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presses upon us with fresh force what Hampshire, with their county families, was already fairly well known - that their marryings and christenings, their broadly speaking, the whole yield of Jane dancings and charities, are the only world Austen's individuality is to be found in she knows or cares to know. She never her novels. There are a certain number seems to have had a literary acquaintance, of facts about her which help to explain or to have desired to make one. While her books, and which are of use to the Miss Ferrier's wits were quickened by student of the psychological side of letters, the give and take of Edinburgh society in but these were already within everybody's its best days, and Miss Edgeworth found reach, so that the collection printed by herself welcomed with extravagant flattery Lord Brabourne is as a whole neither on the Continent as the representative of amusing, nor sufficiently jostructive to English culture, all the literary influence make in worth publication.

that Jane Austen ever experienced was The triviality of the letters is easily due to her father, and all the literary inexplained. No circumstances were ever fuence she ever personally exerted was less favorable than Jane Austen's to good brought to bear upon a novel-writing letter-writing. She possessed one literary niece. No doubt if she had lived a little instrument which she used with extraor- longer things would have been different. dinary skill and delicacy — the instrument When she died, at the age of forty-one, of critical observation as pplied to the her books had already brought her some commoner types and relations of human fame, and friends would have followed. life. Within the limits fixed for her by As it was, her circle of interests, both intemperament and circumstances she tellectual and personal, was a narrower brought it to bear with unrivalled success, one than that of any other writer we can success which has placed her amongst remember with the same literary position. English classics. But she was practically In spite, however, of her narrow Welt. a stranger to what one may call, without anschauung, and her dearth of literary pedantry, the world of ideas. The intel. relationships, Jane Austen is a classic, lectual and moral framework of her books and “Pride and Prejudice” will probably is of the simplest and most conventional be read when “ Corinne,” though not its kind. The author of “ Corinne,” placed author, is forgotten. Her life is a striking as she was in the very centre of the Eu proof that a great novelist may live withropean stress and tumult

, might well think out a philosophy, and die without ever them too tame and commonplace to be having belonged to a literary coterie. But read. Great interests, great questions, out of the stuff of which the life was com. were life and breath to Madame de Staël posed it was impossible to make a good as they were to her successor George letter-writer. To be a good letter-writer Sand. She realized the continuity of hu. a man or woman must either have ideas, man history, the great fundamental laws or sentiments strong enough to take the aod necessities underlying all the outward place of ideas, or knowledge of and contangle and complication. And it was this tact with what is intrinsically interesting insight, this far-reaching symyathy, which and important. Jane Austen had none of gave her such power over her time, and these. "The graphic portraiture of men made her personality and her thoughts and women seen from the outside, in "incalculably diffusive.” Meanwhile Jane which she excelled, was not possible in Austen, in her Hampshire home, seems letters. It required more freedom, more to have lived through the stormiest period elbow-room than letters could give. Jane of modern European history without being Austen, in describing real people, found touched by any of the large fears and herselt limited by the natural scruples of hopes, or even strongly impressed by any an aimable and gentle nature. There was of the dramatic characters or careers in a short time when the exuberance of her which it abounded. Though the letters talent overflowed a little into her corre. extended from 1796 to 1817, ihere is barely spondence. But it soon came to an end, a mention of politics in them, except in and for the rest of her life Jane Austen's some small personal connection, and of letters were below rather than above the the literary forces of the time – Goethe, average in interest, point, and charm. Byron, Wordsworth - there is hardly a Miss Austen's novels are a well-worn trace. Even when she comes to London, subject. We have all read her, or ought though we have an occasional bare record to have read her; we all know what Ma. of a visit to a theatre, we still hear of caulay and what Scott thought of her; nothing except sisters, cousios, neighbors, and ihe qualities of her humor, the extent the price of " Irish,” and the new fashions of her range, have been pointed out again in caps. And for the rest, Kent and and again. Perhaps, after all, however, it

