GOLD INK.


Ink. Sympathetic. Syn. DIPLOMATIC INK, INVISIBLE I. Fluids which, when used for writing, remain invisible until the paper is heated, or acted on by some other chemical agent. Sympathetic inks have been frequently employed as the instruments of secret correspondence, and have often escaped detection; but by heating the paper before the fire until it begins to grow discoloured by the heat, the whole of them may be rendered visible.

when moistened with weak copperas water :4. A weak solution of sulphate of iron; turns BLUE when moistened with a weak solution of prussiate of potassa, and BLACK when moistsolutions of nitrate of silver and of terchloride of gold; become respectively DARK BROWN and PURPLE when exposed to the sunlight.6. Aqua fortis, spirits of salts, oil of vitriol, common salt, or saltpetre, dissolved in a large quantity of water; turns YELLOW or BROWN when heated.-7. Solution of chloride or nitromuriate of cobalt; turns GREEN when heated, and disappears again on cooling. If the salt is pure, the marks turn BLUE.-8. Solution of acetate of cobalt, to which a little nitre has been added; becomes ROSE COLOURED when heated, and disappears on cooling.-9. A weak solution of the mixed chlorides of cobalt and nickel; turns GREEN. The last three are about the best of our sympathetic inks.-10. Solution of acetate of lead; turns BROWNISHBLACK when exposed to the fumes of sulphuretted hydrogen.-11. A weak solution of nitrate of mercury; turned BLACK by heat and sulphuretted fumes.-12. Rice water or decoction of starch; turned BLUE by a solution of iodine in weak spirit, and by the fumes of iodine, if the paper is first slightly moistened by exposure to steam or damp air.

Ink, Violet. The same as PURPLE INK, but weaker.

Ink, Yel'low. 1. From gamboge (in coarse powder), 1 oz.; hot water, 5 oz.; dissolve, and when cold, add of spirit, oz.

2. Boil French berries, lb., and alum, 1 oz., in rain water, 1 quart, for half an hour, or longer, then strain and dissolve in the hot liquor gum Arabic, 1 oz.

Ink, Zinc Labels, to write on. Syn. HORTICULTURAL INK. 1. Dissolve 100 gr. of tetrachloride of platinum in a pint of water. A little mucilage and lamp black may be added.

2. Sal ammoniac 1 dr.; verdigris, 1 dr.; lampblack, dr.; water, 10 dr.; mix.

INK POW'DERS. Prep. 1. Aleppo galls, 4 oz.; sulphate of iron, 1 oz.; gum Arabic, 1 oz.; lump sugar, oz.; (all quite dry and in powder); mix, and divide into 3 packets. A pint of boiling water poured over one of them produces, in a few hours, a pint of excellent ink.

2. Aleppo galls, 3 lbs.; copperas, 1 lb.; gum Arabic,lb.; white sugar, lb.; all in powder; mix, and divide into two-ounce packets, to be used as the last. Ink powders are very useful in travelling.

INK STAINS, to remove. See SPOTS.

INOCULA'TION. Syn. INOCULATIO, L. In medicine and surgery, the application of poi


sonous or infectious matter to any part of the powder of commerce. This powder, though body for the purpose of propagating a milder so destructive to insect life, has no injurious form of disease, and thus preventing or les-effect upon man or domestic animals. sening the virulence of future attacks. In ACARI, ANT, BEE, BrG, BITES and STINGS, this country the term is generally restricted CANTHARIDES, COCHINEAL, LAC, PEDICULI, to the artificial propagation of smallpox. See SILK, &e. VACCINATION.

INOSIN'IC ACID. An acid said by Liebig to exist in the juice of the flesh of animals, after it has deposited its kreatine. IN'OSITE. A species of unfermentable sugar, discovered by Scherer in the juice of flesh. It forms beautiful crystals.

