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prophet was apprenticed to a boatbuilder, the Feast of Ramadan, and some small but after receiving a beating from his parties of troops were sent against him, uncle one day, he fled to Khartoum, where but failed to catch him. It is more than he entered a free school kept by a dervish probable that tbeir sympathies were with of great sanctity and an alleged descend him. Colonel Stewart certainly held ant of the founder of Islamism. “Here," doubts on the subject. The Mahdi soon says Colonel Stewart, "he remained for afterwards showed himself at the head of some time studying religion, the tenets of his followers near Sennaar, finally taking his sheikh, etc., but did not make much up a position at Jebel Gadir, about one progress in the more worldly accomplish hundred and fifty miles north-west of Kaments of reading and writing." His reli- ka, on the White Nile. Here he was atgious education was completed at another tacked by a body of regulars under Res. school to which he afterwards went near chid Bey, who was defeated with heavy Berber. Thence he settled in a village loss. This success inspired the prophet south of Kana, and enrolled himself as a and his adherents with fresh courage aod disciple of a fakir or holy man, delighting ambition. Their ranks rapidly increased, in the name of Nur-el-Daim. Having re- and early in the following spriog the whole ceived from this worthy the distinction of province of Kordofan was threatened. sheikh, Mohammed Ahmed took up his Raouf Pasha having been recalled, Abd. abode on the island of Abba, near Kana el-Kader was appointed to the command on the White Nile. “Here," adds Colonel at Khartoum, and a more strenuous atStewart, “he began by making a subter. tempt was made to suppress the new faranean excavation (khaliva=retreat) into natical rising, whose spread began seri. which he made a practice of retiring to ously to alarm the Egyptians. In April repeat for hours one of the names of the about three thousand men were collected Deity, this being accompanied by fasting, in the neighborhood of Kaka at the cost incense-burning, and prayers. His fame of reducing the neighboring garrisops, . and sanctity by degrees spread far and taking advantage of this “the rebels,” as wide, and Mohammed Ahmed became the Mahdi's followers began to be called, wealthy, collected disciples, and married attacked Sennaar, but after some minor several wives, all of whom he was careful successes they were dispersed by Giegler to select from among the daughters of the Pasha. They were not, however, dismost influential Baggara sheikhs (Bagga heartened, and at length, when they again ra=tribes owniog cattle and horses) and met the Egyptians face to face on June 7, other notables. To keep within the legal. 1882, they obtained a signal victory. The ized number (four) he was in the habit of Egyptians came upon the rebels in a divorcing the surplus and taking them on deosely wooded country; a zereba again according to his fancy.” In these stockade was commenced, and the troops marital responsibilities he was only sur- were formed up in hollow square, but they passed by his secretary or factotum, who were unable to withstand the furious on. espoused no fewer than twenty-four ladies slaught of the Arab host, iospired by reof the neighborhood. But the Mahdi's ligious zeal. Once the square was broken time was not wholly occupied with the all discipline was lost, and the whole force attractions of the barem. The increase was simply annihilated. Naturally an ex. of his influence only incited him to fresh traordinary impetus was thus given to the efforts. Gradually he acquired a great insurrection, and many minor engage. reputation for holiness, and by-and-by as- ments took place, resulting generally in sembled a number of other dervishes favor of the Mahdi. At Shakka, for io. around him, and by his powers and tact stance, on June 20, another Egyptian de. succeeded in uniting the various tribes tachment of one thousand men was cut to under his banner. The principles of his pieces, only a few escaping with their teaching are described as "universal equal- lives. On August 23 Duaim was attacked, ity, universal law and religion, with a com- but here the rebels were defeated with munity of goods. All who refuse to credit the loss of forty-five hundred men. Sbort. his mission are to be destroyed, whether ly afterwards the Mahdi took the field in Christian, Mohammedan, or Pagan.” It person, and advanced on El Obeid. “On was not until the end of 1881 that Raouf Ihree successive days," it is recorded," he Pasha, the then governor of the Soudan, made desperate assaults on the garrison, had his attention directed to the Mahdi's but on each occasion he was repulsed with pretensions. The latter at this time was great slaughter. The rebels are said to living at Merabieh, near the island of have had ten thousaod men killed, while Abba. In August, as already stated, he the Egyptian loss is put down at two hunpublicly proclaimed his “mission " during dred and eighty-eight." These disasters
