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shillings in the pound on their nominal picion, and the document was acted on in value. The forgers, thirteen in number, ordinary course. From this date up to were arrested; and notes to the amount 1824, the presentation of such powers by of ten thousand pounds were seized on Messrs. Marsh & Co. became a matter of the premises.
frequent occurrence, and very large sums In the mean time, a fraud of even greater were thus obtained. At last a crash came. magnitude had been perpetrated within Henry Fauntleroy was joint trustee with the bank itself by one of its most trusted some other gentlemen of certain moneys servants. In 1803, a Mr. Bish, a stock- invested in the three per cents. One of broker, was instructed by Mr. Robert Ast the trustees chancing to call at the bank lett, cashier of the Bank of England, to to make some inquiry respecting the trust dispose of some exchequer bills, which, fund, found, to his horror, that it had been from certain circumstances, Bish koew to sold out, under an alleged power of attorbe in the official custody of the bank. ney, by Mr. Fauntleroy. In consequence His suspicions being thus aroused, he of his communication to the bank authorcommunicated with the directors; and it ities, the whole of the powers acted upon was found that Astlett, who had charge of by Marsh & Co. were investigated, and a all exchequer bills brought into the bank, great part of them were fouod to be forged. and should bave transferred them, in par- On the oth of September, 1824, Fauntlecels properly docketed, to the custody of roy was arrested in his own banking-house. the directors, had succeeded in diverting He offered the officer who arrested him a large number of them to his own uses, ten thousand pounds if he would connive his defalcations amounting to no less at his escape; but in vain. On searching than three hundred and twesty thousand his private office, a box was found conpounds. Astlett was tried for his offence, taining a long list of forgeries, with a and was sentenced to death; but the sen. memorandum in the following words: “In tence was never carried into effect. The order to keep up the credit of our house, prisoner remained in Newgate for many I have forged powers of attorney, and years; but whether he died in prison, we have therefore sold out all these sums, do not find recorded.
without the knowledge of any of my partPassing over the great Stock Exchange ners. I have given credit in the accounts frauds of 1814, as a matter in which he for the interest when became due. bank was only indirectly interested, we (Signed) HENRY FAUNTLEROY." It is come to the forgeries of Fauntleroy, which, said that at the moment of his apprehen. from their magnitude and the position of sion he had ready a fresh power of attorthe offender, produced an extraordinary ney, by means of which he would have sensation. Henry Fauntleroy had suc- been enabled to replace the stock whose ceeded his father as a partner in the bank. absence led to the discovery: The amount ing firm of Marsh, Stracy & Co. The of loss to the Bank of England by Faunt. firm was unfortunate; and Fauntleroy leroy's forgeries is said to have been no speculated largely on the Stock Exchange less than three hundred and sixty thouin the hope of improving its fortunes, but sand pounds. He was executed at New. actually involved himself thereby in still gate on November 30, 1824. greater difficulties. To meet these, he For some years after this date, forgery forged powers of attorney, enabling him continued to be a capital offence ; but to deal with funded securities belonging there was a growing feeling against the to various clients, from time to time re- severity of the punishment. In 1832 a placing one fund by the proceeds of a bill was passed abolishing the capital penlater forgery. He began in May, 1815, alty in the case of all forgeries save those with a power of attorney empowering of wills and powers of attorney; and in Messrs. Marsh & Co. to sell out a sum of 1837 these also ceased to be capital ofthree thousand pounds consols. It is an fences. every day occurrence for clients to give In 1944, a very ingenious fraud was such powers to their bankers, and the one perpetrated, with the curious result of re. in question appeared to be in perfect or storing to the rightful owner a large sum der. It purported to be executed by the of money of whose very existence she was fundholder, one Frances Young, of Chi- not aware. In the year 1915, a Mr. Slack chester, and to be attested by two of the died, leaving a Mr. Hulme his executor. clerks of Messrs. Marsh & Co. The Mr. Hulme, in the course of his duties as power was presented at the Bank of En- such, transferred into the name of Aon gland. There was nothing to excite sus. Slack, of Smith Street, Chelsea, six thou.