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may be still worth while to try and face | Tale, and elsewhere. But the qualities the question which these disappointing of expansion develop first in the literary letters bring home to one. How was it history of the world; those of concentra. that, with all her lack of knowledge and tion come later, and the human mind takes of ideas, and with her comparative lack of longer to fashion the iostruments which passion, which so often supplies the place fit and display them. Although a great of both, Jane Austen accomplished work writer will have both in some measure, so permanent and so admirable? What the proportion in which he possesses is it, in a word, which makes “Pride and them will depend upon his date. The Prejudice” and “Northanger Abbey" progress of literary expression during the English classics, while the books of her last two hundred years has on the whole, contemporaries, Miss Ferrier and Miss and making due allowance for the vast Edgeworth, have practically lost their stores of new material which have found hold upon our sympathies, and are retreat their way into literature since Rousseau, ing year by year into a dimmer back- been a progress towards concentration. ground? There are two kinds of quali. Literature tends more and more to be. ties which go to the making of a classic. come a kind of shorthand. The great There are the qualities of expansion and writers of this generation take more for the qualities of concentration. The great granted than the great writers of the last, books of the world are rich in both. If and the struggle to avoid commonplace you compare Chaucer's and Gower's and repetition becomes more and inore treatment of the same theme – the sub. diffused. The mind of the modern writer ject of “ The Man of Lawes Tale,” for is on the whole most anxiously concerned instance - you will see not only that with this perpetual necessity for omission, Chaucer's ireatment is light and rapid for compression. It will never describe where Gower's is heavy and prolix, but if it can suggest, or argue if it can imply. that Chaucer knew where, as the French The first condition of success in letters is would say, to "lean," where to dwell, nowadays to avoid vaporing, and to wage where to expand. You may trace this war upon those platitudes we all submit poetic expansion at work in all the great to with so much cheerful admiration in moments or crises of the story. Gower our Richardson or our “Spectator." plods on through the trial of Constance It was her possession of the qualities for the murder of Dame Hermengild, and of condensation that made Jane Austen through the various incidents which ac- what she was. Condensation in literary company it, with no variation of tone or matters means an exquisite power of pace. Chaucer, when he has brought choice and discrimination - a capacity for Constance face to face with her enemies, isolating from the vast mass of detail pauses, as any true poet would, and lets which goes to make up human life just the tragedy of the situation penetrate him. those details and no others which will self and his readers.

produce a desired effect and blend into

one clear and harmonious whole. It imHave ye not seyn sometyme a palë face

plies the determination to avoid everything Among a prees, of him that hath be lad Toward his deth, wher as him gat no grace,

cheap and easy – cheapness in sentiment, And swich a color in his face hath had,

in description, in caricature. In matters Men mightë knowe his face, that was bistad

of mere language it means the perpetual Amongès alle the faces in that route :

effort to be content with one word rather So stant Custance, and looketh hir aboute. than two, the perpetual impulse to clip

and prune rather than expand and length. O queenës, lyuinge in prosperitee

And if to this temper of self-restraint Duchesses, and ladyës euerich one

you add the imagination which seizes at Haueth some rewthe on hir aduersitee ;

once upon the most effective image or An emperourës doughter stant allone ; She hath no wight to whom to make hir mone. strike a reader, and a spontaneous inter

detail and realizes at a glance how it will O blood roial! that stondest in this drede, Fer ben thy frendës at thy gretë nede!

est in men and women as such, you have

arrived at the component parts of such a And a little further on there is a still gift as Jane Austen's. Nothing impresses more striking instance of it, in the exqui-them more strongly upon the reader than site scene between Constance and her a comparison of her work with that of her child before she is turned adrift on the slightly younger contemporary, Miss Fer. Northumbrian coast. As for the qualities rier. Miss Ferrier had a great deal of of condensation they may be traced in the humor, some observation, and a store of " Troilus and Cressid as compared with natural vigor which made ber novels welthe “Filostrato," and in the Knightes come to the generation of Scott and By

en.

