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“MINE OWN FAMILIAR FRIEND."
SORREL BLOSSOMS. OLD friend, kind friend, is the night far spent? In hope I climbed the grassy stair, As half in a dream I lie,
Green hill in sunlight glancing ; There comes the thrill of a sweet content A thousand grasses blossomed fair, That tells me a friend is nigh:
The breezes set them dancing The forest rests in a waste of snow,
Each seemed a happy soul to be,
Rejoicing with the summer :
And every glad new-comer.
Old friend, there were many false, fair things But, ah! a rapture greater still,
Behold, my heart awaited,
But wondrously translated ! Bright smiles, that cover a love grown cold, It seemed that gems had dropped in showers, The honey that turns to gall;
The hill with glory lining : The tinsel purchased with honest gold
'Twas but a crowd of sorrel flowers Ah, friend, I have known them all!
Through which the sun was shining.
Moved to a rhythmic measure ;
Spell-bound'i watched the lovely things The best is a faithful friend :
As one who finds great treasure ; You saw the snares that I could not see,
I danced, I sang, I could not choose And watched me early and late;
But of their brightness borrow; My soul was dumb, but your hand, for me,
I felt as if I ne'er could lose Knocked hard at the golden gate.
That joy in any sorrow.
As half in a dream I lie,
FROM THE ANGLO-SAXON OF THE SO-CALLED Sleep— but the heart in your faithful breast
Then in his pride he spake who once outshone
hurled AUSTRALIA'S MOTHER.
Him down to torment and the bed of death; (“England stands alone : without an ally.”) Bade hell's high king be henceforth Satan “SHE stands alone : ally nor friend hath she," Rude hell's dark depths, nor ever war with
called, Said Europe of our England, her who bore
heaven. Freedom's own captains warrior-queen Thus Satan spake, pride welling in his heart, who wore
And all around a sea of torturing fire: The glaive of conquest but to make men free.
O how unlike the place that once I knew Then out from summer's home came o'er the High in the heavens, the realm God gave me, sea,
but By many a coral isle and scented shore,
The Omnipotent hath reft me of my throne,
And plunged me in the abyss of hell, and he
most, And England smiled: “Europe forgot my That Adam wrought of earth in heaven shall boys —
be Forgot how tall, in yonder golden zone A thronèd power, find grace with God, while I 'Neath Austral skies, my youngest boys had | Endure hell's torment ! Would these bands grown
were free (Bearing brave swords and bayonets now for For one brief winter hour, then with my host toys) –
But ah, iron bonds are round me once a king; Forgot, \mid threatening thunders — mainly My limbs are galled, held fast by the hard noise
clamps The sons with whom old England 'stands Of hell, on all sides round a sea of flame,
Region of sorrow, fire unquenchable.
GEORGE R. MERRY.
From The Scottish Review.
[of Patmos], with the general character of its
scenery, still more deeply enters into the fig. The island of Patmos occupies an im. ures of the vision itself .. The view from portant position in the sacred geography the topmost peak, or, indeed, from any lofty of Christendom, but, unlike the other holy elevation in the island, unfolds an unusual places, it is very seldom visited by stran. sweep, such as well became the “ A pocalypse,” gers. There is no regular communication the “unveiling” of the future to the eyes of by steamboat. The inhabitants, even
the solitary seer. It was “a great and high
mountain,” whence he could see things to amid their poverty, do not turn the sa
Above, there was always the broad credness of the spot into a source of profit heaven of a Grecian sky; sometimes bright, by organizing pilgrimages, and inviting with its “white cloud,” sometimes torn with the outside world to enrich them by pay. “lightenings and thunderings,” and darkened ing for temporary hospitality, and for me. by “great hail,” or cheered with “a rainbow morials of the journey.* The descrip- like unto an emerald.” Over the high tops of tions which have been published have Icaria, Samos, and Naxos, rise the mountains been very few.t Yet the place is natu- of Asia Minor; amongst which would lie, to rally of profound interest. The land- the north, the circle of the Seven Churches to
Around scape, in any case, is that which was be- which his addresses were to be sent.