IN'SECTS. Syn. INSECTA, L. A class of invertebrate animals belonging to the subkingdom Annuloso. The true insect is defined as an articulated animal, having six legs, 2 antennæ, 2 compound eyes; a small brain at the anterior extremity of a doube medullary cord; its circulation is effected by a pulsating dorsal vessel, provided with numerous valves; its respiration by trachea, which form 2 lateral trunks, and ramify through the body, The generation of insects is oviparous. There are two distinct sexes. The adult state is attained through a series of metamorphoses. In general, every insect possesses 2 pairs of wings; the trunk in the adult animal is usually composed of 3 chief parts—the head, thorax, and abdomen. The trunk of an insect may also be described as consisting of 13 segments, of which 1 constitutes the head, 3 constitute the thorax, and 9 the abdomen. | Insects are arranged in the following orders: —1. Hymenoptera, including bees, wasps, ichneumon-flies, &c.-2. Coleoptera, including all those kinds commonly called beetles.-3. Neuroptera, dragon-flies, ephemeræ, white ants, &c.-4. Strepsiptera, the stylops, &c.5. Lepidoptera, the butterflies and moths.-6. Diptera, the house-fly and other 2-winged insects.-7. Orthoptera, crickets, grasshoppers, locusts, earwigs, &c.-8. Hemiptera, bugs, frog-hoppers, aphides, &c.-9. Aptera, fleas, &c. There are several animals belonging to the classes MYRIOPODA and ARACHNIDA which are commonly but erroneously called 'insects.' Of these the centipedes, spiders, and acarides, or mites, are well-known examples. Several useful products, as SILK, WAX, HONEY, COCHINEAL, LAC, CANTHARIDES, &c., are supplied by insects. The class includes numerous creatures which are extremely destructive, and others which are regarded as domestic pests. In the articles devoted to these offensive insects various methods of exterminating them are noticed. A powder for destroying insects has recently been introduced into this country, and has been found peculiarly efficacious. This powder, which is known under various names (INSECTS-DESTROYING POWDER, DUMONT'S INSECTICIDE, &c.), is produced by the Pyrethrum roseum Caucasicum, a composite flower growing wild in the Caucasus. The ntral or tubular florets of the disc are alone ployed, and when ground, furnish the

INSECTICIDE POWDER. See INSECTS. INTEM PERANCE. Under this head we refer to habitual indulgence in the use of spirituous or fermented liquors, whether accompanied or not by fits of intoxication or drunkenness.

The pernicious influence of intoxicating liquors upon individuals and upon society has been so often and ably exposed by the clergy, judges, and magistrates, and by philanthro pists of every kind, that it would be folly to do more than refer to it here. Fully one half of the dark or disreputable deeds of those who fill our gaols, and fully an equal proportion of the poverty and wretchedness which pauperises our population and crowds our workhouses, are traceable to this damning vice of the AngloSaxon race-intemperance.

To cure HABITUAL DRUNKENNESS various means have been proposed, most of which are more ingenious than useful. The following, however, deserves respectful notice :

Dr Kain, an eminent American physician, recommends tartar emetic, given in alterative and slightly nauseating doses, for the cure of habitual drunkenness. "Possessing," he observes, "no positive taste itself, it communicates a disgusting quality to those fluids in which it is dissolved. These liquors, with the addition of a very small quantity of emetic tartar, instead of relieving, increase the sensation of loathing of food, and quickly produce in the patient an indomitable repug nance to the vehicle of its administration. My method of prescribing it has varied according to the habits, age, and constitution of the patient. A convenient preparation of the medicine is 8 gr., dissolved in 4 oz. of boiling water; an oz. (say a table-spoonful) of the solution to be put into half a pint, pint, or quart of the patient's favorite liquor, and to be taken daily in divided portions. If vomiting and purging ensue" (which is seldom the Case), "I should direct laudanum to allay the irritation, and diminish the dose. In some cases the change suddenly produced in the patient's habits has brought on considerable lassitude and debility, which, however, were of short duration. In a majority of cases no other effect has been perceptible than slight nausea, some diarrhoea, and a gradual but very uniform distaste to the menstruum.”

Dr W. Marcet has described the more or less disordered state of the brain, nerves, muscles, and stomach, brought on by the continual use of alcohol, even without intoxication being produced. The symptoms of this state, which he terms CHRONIC ALCOHOLISM, are quite distinct from those of DELIRIUM TREMENS, which is an acute and vio.

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