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roo. Stronger expressions of praise were lesser affections and inclinations, which used to her cod about her than ever seem had been filling up the time of his absence, to have suggested themselves to any con disappear. Others might have had a temporary admirer of Miss Austen, and chance if he had remained away, but his the author of "Marriage " was encouraged return, his neighborhood, rouses a feeling to believe that her work would rank with which sweeps all before it. This is the that of Scott as a representation of Scots situation. We may imagine, if Miss Fertish life and manners. But we who read rier had had to deal with it, how she Miss Ferrier with an interval of fifty years would have spun it out; with what rapbetween us and her can judge the propor. tures, what despairs, what appeals to tions of things more clearly. Miss Fer. heaven she would have embroidered it! rier is scarcely read now, except for the But Jane Austen at once seizes upon the sake of satisfying a literary curiosity, and vital points of it, and puts them before us, will gradually drop more and more out of at first with a sober truth, and then with reading. And it is very easy to under a little rise into poetry, which is a triumph stand why, if one does but approach her of style. books with these qualities of expansion “There was much regret,” she says, in and concentration which go to make up a ber analysis of Anne's feelings towards classic in one's mind. She has little or the man she had resolved to sacrifice to no faculty of choice, nothing is refused ber old lover. “How she might have felt that presents itself; reflections, love-mak. had there been no Captain Wentworth in ing, incident, are all superabundant and the case is not worth inquiring; for there second-rate. Everything is done to death, was a Captain Wentworth, and be the whether it is Miss Pratt's bustle, or Lady conclusion of the present suspense good Juliana's finery, or Mr. McDow's brutal. or bad, her affection would be his for. ity, and as for the sentiment - these re ever. Their union, she believed, could not flections from the first volume of the divide her more from other men than their " Inheritance" are a fair average speci- final separation. Prettier musings of highmen of it.

wrought love and eternal constancy could “Ah,' thought Gertrude, how will never have passed along the streets of ingly would I renounce all the pomp of Bath than Anne was sporting with from greatness to dwell here in lowly affection Camden Place to Westgate Buildings. It with one who would love me and whom I was almost enough to spread purification could love in return. How strange that and perfume all the way." How terse it 1, who could cherish the very worm that is, how suggestive, how free from vulgar. crawls beneath my feet, have no one be- ity and commonplace! ing to whom I could utter the thoughts of Another striking instance of this choosmy heart, no one on whom I could bestow ing instinct of hers is the description of its best affections!' She raised her eyes, Darcey's place, Pemberley, in “ Pride and swimming in tears to heaven, but it was Prejudice.” There, although there is in the poetic enthusiasm of feeling, not in scarcely any description at all, every the calm spirit of devotion !”

stroke of the pen is so managed that any There is no parlicular reason why writ- reader with ordinary attention may realize, ing of this kind should ever stop; there if he pleases, the whole lie of the park, the is nothing intimate and living in it, none look of the house, as Elizabeth surveyed of that wrestle of the artist with experi. it from the opposite side of the ravine ence which is the source of all the labors above which it stood, the relative posiand all the trials of art; it is all conventions of the lawns, stables, and woods. tional, traditional, hearsay in fact. The Anybody with a turn that way could sketch qualities of concentration are altogether it with ease, and yet there is no effort, no wanting. But now, put side by side with intention to describe, nothing but a clear Gertrude's sentiment or Mrs. Sinclair's and vivid imagination working with that remorse, some of the mental history of self-restraint, that concentration, wbich is Jane Austen's dramatis persone, and the the larger balf of style. This self-restraint gulf which this marvellous choosing fac- indeed is her important, her determining ulty digs between one writer and another quality. In other ways she has great dewill be plain at once. Anne Eliot, in ficiencies. For fine instances of the qual• Persuasion," has arrived at the critical ities of expansion we must go elsewhere moment of her fate. The man whom she than to Jane Austen. Emotion, inspirahad rejected seven years before has reap-tion, glow, and passion are not hers; she peared upon the scene, and as soon as is a small, thin classic. But classic she she is brought in contact with him all is; for her work is a typical English em.

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bodiment of those drier and more bracing the refusal to accept the provision of a elements of style in which French litera- retiring allowance confirms the disinterest. ture has always been rich, add our own edness and self-denial which have marked perhaps comparatively poor.

his public career, and he retires into priM. A. W. vate life with the good wishes and sympa.

thy of all who have known him, either directly as an archbishop, or indirectly

through the books he has published.
THE ARCHBISHOP OF DUBLIN.

Times, Dec. 1.
Daily Chronicle, Nov. 29.