sand six hundred pounds consols, and The last great fraud by which the Bank tbree thousand five hundred pounds three of England has been a sufferer was that per cent. reduced annuities. During Mr. of Austin Bidwell and his accomplices. Hulme's lifetime, he received the divi- On the 18ih of April, 1872, Austin Bid. deods op both funds, and Miss Slack drew well called upon a tailor named Green, in on him for money as she needed it. Upon Savile Row, and under the assumed name bis death in 1832, Miss Slack resolved of Warren, gave him a handsome order. thenceforth to receive her dividends her. On May 4, he paid Mr. Green another self, but only did so as regarded the six visit. He was then professedly on his thousand six hundred pounds consols, not way to Ireland, and having about him a being aware, apparently, that she was also large sum of money, asked Green to take entitled to the three thousand five bun-charge of it during his absence.
Green dred pounds. This state of things con- hesitated to take the responsibility, but tinued from 1832 to 1842, when the three remarked that the branch Bank of Enthousand five hundred pounds reduced gland was in Burlington Gardens close annuities, with ten years' dividends, were by, and offered to introduce Warren there. transferred, as unclaimed, to the commis. This was done; and Warren opened an sioners for the reduction of the national account by a deposit of twelve hundred debt. The fact of the transfer being pounds. He gave his name as “ Frederknown to a clerk in the bank, one William ick Albert Warren," and his address as Christmas, he communicated it to one Golden Cross Hotel. He paid in and drew Joshua Fletcher, who forth with concocted out moneys to a considerable amount, and a scheme for possessing himself of the shortly began to offer bills for discount. amount. With ihe aid of a solicitor named They bore the best of names, and were Barber, he ascertained that Ann Slack discounted without hesitation. On the was still alive, and managed to obtain a 17th of June, 1873, a bill of Rothschild's specimen of her signature. He then reg. for four thousand five hundred pounds istered Ann Slack as deceased, first, how. was offered, and was discounted in due ever, forging a will in her name purporting course. to bequeath the sum in question to a sup: Having thus gained, by transactions in posed niece, Emma Slack. This will was genuine bills, the confidence of the Bank duly proved, and the probate lodyed at authorities, the supposed Warren com. the Bank of England. A woman named menced operations of another kind. Bills Sanders personated the supposed Emma came in thick and fast for discount, still Slack. The three thousand five hundred bearing the same first-class names pounds was sold out, and the proceeds Rothschild, Blydenstein, Suse and Sibeth, paid to her, together with the unclaimed etc.; but they were now cleverly executed dividends, amounting to about eleven hun. forgeries. The Bank continued to disdred pounds. The conspirators had car- count without suspicion. Naturally, howried their plan through very cleverly; but ever, it paid in its own notes, of which the they had overlooked one point. The will numbers were recorded, and which, when only professed to bequeath the reduced it was discovered that the bills were annuities, and consequently these only forged, would be difficult to realize. Bid. had been dealt with ; but as the bank au. well, in order to dispose of these and to thorities knew that Ann Slack had also diminish the chances of identification, possessed a fund in consols, they, in ac-opened an account in another name (Horcordance with their usual practice, placed ton) at the Continental Bank. Here he “deceased” against her name in the title paid in the notes received from the Bank of that account. When an account is of England, taking French and German “ dead” that is, stands in the name of money in exchange; Hills — under the a deceased person no addition can be name of Noyes — acting as his clerk. made to it. Ann Slack, shortly afterwards, Sometimes, by way of variety, Hills desiring to add more stock to this account, changed notes into gold at the Bank of was informed, to her astonishment, that England itself, alleging that the coin was she was dead. To prove that she was not for export; but the gold so obtained was so, she presented herself at the bank with brought back again by Macdonnell, and ample proof of her identity. Fletcher and exchanged for fresh notes, which, thus Barber were tried, and found guilty. The obtained, would have no obvious connec. money was gone; but Ann Slack notwith tion with the original fraud. George Bid. standing received her full due, the loss well undertook what may be called the being borne by the government.
