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suggestions of improvement made by the For in these days we are not only bound committee of management, even when to live but constrained to keep moving, originated and supported by native gen- and among the gentry or upper-middle tlemen of the bighest culture and standing. classes, simple vegetation is become not The most practical of all these proposals only disreputable but difficult. So lately was to procure the services of one of the as the end of the last century, as in the higher officials of the British Museum to centuries preceding it, the claims of blood reorganize the whole collection, which were still strong with the squires and might easily be done in the handsome lairds, if ready money was scarce. Cabuilding where it is at present located, dets who had little or nothing left them in were the best use made of the numerous the way of provision, naturally hung on to apartments at the disposal of the govern. the head of the family. “Jock, the laird's ment; but the cry of the Colonial Office brother," became a proverbial expression for economy knocked the scheme on the in Scotland for the well-born parasite head. Sir Penrose Julyan, in fact, with and loafer, who looked after the horses, the best intentions, did the island a seri- hounds, and hawks, acted in short as stud. ous injury when he made his report upon groom, head-keeper, and factotuin, and in her finances; and there is no doubt that, return had his clothes and keep, with his had his recommendations been thoroughly share of the bottles of an evening. Simicarried out, irreparable injury would have lar habits were in force to the south of been inflicted upon many of those remains the Tweed; and Sir Hildebrand Osbaldi. of historical grandeur, which so ancient stone's household was a fair specimen of and wealthy a country as England should the life in many an ancient hall or mapor. not hesitate to preserve in their integrity, house, when encumbrances were accumu. even at some cost to the national ex. lating fast with the exigencies of a more chequer.
refined civilization. Sometimes, in Scot. There are few parts of the world so land, a younger son was started on a small varied in antiquarian interest as Malta. farm, where with scanty stock and scan. The gigantic Phænician temples, in size, tier capital he managed somehow to make number, and state of preservation un the two ends meet. The alternative of equalled elsewhere; the Roman villas and the easier sort of existence was all very tombs; the early Christian crypts and well for those who had little self-respect catacombs; the fragments of the work of and less ambition. The hall table was Norman builders during the Sicilian oc- supplied from the home fields, the coverts, cupation; and the gorgeous and lavish and the ponds, from the bills or the splendor in carving, painting, tapestry, streams; great hogsheads of strong beer and other adornments with which the were brewed by the butler; almost the knights decorated churches, palaces, and only outgoings in ready money were for even hospitals, altogether make up a pan. the gay clothes that were worn threadbare, orama of the world's architectural progress and for the cellar, wbich was never an and decline. That England should add inconsiderable item. Where there was to these grand features is perhaps hardly self-respect, or any spirit of enterprise, a to be expected; but we may hope that the younger son would go in for a pair of col. New Zealander of the future, on his way ors; or perhaps, with the example of the to view the ruins of London Bridge, will immortal Whittington before him, he not find every trace of the Knights of might try his fortunes in commerce or Malta obliterated in their ancient strong. trade. In cases of the kind, like the prodhold by British utilitarianism.
igal in the parable, he had his portion of the inheritance, such as it was, and thenceforth his relations washed their hands of him. If his luck turned up trumps, so
much the better; the family had any credit From Blackwood's Magazine.
he might gain, or possibly the reversion OUTLYING PROFESSIONS.
of a fortune. If he came down to the As the world gradually ages and gets swine and the husks, little more was beard “settled up.” the struggle for life, or at of bim. Communications by letter were least for luxury, becomes more desperate so slow and precarious that it seemed every day. Parents with a plurality of hardly worth while writing home for the sons, more and more puzzled as to dispos. remittance, which, in any case, would be ing of them, are slow to echo the senti- almost certainly refused. And it must be ment of the Psalmist as to the happiness owned that it was a happy state of things of the man with a quiver full of children. I when anxious parents did not live uoder
the shadow of perpetual posts, and in the atively little but the excitement of ad. terror of pressing and peremptory de venture, with an occasional handful of mands.
