the least error and inaccuracy in your manners, | friends' seats. She frequently goes backair, address. No woman in Europe can c!o it wards and forwards to her beloved France, so well; none will do it more willingly, or in a and in 1756 she visits Scotland, apparently more proper and obliging manner.

She will for the first time. “ This country is far not put you out of countenance by telling you from being so bad an one as English prej; of it in company, but either intimate it by some udice and English ignorance represent it,” sign, or wait for an opportunity when you are alone together. She is also in the best French she says, writing from the neighborhood company, where she will not only introduce of Roxburgh. And she praises the corn. but puff you, if I may use so low a word. * fields, the noble wooded hills, the beauti

ful rivers, and above all, the fish : “ As What a scolding Lady Hervey, would for herrings and crabs, I do not believe I have given his lordship for using it! During her Paris sojourn she apologizes called so in England; they are not like the

shall ever be able again to taste what is to Mr. Morris for writing but seldom. The “fashionables” keep late hours at tasted; the trout, the smelts, the perch are

same fish. The salmon is the best I ever night, and have short mornings, as they incomparable.” Such beef and mutton dine at two o'clock. But if she could do

she never ate before. But the fruit him “any real, essential service by writ- that, indeed, is "little and indifferent.” ing,” she would borrow time not only from Her descriptions of the Duke of Rox. her pleasures, but from my business,

burghe's, Lord Haddington's, and Lord my rest, and my sleep.” There can be no doubt she was a faithful ally; she says

Hopetoun's seats are very minute and she

eulogistic. never lost a friend but by death - and that those who remain shall never lose her I have seen many more fine places [she while she lives, if they care to keep her. continues]; the worst thing in Scotland is its Fontenelle is one of her Parisian compan capital, which is a frightful dirty town, though ions:

paved as well as St. James's Square. I like

the people in general. They are sensible and He has no mark of age but wrinkles, and a learned, and have a very cheerful heartiness degree of deafness; but when by sitting near and good humor about them. him you make him hear you, he answers with that liveliness and prettiness peculiar to

Her admiration for the great Frederick

“ There is himself. He often repeats and applies his would have satisfied Carlyle. own and other people's poetry very agreeably, no one but the king of Prussia worth but only as it is proper to the subject. He is thinking of,” she says in 1757: ninety-two, and has the cheerfulness, liveliness, and even the taste and appetite of twen. What a persevering spirit, what courage, what ty-two!

sagacity, how able a legislator at home, how

formidable and humane an enemy abroad ! While in France Lady Hervey had an A pattern and a model of arts and sciences ! illness which made her so weak that she In short, something in the great scale of besays she could "as easily have managed ings between a man and a deity; and whatever a cannon as a pen.' But it was almost a

the weak admiration for antiquity may be in pleasure to be ill among so many sympa. general, I prefer him to Cæsar, and consethizers. Her friends and acquaintances quently very much before Alexander. He has besieged her door all day long, and waited the virtues of both without their vices. for hours in the afternoon to waylay the As years pass on, her letters become doctor or nurse and bave the latest bulle. sadder and more grave in tone. Her tin. Light quilts, couches, easy-chairs, health was broken. Her children were all the things she could possibly require, scattered; the diplomatic service and the were sent to her; and when she began to army had drawn her sons out of England, rally, “ little chickens out of the country, and often into danger which racked her new-laid eggs warm from the hen,” the nerves and oppressed her spirits. Her best varieties of wine, poured in upon her. old friends were falling by her side, and "If you could guess all the kindness 1 almost every letter records a loss. meet with,” she says, "you would neither

These are the misfortunes of long life [she blame nor wonder at my reluctance to quit says], and which in old age cannot be repaired. these agreeable people.”

One can hardly then make acquaintance, cerShe does return to England in 1752, tainly not friends. Indeed, with all the imhowever; but Lord Bristol's death having provements you talk of, that of friendship is lessened her ties to home, in subsequent not one. You hardly now ever hear it named; years she is often found writing from her connections is the word, and the thing; these

last for one, two, or perhaps even three ses* Lord Chesterfield's Letters to his Son, 12th edit., sions of Parliament, for on them depend all 1806, vol. iii., pp. 55-6.

those connections.