I manufacturing department, namely, the
preparation of the plates, and the printing
From The Spectator. of the bill-forms for the forgeries. By
GEORGE ELIOT'S HUMOR. thus dividing their labors, and working The dramatic humor which has gained each in a distinct department of the fraud, so much admiration for George Eliot's the gang hoped to evade discovery until stories, and which is so coospicous by its they had made what they regarded as a absence from her letters and journals, sufficient haul, when they would doubtless seems to most readers to be of a kind have retired to foreign climes to enjoy the which would have been likely to make fruits of their labors. How much further itself visible in almost every hour and they would have gone it is impossible to every personal action of her life. As a say, for they had already offered forged matter of fact, we now know that it was bills to the amount of £102,217, 195. 7d., not so, – that it was a sort of latent heat when a happy oversight led to their detec. which was given out chiefly under the tion. Two bills for one thousand pounds conditions of creative fiction. lo ber oreach, professedly accepted by Messrs. dinary life, the reflective and elaborate Blydenstein, and payable three months considerateness of the woman so predomafter “sight,” were not "sighted” – that inated over all she did and thought, that is, the date of acceptance was not inserted. you observe nothing else, — no sparkling A clerk of the Bank was sent to Messrs. colors of prismatic imagination, no vision Blydenstein's to get the omission rectified, of the scenes she had herself observed in and was met by the startling information one aspect, under the manifold lights in that the bills were forgeries. With some which the various characters she could little trouble, the wbole of the gang were create would have observed them. When arrested, and alter a trial lasting eight you turn to her books, and consider how, days, were convicted, and sentenced to in “Silas Marner,” the good-natured, penal servitude.
husky butcher at the Rainbow mildly reThe cases we have described afford an sents the imputations of the quarrelsome unusually forcible illustration of the good farrier, and limits himself to contending old-fashioned maxim, that “ Honesty is that the “red Durham” cow bad turned the best policy.” If dishonesty ever were out “a lovely carkiss,” though he “would a paying game, it should be in the case of quarrel with no man;" when you rememsuch men as these, with so much ability ber in “Felix Holt” how Mrs. Holt, when employed, playing for such heavy stakes, she thought of the obstinacy of her son and with schemes so carefully planned. Felix in refusing to wear a cravat, and And yet, what must the life of such a insisting on wearing a workman's cap, schemer be? Fauntleroy, we are told, mentally refers to these grievances even did for years the work of three clerks, in in chapel time," with a slow shake of the order to conceal his frauds. Fare as bead at several passages in the minister's sumptuously, entertain as lavishly as he prayer ; or recall in “The Mill on the may, the schemer must live with every Floss” how the sister who “holds by a nerve strained, in constant dread of de. spot” on her tablecloths looks down upon tection, ever feeling the thief-taker's hand the sister who held by “big checks and on his collar, the steel of the handcuffs live things” on her linen, you can hardly upon his wrists. In most instances, he believe that in three volumes of such an does not derive even a transient benefit author's letters there is not a trace of that from his crime. Where there is a tem. pleasure in looking at the world through porary success, as in the case of Fauntle. all sorts of grotesque media, which you roy, the proceeds of one forgery are per naturally ascribe to a writer with so great force devoted to make good another, or a command of the varieties of human limthe money gained by fraud is squandered itation and human caprice. The fact, in unprofitable speculations. And sooner however, appears to be, that not only was or later, the end is sure to come. The this great command of dramatic insight most watchful of men cannot be always not habitually used, and certainly not the on his guard. Some day, a little slip is resource of every idle hour, but that it made, perhaps the mere omission of a not habitually even usable, that date, as in Bidwell's case, or an incautious George Eliot needed the sense of pressure remark, as in that of Mathison, and then belonging to the constructive work of a - the dock and a violent death, or, even particular plot, and of particular local and under the present merciful régime, long personal details, before she was able to years spent in the convict's garb, living summon up before her the vivid life with on convict's fare, and herding with the which she so often delighis us. When very dregs of humanity.