him stood the mountains and islands of the fore the eyes of John. There remains, moreover, the farther question whether, shall be moved out of their places ;” “
Archipelago — “every mountain and island during the revelation of the Apocalypse, island fled away, and the mountains were not
' every he was conscious of surrounding objects found.” At his feet lay Patmos itself, like a in such a sense that this landscape was huge serpent, its rocks contorted into the most as it were the proscenium on which the fantastic and grotesque forms, which may well figures of the vision appeared. The late have suggested the “beasts” with many heads Dean Stanley, in a beautiful passage in and monstrous figures, the “huge dragon” the appendix to his “Sermons in the struggling for victory, - a connection as obvi. East,” I seems to incline to such an
as that which has often been recognized idea:
between the strange shapes on the Assyrian
monuments and the prophetic symbols in the The “ Revelation” is of the same nature as visions of Ezekiel and Daniel. When he the prophetic visions and lyrical psalms of the stood “on the sand of the sea,” the sandy Old Testament, where the mountains, valleys, beach at the foot of the hill, he would see trees, storms, earthquakes, of Palestine occupy these strange shapes "arise out of the sea” the foreground of the picture, of which the which rolled before him. When he looked horizon extends to the unseen world and the around, above, or below, “the sea” would remote future . . . The view from the summit always occupy the foremost place. He saw
" the things that are in the heavens and in the * No such thing as a photograph can be obtained, earth and in the sea. The angel was “not to nor are there even religious pictures for sale.
hurt the earth or the sea,” nor to blow on the † The principal authority seems to be the “ Descrip tion de l’lle de Patmos et de l'Ile de Samos,” par earth or on the sea.” “A great mountain,” V. Guérin (Paris, Auguste Durand, 1856). The descrip- like that of the volcanic Thora, “as it were tion given in the present paper was written almost en- burning with fire,” was “to be cast into the tirely at Patmos, and before the author had had the sea." The angel was to stand with “his right advantage of reading M. Guériu's exceedingly valuable work. It is fuller in some respects, especially as con
foot upon the sea, and his left foot on the cerving the churches, than that work, but poorer in earth; ""the vial was to be poured out upon others, especially on antiquarian and historical points. the sea; " the voices of heaven were like the It is published as it was written, but sonie footnotes sound of the waves beating upon the shore, as have been added, citing with acknowledgment several valuable statements from the French author.
“the sound of many waters ;
""the mill-stone few particulars, though none of importance, the present was cast into the sea ; " " the sea was to give up writer differs from M. Guérin, owing, no doubt, in some the dead which were in it;” and the time cases, to changes which have occurred since 1855, and, would come when this wall of his imprison. in others, to one or other having misunderstood or been misinformed.
ment which girdled round the desolate island, Sermons in the East, pp. 229-231. The passage should have ceased ; "there shall be no more cited was evidently written away from the spot, and sea." ... We understand the Apocalypse somewhat carelessiy; for instance, the dean had evi, better for having seen Patmos. dently entirely forgotten the respective positions of Asia Minor and Naxos with regard to Patmos.
On the other hand, we get such a view
as that expressed by Renan. Writing most glorious which has ever been gained, upon this very point, he says,* speaking next after Marathon and Thermopylæ. Placed of the apostles in general and of the be. thus in the very midst of the greatest Greek loved disciple in particular:
creations, at a few leagues from Samos, from
Cos, from Miletus, and from Ephesus, he Men so heated as these sour and fanatical dreamt about other things than the colossal descendants of the antient prophets of Israël, genius of Pythagoras, of Hippocrates, of carried their own imagination about with them Thales or of Heraclitus; for him the glorious wherever they went; and this imagination was memories of Greece had no existence. The so uniformly imprisoned within the sphere of poem of Patmos ought to have been some the antient Hebrew poetry, that the nature “Hero and Leander,” or an idyll in the manner which surrounded them had for them no exist. of Longus, celebrating the gambols of beautiful
Patmos is like all the other islands in children upon the threshold of love. But the the Archipelago, - an azure sea, limpid atmo- dark enthusiast, cast by accident upon these sphere, serene sky, great rocks with jagged Ionian shores, never got out of the circle of edges, slightly covered here and there by a his Biblical recollections. Nature for him was scanty coating of verdure. The general ap- the living chariot of Ezechiel, the monstrous pearance of the island itself is bare and barren, cherub, the unnatural bull of Nineveh, an outbut the shapes and tints of the rocks, and the rageous zoology which sets sculpture and paint. living blue of the sea, specked with white birds ing at defiante. That curious defect which, to and contrasted with the reddish color of the the eyes of Orientals, seems to change the boulders, form a wonderful picture. The forms of nature, the defect which causes all the myriads of isles and islets, of the most varied figured representations that come from their forms, which rise from the waves like pyramids bands to seem fantastic and lifeless, was at its or shields, and dance an eternal chorus round climax in him. The disease which he bore in the horizon, seem to be a fairy world belonging his bowels colored everything to his sight. to a cycle of sea.gods and Oceanides leading He saw with the eyes of Ezechiel or of the a bright life of love, of youth, and of sadness, author of the Book of Daniel; or rather, be in sea.green grottoes, upon shores without saw nothing but himself, his own passions, mystery, by turns smiling or terrible, sunny or hopes, and hatreds. A vague and dry mytholdark. But such ideas as Calypso and the ogy, already Cabbalistic and Gnostic, and all Sirens, the Tritons and the Nereides, the dan. based upon the conversion of abstract ideas gerous charms of the sea, with its caresses at into Divine beings, has put him outside the once so sensuous and so deadly, all those re- range of the plastic conditions of art.