With all the dignity of high desert, and By the retirement of Dr. Trench from all the warmth of mutual appreciation, the the archiepiscopal see of Dublin, a well- Archbishop of Dublin has placed his resig, known figure is withdrawn from active nation in the hands of his Synod of a load participation in the affairs and direction of office which, after twenty-one years of of the Irish Church. The letter announc continued strain, he is no longer able to ing his intention to retire was read yester-bear. There have been several such res. day at a special meeting of the United ignations in this country since Parliament Synods of Dublin, Glendalough, and Kil. consented to give the requisite facilities, dare, and as a mark of respect to the re. but they seem to have come in the orditiring prelate the whole assemblage rose nary, course of nature, and they only reand stood during the delivery of his mes mind one that after three score and ten sage. While every one will regret that the strength of man is apt to be labor and failing health and physical infirmity have sorrow. Dr. Trench has exhausted his prompted the archbishop to seek to be life and his forces in the discharge of one relieved of his public duties, the action he of the most painful tasks that ever fell to has taken is perhaps the wisest course for the lot of a bishop, or any ruler of men. him to pursue, and in retirement he will be He has had to lead a losing and divided able to secure that rest and immunity from cause ; to command in a campaign fore. anxiety which are denied to the occupant doomed to defeat; to conduct a harassed of an episcopal throne. During the forty- retreat; to submit to hostile terms and five years of his ministry in the Church the make the best of a diminished position ; career of Dr. Trench has been somewhat to sacrifice in a sense all, with the saving chequered, and not wholly uneventful. of honor, and to leave his work so far in. While holding the small incumbency of complete as not even to know in what Curdbridge Chapel he first attracted pub- form to make his resignation real and lic attention by the publication of two effectual. The knot which death usually volumes of poems which established his cuts has in this case to be untied. It is reputation as a poet. These so impressed to be feared, however, that this is but a Dr. Wilberforce, then rector of Alver. small part of the legacy of difficulties Dr. stoke, that he requested Mr. Trench to Trench leaves to the Church of Ireland become his curate. Thence on the prefer- and his successors. Between the charac. ment of his rector, Mr. Trench was pre. ter of the man and the part he has had to sented to Itchenstoke, wbich he resigned perform on the great stage of public life on appointment to the deanery of West- there is a certain disparity which adds to minster. His tenure of this office was the pathetic interest of the event. There marked by great intellectual activity, and are men who might be thought made for it was during this period that he published such a crisis ; there are men who might some of his best works. In 1864, he was be thought to have even provoked it, and selected to succeed Dr. Whateley in the who only hand over to others the work archbishopric of Dublin, from which he they had spontaneously initiated. In this now desires to retire. During his resi- case we seem to see only misfits and cross nence in Dublin, he has proved himself a purposes. It is impossible, indeed, to say true benefactor to Ireland, and his admin. what better terms could have been inade istration of the diocese during a difficult for the doomed Establishment, or what and trying period of twenty-one years has manner of man would have been fitter for been conducted on principles the most work to be done. Nevertheless, the man just and wise. His administrative powers and the office and the period forcibly were amply proved by the tact he dis. illustrate the mixed fortunes and confliciplayed at the time of the disestablishment, ing conditions which fortune, with a cerand he leaves his diocese in a peaceful tain playfulness, is often found to combine and flourishing condition. His last act in in one personal career.

a

Fifth Series,
Volume XLIX,

}

No. 2116.- January 10, 1885.

From Beginning,

Vol. CLXIV.

67

75

CONTENTS.
1. MEN OF LETTERS ON THEMSELVES,

Fortnightly Review,
II. BORROUGHDALE CF BORROUGHDALE. Con-
clusion,

Macmillan's Magazine,
III. LIFE IN A DRUSE VILLAGE. By Laurence
Oliphant,

Blackwood's Magazine,
IV. DOROTHY: AN INTERLUDE,

Blackwood's Magazine,
V. UNDER A GREEN BOUGH,

Blackwood's Magazine,
VI. WURZBURG AND VIENNA; SCRAPS FROM A
DIARY. Part II., .

Contemporary Review, .
VII. GENERAL GORGEY,.

Saturday Review,

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