she got her imagination to the exact point
where a butcher's feelings about the “car. “Magnificat anima mea" on small occakiss ” of a "red Durham are wanted, the sions; and writes in this fashion page butcher's feelings about that carcase came after page, and letter after letter, till one to her in the most vivid and complete feels it quite an unexpected relief when way. When she had to ask herself how she comes out in a letter to John Black. the pious widow of a quack medicine wood with so homely a sample of her own vendor would defend her husband for wisdom as this, An unfortunate duck selling those quack medicines, and mix can only lay blue eggs, however much up irrelevant texts from the Bible with white ones may be in demand.” On the ber pious commemoration of the deceased whole, we should say that, while George quack, George Eliot could reproduce the Eliot is an author of singularly large buwidow's feelings with a delightful fertility mor, this quality is more completely latent that gives one the highest sense both of in her correspondence than it is at all her realism and of her humor. But, so easy to understand. far as we can judge, when the necessity If we were to hazard a very bold confor calling up these figures, under the jecture, it would be that George Eliot's special conditions of time and place, was imagination was the real origin of her not upon her, George Eliot did not pos. humor; and that only through the exer. sess a fancy that created them merely for cise of her imagination, which was delibher own beloof and amusement. Sheerate, and more or less a matter of will, – had an imagination that required prepar- though, when she had made the effort, she ing by special effort, by a careful combi- bad, as she herself said, no power to connation of concurrent elements, before it trol the play of her own faculty, did her indulyed her with these lifelike visions. humor come to the surface. When she She did not suddenly see a political situa. bad got Mrs. Poyser well before her mind. tion, as Mr. Brooke would have seen it, she could invent' Mrs. Poyser's witty say: and burst into laughter at bis naïf slip-ings almost ad libitum; when she had shodness; she did not suddenly get a got Mr. Brooke, with his hesitating and glimpse of life through the Dodson mind, good-natured incoherence before her mind, and become convulsed at the spectacle of she could make him blunder into stultifiits grotesque narrowness and arbitrari- cations of which only Mr. Brooke could ness. She seems to have gone through bave been capable; when she had Mrs. life with a view not less monotonously Pullet or Bob Jakin before her mind, she individual and personal, — perbaps even could prose about the medicine bottles or somewhat more monotonously individual the keys, or boast of the advantages which and personal, -than other persons greatly a pedlar may derive from a broad thumb, her inferior in ability ; while the magnifi- as only these admirable characters could cent humor which she could on occasions have done it; but she is dependent on a command, was alınost as rarely put in distinct vision of the figure itself for the requisition for ordinary purposes as is the humor which the figure brings with it; spectroscope of the chemist or the tele. she has none of Charles Lamb's delight in phone of the electrician. It appears from the rapid interchange of associated ideas reading George Eliot's letters, that there on her own account; she is not a humorist was a want of life and variety in her ordi- first and a dramatist afterwards, but a nary view of the world; that she arranged humorist only because she is a dramatist. ber impressions too elaborately in certain | And then she was a dramatist only when uniform patterns; and that, barring the she had all her spells in full working order, occasional use of a little labored irony, and had distinctly realized the figures she wrote to all ber friends in exactly the which she had to create. Then, and not same style, on exactly the same class of till then, her humor flows in a large stream. subjects. For example, she talks of An. But otherwise her humor appears oniy in thony Trollope's “ wholesome Wesen,” the form of a pale irony, that is, in the though Anthony Trollope suggested noth- light which is cast on general views by ing less than a German word for “es- the large knowledge she has of the consence ;” she speaks of her own “per- fusions and littlenesses of human nature. turbed bealth, as if “disturbed were Thus it is perfectly characteristic of her quite too common an adjective for her own style when she remarks that "the use; describes her favorite thoughts as Dissenters solemnly disclaimed any lax “altars where I oftenest go to contem- expectations that Catholics were likely to plate ;” declares herself " completely up- be saved;” or when she tells us that "the set by anything that arouses unloving Independent chapel began to be filled emotions;
“ Ebenezer" or with eager men and women to whom the
exceptional possession of religious truth, with the broad ties not the narrow-frilled was the condition which reconciled them uns — is the key o' the drawer in the Blue to a meagre existence, and made them Room, where the key o' the Blue Closet is. feel in secure alliance with the unseen but You'll make a mistake, and I shall niver be supreme rule of a world in which their worthy to know it. You've a memory for my own visible part was small.” Again, shie that of you; but you're lost among the keys."