No one fined feelings which have found inimitable has ever shut himself out more entirely from expression in the Odyssey, — all such things his surroundings; no one has ever more openly entirely escaped the imagination of this gloomy renounced the sensible world, in order to subvisionary. Two or three particular features, stitute for the harınony of the reality, the consuch as the prominence given to the idea of tradictory chimæra of a new earth and a new the sea, and the image of "a great mountain heaven.* burning in the midst of the sea,” which he
As a matter of fact, the island of Pat. seems to have borrowed from Thera,t are the only things which have any local color. Out mos belongs to that class of Greek land. of a little island formed to be the scene of the scape which is strongly suggestive of the lovely romance of “Daphnis and Chloe,” or of north-west coast of Scotland. A very fair pastorals such as were conceived by Theocri. idea of its general appearance would be tus or Moschus, he has made a black volcano, formed from some of the wildest and most bursting with ashes and fire. And yet, he can. barren coasts of the islands, allowing only not have avoided sometimes feeling a sense of for the living sapphire of the sea, the the peaceful silence of the nights on these luminous transparency of the atmosphere, waters, when nothing is heard but the occa and the fact that the rocks are brown sional cry of a seagull, or the dull blowing of a porpoise. For days together he was in face * This characteristic outburst is said to have been of Mount Mycale, without thinking once of the written by M. Renan without ever having enjoyed the
advantage of being in the island in question. He himvictory of the Hellenes over the Persians, the self says that after struggling for a whole day, the state
of the wind prevented his entering the port. • L'Antechrist, p. 376–9, third edition.
not, of course, necessarily imply that he did not succeed † And Renan from Stanley; the quotation is not
on some other occasion ; but the present writer was inexact. The words (A poc. viii. 8) are: “ As it were a
formed on the spot that he never had been there, and great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea." the same assurance was given to Vannutelli.
rather than grey. It is extremely pictur-| lose - cantabit vacuus coram latrone vinesque, from its wild forms, but it is one of tor. Were they reunited to their own those places which, like the island of people, more money might perhaps be Bute, afford the best views to those who spent upon public works or even private are upon them rather than to those who enterprise, but the taxation would be, at see them from outside. To a passer by, least, not less, and they would fall under it presents no features so striking as the the law of universal military service, and heights of Samos, which tower in view of annual calling out of the reserve, from it. But to him who has landed in it, and which they are now exempt. Moreover, explores its hills and glens, it affords ex- the ecclesiastical legislation of Greece traordinarily beautiful pictures, both in its would be only too likely to lamper the own wild, though limited landscapes, and beneficent activity of the monastery, which in the vast and enchanting prospect which may be called their mainstay. it offers on every side. In form, it is so The natives are all Christians, and irregular, that it seems simply a group of | 'Ellenes by race and language. The latter stony hills, linked together by sandy they speak with fair correctness. Of the isthmuses, and separated by deep bays, precepts of religion they seem to be most while other hills, still unjoined, rise from scrupulously observant.* The island only the sea in the form of islets around its contains some half-dozen Mohammedans, shores. The predominant feature of the who are aniong the officials sent by the island is sterility. The masses of rock government. The governor bimself is a and stones are thinly sprinkled with small Christian. The island is distinguished by tufts of brownish herbage. The culti. the enormous number of its churches. vated land is confined to the bays and a These are counted by hundreds. It is few glens, and, except in the north, is hardly possible to find any spot from only a small fraction of the surface. which several are not to be seen at once. Trees, and even bushes, such as pome. Indeed, in the less inhabited parts the granate or prickly-pear, are rare, and mind receives the impression that there hardly to be found except in the scanty are more churches than houses. They gardens.* Such as it is, the surface of stand together in couples and triplets, and the country is streaked with stone walls, in groups almost like hamlets. All of dividing the different properties. The them are small. The larger have dones, inhabitants, about three thousand in num- but the great majority are merely small, ber, are poor. The corn which they pro- oblong, vaulted apartments, with a small duce does not suffice for their own con- apse at the end, and incapable of accomsumption ; † and the burden of £200, modating more than twenty or thirty perwhich, with another £100 made up by the sons with comfort. Only very few of monastery, they are obliged to pay yearly them are in ruins. They are mostly kept to the Porte, lies heavy on them.