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Nevertheless, the accession of George to Sir Horace Mann a few weeks after II1. gave her pleasure. “ I have the best her death: “ Lady Hervey, one of my imaginable opinion of him," she says, “not great friends, died in my absence. She from anything he does or says just now, is a great loss to several persons; her but because I have a moral certainty that house was one of the most agreeable in he was in his nursery the honestest, truest London; and her own friendliness, good good-natured child that ever lived; and breeding, and amiable temper had attached you know my old maxim, that qualities all that knew her. Her sufferings, with never change. What the child was, the the gout and rheumatism, were terrible, man most certainly is, in spite of tempo. and yet never could affect her patience, rary appearances.

or divert her attention to her friends." * She still exerted herself occasionally to Lady Hervey often moralized gently on see and entertain those who wished to "the vanity of human wishes,” the cruel visit her. To Mr. Morris's children she way in which time will sometimes mock was thoughtfully kind; and some cheerful one's little plans, and hopes, and achieveand accomplished sisters named Stanley ments. She did not foresee that her own were much with her; but she was rather case was destined to be very much in shy of the new generation :

point. In 1774 Walpole wrote to the

Rev. William Cole: The little understanding I have is worn very thin indeed (she says in 1764]. I am a mere Lord Bristol got his mother's house from rag, and I dare say the Miss Stanleys have no his brother [Augustus] by persuading her he notion that I ever had any liveliness about me. was in love with it. He let it in a month after They have a great deal. I like them extreme- she was dead — and all her favorite pictures ly, and should be happy in their acquaintance, and ornaments, which she had ordered not to if my vanity did not throw cold water on that be removed, are mouldering in a garret ! | pleasure. In short, I confess I am mortified when new acquaintance see me as I now am. * Letters of Horace Walpole, edited by Peter CunI don't mean as to my figure, but as to my ningham, vol, V., p. 129. understanding, which is full as old and as grey

f Ibid., vol. vi., p. 82. as the other. Don't laugh at me for my vanity. We all have our share of it in some shape or degree, and, take the species as it is, ready made, I question whether vanity is not

From The Contemporary Review. the most general and powerful motive of the

WURZBURG AND VIENNA: best and most agreeable things we do. La vertu n'iroit pas loin si la vanité ne lui tenoit pas compagnie. All rational creatures are Going to Vienna to collect books and either ashamed or proud of what they say or documents, with the intention of studying do. The vanity is equal in each case. the results of Bosnia's occupation by

In June, 1768, in the course of a more Austro-Hungary, I take the Rhine route, than usually cheerful letter in which Lady and stop two days at Würzburg to see Hervey spoke of her intention of going to Ludwig Noiré, and have a talk on SchoOld Windsor, to Ickworth, and thence to penhauer. The Vater Rhein is now drink her “Sunning Hill waters," she changed beyond recognition: quantum told her old friend she did not fear death, mutatus ab illo. How different all is to “but the way to it;” the last sufferings when I visited it for the first time, years — sometimes protracted; but “when once ago on foot, stopping at the stages menthey are over, I do not question but to tioned in Victor Hugo's “ Rhin," which risé to a new and better life.” It was her had just appeared. All those grand peeps last letter to Mr. Morris. On the 2nd of of nature to be got on the old river, as it Sepiember she died at her town house; forced its majestic way through barriers aod she was spared the final agony she of riven rocks and volcanic upheavals, had dreaded. Her son Augustus was with have now almost wholly disappeared. The ber, and told Mr. Grenville that the day wine.grower has planted his vineyards before her death "she squeezed my hand, even in the most secluded nooks, and built and said, 'Poor dear Augustus,’and never stone terraces where the rocks were too spoke afterwards. She felt, thank God! steep for cultivation. All along the banks, no pain whatever." *

these giant staircases climb to the sum. Horace Walpole, some of whose pleas. mits of peaks and ravines. The vines antest letters were addressed to her, wrote have stormed the position, and their as

pect is uniform. The Burgs, built on • The Grenville Papers and Correspondence, vol. iv., heaps of lava, the Maus and the Katze,