pills and draughts wonderful, I'll always say is entirely in her own vein when she This gloomy prospect of the confusion that speaks of the “sense of that peculiar edi. would ensue on her decease was very affecting fication which belongs to the inexplicable.” to Mrs. Pullet. But George Eliot's irony is not true humor. We may even say that there is This reflection that Mr. Pullet would in it a thin tone of triumph over the incon. make a mistake about the keys, and that sistencies of human nature which is in a
Mrs. Pullet, in her spiritual life," would totally different key to the hearty laughter of humor in it that Shakespeare himself
niver be worthy to know it,” has the sort of the true humorist. And, therefore, we
But seldom enjoy that sensation of pins and would have enjoyed to the utmost. needles with which she often regales us Pullet, and not Mrs. Pullet of the sense
the humor comes of the vision of Mrs. in the reflective portions of ber novels, the openings of her chapters, — certainly
of humor. In George Eliot's owo life it not as we do that large dramatic humor in is only in the thinner irony with which which she soon loses herself when once
she mocks at buman limitations that we she is speaking for characters which have see the secondary effect of her dramatic laid a höld of her imagination. Take, for feeling. She herself takes life gravels, instance, Mrs. Pullet's gloomy reflections
monotonously, sometimes almost drearily; as to the incapacity of her husband to un little value she attaches to the significance
and certainly not the less drearily for the ravel the mystery of her keys, in case of her decease:
of most human convictions. Her dra.
matic power plays into the hands of her “I don't know what you mean to do, sister intellectual scepticism, and of her compre. Glegg, but I mean to give him [Tom) a table- hensive forbearance with all the forms of cloth of all my three biggest sizes but one, human error; but otherwise her drainatic besides sheets. I don't say what more I shall do; but that I shall do, and if I should die to power does not play at all a conspicuous morrow, Mr. Pullet, you'll bear it in mind,
part in her own life. It does not even though you'll be blundering with the keys, and often succeed in breaking through the never remember as that on the third shelf of rather artificial sweetness and elaborate. the left-hand wardrobe, behind the nightcaps ness of her journals and epistles.
THE YOUNG OF THE LOBSTER. The early of their birthplace, and the area of their dis. life history of the lobster is most interesting. tribution would be extremely limited. Na. The eggs are, upon extrusion, found attached ture here, however, as in the case of the great to the "swimmarets” of the abdomen (the so- majority of marine invertebrate animals, has called tail of the lobster), and constitute what provided her offspring with special facilities is generally known as the “berry.” A single for becoming distributed to long distances, female lobster will have from twenty to thirty their bodies being so lightly constructed that thousand eggs
- as nearly as possible the their specific gravity scarcely exceeds that of same as the female salmon. Attached to this the fluid medium they inhabit, while they are “berry" form, the eggs remain for some three additionally provided with long, feather-like or four months, and then the young are hatched. | locomotive organs, with which they swim at “No nutritive or other than a purely mechan- or near the surface of the water. As such ical relationship subsists all this time between essentially free-swimming animals, they now the parent and its egg.clusters, the passing of spend the entire first month or six weeks of its small brush-like claws among them to rid their existence, in which time, it is scarcely them of any extraneously derived substances, necessary to state, they may be carried by the and the occasional fanning motion of its swim. tides and currents many miles away from their marets to increase the stream of oxygenated places of birth. During this interval, horv. water through and among the eggs, represent ever, the little lobsters by no means retain ing the sum total of attention they receive.” their primitive shape; their delicate skin, the The young animals that issue from the eggs of rudiment of the future shell, is constantly getthe lobster are uistinct in every way from the ting too tight for them, and is thrown off to adult. If, on the contrary, they were like their give place to a larger and looser one that ditparents, they would at once sink to the bottom fers each time in many structural points from of the water in the immediate neighborhood its predecessor.
Fisheries of the World.