in thorough repair, and with great care It may be questioned, however, wheth- and cleanliness. In the majority, mass is er, in their present condition, they would only said on the titular feast, but others be much improved in circumstances by are served either at regular intervals or being added to the free Greek isles, which constantly, and the popular pieiy mani. they can see in fair weather from their fests itself, especially on Sunday, by the shores. The Turkish government leaves burning of lamps and incense in almost them very much alone, partly owing to all, while fresh decorations of flowers are stipulations made when this and other placed upon the pictures. islands were exchanged for Euboia, partly These churches of Patmos present some also, perhaps, because they have little to local peculiarities. The arrangement of
the eikonostasion, or image-screen, which M. Guérin says that the three largest trees which he observed were in a small gien called Troas, in the
+ M. Guérin observes that, as far as his temporary † They also make a little very good sweet wine; they residence afforded him an opportunity of observing, fish for sponges, and the women have a considerable the public morality is very good, and marriage held in industry in knitting socks.
the highest esteem and respect.
shuts off the sanctuary from the body of places and objects of interest. On the the church, is somewhat peculiar. It is summit of its central hill rises the great always of wood, and generally slight, monastery, with the wbite houses of the whereas, elsewhere, it is often of stone or town clustered under the shelter of its marble, and the upper part is here, in fortress-like walls, and presenting the some cases, left very open, almost like a main object which strikes the eye on apWestern chancel screen. Elsewhere it has proaching the island, the whole group usually three doors, viz. : the holy doors quaintly flanked by a row of four large leading directly to the altar, and others windmills on the east and another isoon the north and south, leading to the lated windmill on the west. prothesis, or credence, and the diakoni. To this division belongs, in the bay of kon, or vestry, respectively; here there is Tragos itself, an extremely curious isono door to the diakonikon. The three lated rock, united by a narrow strip of divisions are never here, as often else- sand to the coast at its north-west corner. where, separated by walls pierced with This great rock, which was split by lightdoors, behind the screen. Elsewhere, the ning about twelve years ago, and thus doors in the eikonostasion are very often suffered great alteration in shape, bears closed by painted shutters; here by veils. many traces of the hand of man wbich In ordinary cases, the picture of Christ, are stated to be of classical times, and which occupies the panel of the eikono. strongly resemble similar marks, of a very stasion to the south of the holy doors, has early period to be seen elsewhere in next to it a picture of the Baptist, and Greece. Towards the sea, regular flights that of the Blessed Virgin, on the north of steps have been formed, going up to side, has next to it the picture of the the summit, where there is a deep cutting, patron saint, or of the subject of the opening towards the land, but ending, in iitular feast; here there are rarely more the midst of the rock, in a well or cistern than three pictures on the main line, viz., now nearly filled up. The peculiar cutthose of Christ and his mother, and that tings among which the steps ascend have of the patron, in the place usually occu- the appearance of places prepared for the pied by that of the Baptist. The standard fixing of votive offerings or tablets. The candlesticks before the screen, which are most probable explanation seems to be generally of wood, are often an inter- that here was some ancient pagan shrine, esting Byzantine, if not classical, design, perhaps of the sea-sprung Aphrodite, as resting on four feet and consisting of four there are at the base some ruins of a small thin, clustered shafts, intertwined in the church of the Blessed Virgin under the middle.
title of Phylattoméne, “the Protected." The southernmost division of the island There is said to have formerly been an of Patmos consists of an uninhabited and hermitage on this rock. singularly barren group of bills, of which From the shore at this point a valley the highest point (789 ft.) is called Mount runs inlaod, which imperfectly divides the Prasson. From the south point of this southern portion of this group of hills group, there runs into the sea one of those from the northern, where stands the moncurious masses of jagged rocks with which astery. In the bottom and sides of this the waters immediately around the shores valley there is a certain amount of cultiva. of the island are often broken, and which tion and a few houses. The chief feature in this case bears a remarkable resem. in the southern half-district is Mount St. blance to the Needles of the Isle of Wight. Elias, the highest hill in the island (874 ft.) This southern division of the island is which rises on the western side. It is almost cut off from the rest by the deep the bighest point of a group of hills which bays of Port Stauros on the west, and of ascend abruptly from the waters of Port Tragos on the east. They are separated Stauros. * On the summit of the highest by a low, sandy isthmus, in the midst of peak is a group of buildings, comprising a which, on an incidental hillock, stands small court, a terrace, a few chambers, the Church of the Holy Cross (Stauros). and the Church of St. Elias.f Tbis church There is here a little cultivated ground, and two or three cottages. In the bay of • The south-western extremity, called Mount Ky. Tragos lies the uninhabited island of nops, and which is almost as high as Mount St. Elias
, Tragónesos, in somewhat the same way with superstitious dread as the former dwelling of
is said by M, Guérin to contain a cave still viewed as, upon a much larger scale, the Holy Kynops, a magician who is stated by the legend to bave Island lies in the Bay of Lamlash.
opposed St. John. The division of the island which next Prochorus for the existence of a temple of Zeus in the
† M. Guérin cites the legendary work of pseudofollows is that which contains most of the island. It may possibly have been on this height, as