those sombre retreats of the burgraves of


p. 357

old, now covered with the green leaves of his horror of nature in its savage state, the vine, have lost their former wild as brutenature, as he calls it. At the pect. The Lorelei manufactures white present day, our impression is precisely wine, and the syren no longer intoxicates the reverse of this. We seek on almost sailors with the songs of her harp, but inaccessible summits, in the region of with the juice of the grape. There is eternal snow, and in the very heart of nothing here now to inspire Victor Hugo's hitherto unexplored continents, a spot “ Burgraves,” or Heine's

where man has not yet penetrated, and Ich weiss nicht was soll es bedeuten,

where we may behold nature in her invio. Dass ich so traurig bin;

late virginity. We are stifled by civilizaEin Märchen aus alten Zeiten,

tion, wearied out with books, newspapers, Das kommt mir nicht aus dem Sinn.

reviews, and periodicals, letters to write

and to read; railway travelling, the post, Below, engineering skill has dammed in the telegraph, and the telephone, devour the waters of the river, and the basaltic time and completely mince up one's life; blocks form a black wall with white lines any solitude for fruitful reflection is quite between the stones. Black and white ! out of the question. Shall I find it, at Even the old god of the Rhine has least, among the fir-trees of the Carpa. adopted the Prussian colors. Embank. thians, or beneath the shade of the old ments have been constructed at the wide oaks of the Balkans ? Industry is spoilpoints of the river, for the purpose of in- ing and soiling our planet. Cheinical creasing its depth, and of reconquering produce poisons the water, the dross from meadows, by the slow but natural process different works and factories covers the of raising the level by mud deposits. Be country, quarries split up the picturesque tween Mannheim and Cologne, the cur- slopes of valleys, black coal smoke dulls rent has gained ten hours, and the dangers the verdant foliage and the azure of the of navigation of legendary celebrity have sky, the drainage of large cities turns our disappeared. All along the embankments, rivers into sewers, whence emerge the immense white figures inform navigators germs of typhus. The useful destroys at what distance from them it is safe to the beautiful; and this is so general as at pass. On each bank, too, runs a railway, times to bring tears to the eyes. Have and on the river itself pass steamers of not the Italians, the lovely Isle of Sta. every shape, form, and description Heléna, near to the public gardens in Vensteamers with three decks, for tourists, ice, erected works for the building of enas in the United States, little pleasure. gines, and replaced the ruins of a fourthboats, iron barges from Rotterdam, steam. century church by chimneys, whose tugs worked by paddle or screw, and opaque smoke, produced by the detestable dredgers of various proportions; all these bituminous coal of the Saar, would soon hundreds of chimneys vomit a continuance leave a sooty trace on the pink marble of of black smoke, which darkens the whole the doges' palace and on the mosaics of atmosphere. The carriage roads are in St. Mark, just as we see them on St. admirable order; not a rut is visible, and Paul's Cathedral in London, so ugly covthey are lined with fruit-trees, and with ered with sticky streaks. It is true that the same black and white basaltic blocks the produce of this industrial activity be. as the river. The Prussian colors again; comes condensed in revenue, which en. but the aim is to point out the road for riches many families, and adds considercarriages on dark nights. When the way ably to the list of the bourgeois population turns either to the right or the left, the inhabiting the capital. Here, on the banks trees on each side of it are painted white, of the Rhine, these revenues are repre. so as to be distinctly visible. I have never sented by villas and castles, whose pseu. anywhere seen a great river so thoroughly do-Greek or Gothic architecture peeps out tamed, subdued, and utilized, so complete from among masses of exotic trees and ly bent to man's necessities. The free plants in the most sought-after positions, Rhine of Arminius and of the burgraves near to Bonn, Godesberg, St. Goar, or is as well disciplined as any grenadier of Bingen. Look! there is an immense feuBrandenburg The economist and the dal castle, beside which Stolzenfels, the engineer adinire, but painters and poets empress Augusta's favorite residence, bewail.