caused a diminution in the Mahdi's pres. | it did honestly value age, it would hardly tige, who had never hitherto been defeated make that value felt by overwhelming while personally, leading his troops, so with new burdens those on whose power that he was said to be invincible. But, to bear the necessary burdens of their nothing daunted, the prophet laid siege to position it is congratulating itself. If the the town, and after much bloodshed both senders of these messages had asked El Obeid, Bara, and other fortified posts themselves, in Sir Moses Montefiore's fell into his hands. Compelled by these case, “ Will this telegram add to his hapreverses to make a more gigantic effort piness ?” or in Mr. Gladstone's case, to regain possession of the Soudan, the “Will this telegram add to his power or Egyptian government despatched Hicks usefulness ?” most of the senders must Pasha's expedition, numbering upwards have replied to themselves in the negaof six thousand men. This army, the tive. But as probably many of them oply most completely organized and equipped thought of asking themselves, “Will it ever assembled in the Soudan, was deemed look well for us to send this telegram?” sufficient for its object, but its overthrow they snowed their unmerciful orange enafter a desperate three days' engagement velopes upon both the veterans without in the desert between the Nile and El hesitation or pity. If they had really set Obeid proved that the strength of the the true value upon age and understood Mahdi had been vastly underrated. Since what it means, they would not have prethat crowning victory the Soudan, save pared a disturbing, and therefore inapsuch garrison towns as Khartoum, Sen-propriate, sensation for a centenarian, or naar, and Kassala, has been at his mercy, wasted the valuable time and energy of a and the fame of his conquering career has prime minister in receiving and acknowlspread not only through all northern Af- edging a deluge of empty felicitations, rica, but over the whole Mohammedan For what exactly is the advantage of old world. Personally, the Mahdi is described age; for what qualities do we value it? by Colonel Stewart as “tall, slim, with a Chiefly, we suppose, for its serenity, when black beard and light brown complexion. it has achieved serenity; chiefly for that Like most Dongolawis, he reads and triumph over egotism and vanity, and the writes with difficulty. He is local head of profuse illusions of youth, which hardly the Gheelan or Kadrigé order of dervish- anything else brings.' Yet it is precisely es, a school originated by Abdul Kader- this serenity, this freedom from illusion, el-Ghulami, whose tomb is at Bagdad. which popular demonstrations of overJudging from his conduct of affairs aod expressed delight endeavor, however fruitpolicy, I should say he had considerable lessly, to dispel. If the senders of these natural ability. The manner in which he messages really said to themselves, “No has managed to merge the usually dis. one will know better how little this is cordant tribes together denotes great tact. worth than the man to whom I send it," He had probably been preparing the would they ever send it at all? We bemovement for some time back."
lieve that they would not. It is because they expect to excite a little agitation, to create a faint illusion, that they pelt with congratulations the serenity and impar.
tiality of judgment in which, if they really From The Spectator. understand the best qualities which age AGE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES. brings with it, they profess to rejoice. The world is thoughtless even in its And yet is it not true that wise age is most amiable aspects. It congratulated admirable chiefly because it deprives us Sir Moses Montefiore on attaining the of so much which is not the strength but age of one hundred after a fashion that the weakness of youth? Wordsworth very nearly ensured his not living a week does not go far enough when he says, beyond the century; and it telegraphs So fares it still in our decay, congratulations to Mr. Gladstone on the And yet the wiser mind completion of his seventy-fifth year, as if
Mourns less for what age takes away, it had not already given the prime minis.