would be a mere shooting-box. This Buffon, in a page published in every immense assemblage of turrets, galleries, Cours de Littérature, sings a hosanna roofs, and terraces must have cost at least to cultivated nature, and appears unable £80,000. Has it sprung from coal or to find words strong enough to express | irom Bessemer steel? It is situated just

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below the noble ruin of Drachenfels. I intended going to see at Stuttgart a Will not the dragon watching over the former member of the Austrian Cabinet, Niebelungen treasure in Nifelheim's den, Albert Schäffle, who now devotes all his avenge this impertinent challenge of mod time to the study of social questions, and ern plutocracy?

has published some very well. known All that I see on my way up the Rhine works - among others, Capitalismus leads me to reflect on the special charac- und Socialismus," and "Bau und Leben teristics of Prussian administration. The des Socialen Körpers.”("Construction and works which have so marvellously “do- Life of the Social Body »), books which mesticated ”the river as to make it a type place him at the extreme lest of professo. of what Pascal calls un cheinin qui rial Socialism. Unfortunately, he is at marche, have taken between thirty and the baths in the Black Forest. But I forty years, and have been carried out stop at Würzburg to meet Ludwig Noiré, continuously, systematically, and scientifi- a philosopher and philologist, who has cally. In her public works, as in her deigned to study political economy. The military preparations, Prussia has suc. sight of the socialistic pass to which dem. ceeded in uniting two qualities which are ocratic tendencies are leading modern only too often lacking - a spirit of con- society, induces many philosophers to sistency, and the love of progress. The turn their attention to social questions. desire to be as near as possible to perfec. This is the case in France with Jules Si. tion is apparent in the most minute de mon, Paul Janet, Taine, Renouvier; in tails. Not unfrequently consistency, and England with Herbert Spencer, William a too close following of traditions, leads Graham, and even with that æstheticist of to routine, which rejects innovations. Pre-Raphaelite art, Ruskin. Great strength is attained, and the chances I hold that political economy should go of success are considerably increased if, hand in hand with philosophy, religion, while one aim is always kept in view, the and especially with morality; but as I best means to attain it are selected and cannot myself rise to these elevated applied without delay.

spheres of thought, I am only too happy I have remarked, when speaking of when a philosopher throws me out a bit parliamentary administration, that a lack of cord by which I may pull myself a litof consistency was one reason of the fee. tle higher, above our workaday world. bleness of democracies. This should be Ludwig Noiré has written a book, which guarded against as soon as it becomes is exactly what I needed in this respect, apparent, or inferiority will ensue. A few and which I hope to be able to speak of trifling facts will show that the Prussians at greater length a little later. It is enare as great lovers of useful novelties and titled "Das Werkzeug" (" The Tool”). of practical improvements as the Ameri. It shows the truth of Franklin's saying :

On the Rbine, at the ferries, the Man is a tool-making crenture. Noiré old ferry-boats have been replaced by little says that the origin of tools dates from steamers, which are constantly crossing the origin of reason and language. At the the river from one side to the other. At commencement, as far back as the railway stations, I notice that the conceive, man was forced to act on matter trucks for luggage are made of steel, and to obtain food. This action on nature are lighter and stronger than any I have for the purpose of satisfying wants is. seen elsewhere. The system for warming labor. As men were living together in the railway compartments is also more families and in tribes, labor was carried perfected. Heated pipes run under the on in common. A person making a musseats of the carriages, and the passengers cular effort very naturally pronounces can regulate the iemperature by turning certain sounds in connection with the a needle on a disc from Kali (cold) to effort be is making. These sounds, re. Warm or vice versa. At the summit of peated and heard by the entire group, the tower of the town hall of Berlin the were after a time understood to signify different flagstaffs for the flags hoisted on the action of which they were the spon. the fête days are ranged in order. Outside taneous accompaniment. Thus was lanthe highest gallery iron rings have been guage born from natural activity in view fitted all round in which to fix the staffs, of supplying imperious needs, and the each of which has a number correspond. verb representing the action preceded all ing to the same number on the ring it is their words. The effort to procure the to fit into. In this manner both rapidity necessary and useful develops the reasonand regularity are insured. Order and ing powers, and tools soon became peces. foresight are safe means to an end.