Than what it leaves behind. ter enough to do without acknowledging Age does something, no doubt, in taking compliments sufficiently, laborious and away energy, and energy, if rightly disufficiently effusive to make him long for rected, is enviable ; it weakens the tenaca world where compliments are not. Perity of memory, - and memory, if it can haps the reason of the fuss is that the only manage to drop what is not worth world rather plumes itself upon valuing keeping, is also enviable; and it diminage than values it as it ought to do; for if |ishes the vivacity and spring of the imag.
ination. But in a noble mind, age takes the old as it misleads the young. Impaaway much more that we ought to wish to tience does not hurry the old into blunlose, than it takes of what we want to ders as it hurries the young. Hence, the keep. It takes away prejudice, and pas. greatest things which the old do, they sion, and irritable self-consciousness. It often do in the spirit of conscious benefi. takes away that which misleads and per-cence; while the greatest things which verts the judment and the imagination, even the best of the young do, - and they much more than it takes away of judging are often much greater in magnitude, and imagining power, though it may some. they do in the spirit of illusion or passion, times "leave behind” enough of these and without any real command of the disturbing elements to justify self-reproach greater ends to which their enterprises and regret still. But long experience does lead. undoubtedly, in a mind of high calibre, do Doubtless, the great blot on the respect an immense clarifying and purifying work, for age is that age in itself not only does - a work which tends more to the true not bring with it these results, but may appreciation of the relative place of hu- bring quite opposite results. Age always man beings in the universe, than any empties; but it may empty the miod of other agency in life. Milton truly says the wrong things. It may empty the that it may even attain " to something of mind of everything but selfish and egoprophetic strain ;." and if it does so, it tistic passion, instead of emptying it of does so by removing the refracting vapors selfish and egotistic passion. of prejudice and passion. Moreover, age make the medium through which everydoes not tend to weakness of will. Noth- thing is seen, one of a more and more ing is more remarkable in those who have disturbing kind. It may drain away all made a good use of long experience than the generous passions, and leave nothing the growth of decision with the growth of but envy, vindictiveness, and willulness clearness of vision. It is illusion, after behind. It may discharge the memory of all, which chiefly excuses the feebleness all that is elevating, and leave behind all of our wills, and with the disappearance that is degrading. It may take away the of the excuses, the educated will asserts excuse of fiery impulses, and yet leave the itself more and more, and never seems to ignobleness of malicious purpose. Age, lose in force as other and less essential doubtless, is a sieve which straios away elements of the mind do lose in force. either the dregs, and leaves behind all Young men do great things, quite beyond that is finest, or strains away the finer the power of the aged, by the force of pas- elements of experience, and leaves only sion, and by the rapidity and vivacity of the dregs; and you can never be sure their influence over others. But in nine which of the two processes will take place. cases out of ten, what these men do that Still, of course, the veneration for age is is good in its results, they do rather as founded wholly on the assumption that instruments of a higher power, than be the finer elements of experience are recause they really discern the end for which tained in the mind, and the grosser ones
Doubtless there was a great purged away; and this is the tendency in purpose in Alexander's conquest of the all cases in which the character is gove East; but it was not Alexander's purpose. erned by a pure and noble will. In such Doubtless there was a great purpose in a character even the memory, which alNapoleon's conquest of the West; but it ways lets so much drop, as time goes on, was not Napoleon's purpose. Doubtless appears to drop chiefly what most deserves there was a great purpose in Clive's con- oblivion, and to hold fast to that which is quest of Bengal; but it was not Clive's best adapted to guide, to refine, and to purpose. As a rule, and excepting, of chasten. But it is well to observe that it course, the case of direct inspiration, the is not age which constitutes the blessing great achievements of the young have of experience, but the right kind of expe. been the achievements of instruments in rience which constitutes the blessing of the hands of a power which used them age. Sometimes one is tempted to think without betraying to them its real ends; that before unvenerable age could be puwhile the old alone, those who have cleared rified it would have to be regenerated with their minds from illusion and passion, the high impulses and passions of youth; have had some conscious share in the for really it is the precipitate of these imgreat ends to the achievement of which pulses and passions, under the magoetism they have been permitted to contribute. of a pure and disinterested will, which Glory does not dazzle the old as it dazzles makes the experience in wbich the glory the young Ambition does not mislead of age consists.
they do it.
Fifth Series, Volume XLIX.
No. 2127.- March 28, 1885.
CONTENTS. I. THE POETRY OF TENNYSON,
Contemporary Review, . II. A MILLIONAIRE's Cousin. Conclusion, Macmillan's Magazine, III. CLEMENTINA SOBIESKA, .
Temple Bar, IV. MRS. DYMOND,
Macmillan's Magazine, V. PRISONERS OF WAR IN ENGLAND,
Saturday Review, VI. HADRIA'S ADDRESS TO HIS Soul,
National Review, . VII. SPINNING-WHEELS IN NEW ENGLAND, Saturday Review,
* Title and Index to Volume CLXIV.
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AFTER THE WRECK.
I lost my gold in port and mart, WHAT of the ocean's roar?
I lost my heritage of land; The sea lies smiling in the sun,
I found a treasure in thy hand,
And love's gold in thine heart.
Lean closer, closer, dear,
Now let the tears drop if they will, And drew her down through waters dark,
The sun behind is shining still, Beneath a sulien sky?
We bid a truce to fear;
The night of wreck is overpast, How soft the west wind blows !
And though we trust life's sea no more, We, sitting, watch another ship,
We watch the vessels from the shore,
Together to the last.
We have no argosies,
From lands of sun to lands of snow,
No chance of worldly prize ;
But I have thee, beneath the sun Here, by the dawn tide tost,
Of all God's creatures dearest Already doth the driftwood lie;
And thou, love, bast thy refuge here, Already fades some mother's eye,
Till all our days done ! With anguish for the lost.
All The Year Round.
My love dwelt in a Northern land. Through some green lane where May flowers A grey tower in a forest green blow,
Was hers, and far on either hand And sweeten all the land;
The long wash of the waves was seen, Come, let us wander out of sight
And leagues on leagues of yellow sand, Of this fair-seeming, treacherous sea,
And woven forest boughs between.
And through the silver Northern night
The sunset slowly died away, It smiles beneath the sky,
And herds of strange deer, lily-white, As though its foamy, dimpling waves
Stole forth among the branches grey ; Danced o'er delightsome bowers, not graves About the coming of the light Where dead men's bones do lie;
They fled like ghosts before the day! It looks as life looked, dear, to us, In that glad morning of our days;
I know not if the forest green When we went forth in sunny ways
Still girdles round that castle grey ; The world was smiling thus.
I know not if the boughs between
The white deer vanish ere the day;
Above my love the grass is green,
My heart is colder than the clay!
ANDREW LANG, And swept us from her deck! There was no life-boat to put out, No spar to cling to, no frail raft As refuge from our drowning craft, By storm-winds dashed about.
A SONG OF BATTLE. No harbor from the storm,
Love with its sorrows and love with its joys, No friendly hands stretched out to lift
Love is for delicate maidens and boys, Our drowning fortunes from the drift,
Love is for women and love is for men ; To shelter safe and warm ;
When love is over, what rests to us then ? The world forsook us, love; our cries
The joy of the battle. Died on the wind of sordid strife, And we looked helpless, husband, wife, There's a time to make love, there's a time to Into each other's eyes.
When love is hopeless, 'tis better by far Then from despair was born
To put love aside with a sigh and a laugh, A fonder love, a deeper trust,
To gird on the sword, and a bumper to quaff A treasure safe from moth and rust,
To the joy of the battie, A scorn of the world's scorn;
W. H. POLLOCK.