sary. Wherever traces of pre-bistoric 2500


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men are found, there is also to be found personality and liberty? Nobody, neither the flint implement. Thus reason, lan- Christian por naturalist, has yet been guage, labor, and implements, all mani. able satisfactorily to answer this. Hence festations of an intelligence capable of has sprung, on the one hand, the predesprogress, appeared almost simultaneously. tination of the Calvinists and Luther's

Noiré has developed this theory fully in de servo arbitrio, and, on the other, deanother book, entitled, Ursprung der terminism aod materialism. Kant is the Sprache" (" Origin of Speech”). When first mortal who fearlessly studied this it was published Max Müller stated in problem and studied it satisfactorily. He the Contemporary Review, that although plunged into the abyss, like the diver of he considered this system too exclusive, Schiller, and returned, having vanquished yet it was far superior to either the the monsters he found there, and holding onomatopoeia or the interjection theory, in his hand the golden cup from which and that it was certainly the best and the henceforward humanity may drink the most probable one brought forward at divine beverage of truth. As nothing can present. I can but bow before this ap- be of greater interest to us than the solupreciation.

tion of this problem, so our gratitude, be Noiré is a fanatical Kantian, and an en- it ever so considerable, can never possibly thusiastic admirer of Schopenhauer. He equal the service rendered by this really has succeeded in forming a committee for prodigious effort of the human mind. the purpose of erecting a statue in honor Kant bas provided us with the only arm of the modern Heraclitus. The commit. which can combat materialism. It is full tee, he says, must be international, for if time we should make use of it, for this as a writer Schopenhauer be German, as detestable doctrine is everywhere undera philosopher he belongs to the entire mining the foundations of human society. world, and he asked me to join it. “I am I venerate the memory of Schopenhauer, exceedingly flattered by the proposal,” because he has inspired the truths resaid I; "but I offer two objections. In vealed by Kant with more real life and the first place, a humble economist has penetrating vigor. Schopenhauer is not not the right to place his name side by well known in either France or England. side with such as are already on the list. Some of his works have been translated, Secondly, being an incurable disciple of but no one has really understood him Platonism, I fear that Schopenhauer did thoroughly, because to understand a phil. not remain in the Cartesian line of spirit. osopher it is necessary not only to admire ualism. I feel persuaded that two notions, but to be passionately attached to him. which, it appears, are at the present day • The folly of the Cross' is an admirable very old-fashioned – I speak of a belief expression. in God and in the soul's immortality - Schopenhauer maintains that the will should form the basis of all social science. is the great source of all; it means both He who believes in nothing but matter personality and liberty. We are bere at cannot rise to a notion of what 'ought to once planted at the antipodes of naturalbe' — i.e., to an ideal of right and justice. istic determinism. Free intelligence creThis ideal can only be conceived as a ates matter. Spiritus in nobis qui viget, divine order of things_imposing itself ille facit. God is the great ideal. He morally on mankind. The Revue Phi- does not make us move, but moves himself losophique of October, 1882, says, ' Posi. in us. The more we appropriate to ourtive science, as understood at the present selves this ideal, the freer we become; we day, considers not what should be, but are the reasonable and conscious authors only what is. It searches merely the of our actions, and liberty consists in this. formula of facts. All idea of obligation, Schopenhauer's moral law is precisely or of imperative prohibition, is completely that of Christianity — a law of abnega. foreign to its code.' Such a creed is a tion, of resignation and asceticism. What death-stroke to all notion of duty. I be. Christians call charity, he designates as lieve that faith in a future life is indispen-pity.' He exhorts his followers to sable for the accomplishment of good struggle against self-will; not to let their works. Materialism weakens the moral eyes dwell on the passing delusions of the sense, and naturally leads to general de outside world, but to seek their soul's

peace by sacrificing all pursuits and inter"Yes," replied Noiré, " this is just the ests which should fix their attentions problem. How, side by side with the dire solely on the changing scenes of this life. necessities of nature, or with divine om- Are not these also the Gospel principles ? nipotence, can there be place for human | Must they be rejected because Buddha


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