doubloons to be squandered as fast as Even in those days the time had gone they were earned. And the command of by when foreign soldiering in one shape these expeditions was a tempting profes. or another might lead to high fortune. sion to men who, if they missed the mines When arms were the only career of a and golden realms they went in search of, gentleman, unless he took orders in the could fall back in any case on the Spanish Catholic Church with the probabilities of galleons. good preferment, the choice of a profes- The bold English adventurers who first sion was greatly simplified. We know sailed the Pacific were actuated by patrihow many Scotchmen got their bread by otism, and by a detestation of the pope, foreign service, if they did not make a the priests, and the Spaniards, almost as name in foreign wars. Few of the old much as by cupidity. But the profession county families but bad sent sons to be they originated proved so attractive to enrolled in the Scottish Archer Guards of their seafaring countrymen, that, after the French kings. And the fashion con passing through sundry doubtful stages, tinued after the Scottish Guard had been it was degraded into the buccaneering suppressed or swamped by the admission that bordered on piracy. Buccaneering, of native Frenchmen. Through the Thirty strictly speaking, was merely the romance Years' War, Dugald Dalgetties were to be of the butcher's business. The buccafound everywhere to the front, changing neer hunted down the herds of wild cattle indifferently from the service of the king that had multiplied and ran wild on many of Sweden to that of the emperor and of the West Indian islands, and establishback again, if they did not actually “take ing his headquarters on Tortuga, be a turn with Bethlem Gabor or the Janisa. smoked the flesh and sold the superabunries." Fair nominal pay, though too fre- dance. But those amphibious vikings, quently in arrear, with the chances of being far removed from law, were by no plunder, contented the hardy Scot who means fastidious as to how they made had been used to roughing it from his their money. They chased the Spaniards boyhood. It was characteristic that in the on the sea as they hunted the wild cattle wealthier England soldierly aspirations in the forests, and naturally, when the soared a higher flight, and aimed at es. Spaniards had the better of them, no mercy tates to be gained and bequeathed, as was shown. They ravaged the Spanish well as at excitement and glory. There colonies; they stormed and sacked fortihave never been such prizes in the irreg- fied cities; and when regular business was ular professions as in the golden days of slack, or the Spaniards unusually formidElizabeth, though too often the expecta. able, they yielded easily to irresistible tion proved sadly delusive, and the ad. temptation, and preyed upon peaceful and venturers broke their gallant hearts in neutral traders. So that now and then, if following their Wills-o'-the-wisp through an Englishman came into the clutches of the swamps and forests of America. But one of his Majesty's cruisers, he might it was worth while risking much for these be hung up in chains at Port Royal or dazzling dreams, when the mere indul elsewhere. But when any day he might gence in them half satisfied their victims. be brought face to face with death, in The sons of the old Devonshire balls shape of shot, fever, or famine, the particthe Raleighs, the Gilberts, and the Gre- ular form was merely matter of detail. If villes were modern crusaders of a some. he died game he had the regard of his what more practical bent than their fanat. comrades, who formed the circle in which ical prototypes. The discovery of an El his posthumous character was to be disDorado was at least as likely as founding cussed; while on the other hand, in buca Christian kingdom of the cross, with the caneering, as on the Stock Exchange or holy sepulchre for its Kaaba. It prom- elsewhere, success was sure to cover a ised infinitely greater gains to the English multitude of sins. A rich man could sue race; and patriotism with the promoters out his letters of pardon, and even take of these expeditions was so inextricably high office under a tolerant government, confounded with personal motives, that it grateful to him for adding to the national must have been difficult or impossible for wealth, and recruiting seamen who might themselves to distinguish one from the serve in the navy. He might have his other. They had no difficulty in finding snug tombstone in the parish church, with recruits among the bardy southern sea- a tablet in the chancel commemorating his men, to whom they could offer compar. | virtues and parochial bequests. Did not
Morgan, after being the terror of the trop- over the walls from the shoulder of some ical seas, bang or pardon his former com. influential connection, men are only adrades in his capacity of deputy governor mitted through the narrow wicket gate of Jamaica, and ultimately die in the odor after the preliminaries of searching comof respectability, a knight of considerable petitive examinations. landed property ?
But before the emoluments of the Indian But although the spirit of enterprise Civil Service had been cut down, pushing may still be alive in England, it is idle young men of small means bad golden sighing for the opportunities of that golden opportunities elsewhere. Australia was time. It is long since buccaneers and really at the other side of the world, – “gentlemen adventurers ” were bluntly except at some such penal settlement as designated as pirates; for all their cruis. Botany Bay, the English had hardly ing, however successful itumight be, could touched it. But the English flag was set only bring them up in an Execution Dock. up over a vast continent, which was open Even irregularly honorable soldiering was to the dashing adventurers who chose to discouraged with the institution of a stand take their lives in their hands. When the ing army.
Nevertheless, for long the young Englishman landed at Port Philip marvellous “expansion of England” of- or Port Jackson, the good of all the coun. fered wonderful chances to the young and try was before him. When he had bought energetic. There were pagoda-trees to be the beginnings of his flocks and herds, he shaken in India, by soldiers as well as was much in the position of the patriarchs civilians. In fact, the one calling was Lot and Abraham. Without paying up confounded with the other, for a critical any cash to speak of, without transfer emergency might turn a clerk into a com- of title-deeds or dealings with the lawyers, mander-in-chief. Clive left his stool in he might settle and squat down in any the Company's offices at Madras to take district that pleased him. As in the case a seat in the House of Lords after his of Lot, the first thing to be considered campaigns, and in the mean time he had was to find a district that was fertile and passed through the treasury of Moorshe well-watered, for droughts are the curse of dabad, where, after filling his pockets Australia as of Canaan. But then there pretty freely, he had gone away
was ample elbow-room, and it was only a ished at his own moderation." Men of in question of going further into the interior. ferior talents, without being Clives, found It is true that in Australia as in Canaan easy roads to wealth in the laxity of public there were other difficulties to be over. morals. Underpaid civilians, alter longer come. The natives, from an absurd 00. or shorter exile, came home to the old tion that they had some right to their country as full-blown nabobs, to build pal- hereditary possessions, were apt to be aces, to order round "more curricles "for troublesome. But the Australian blacks their guests, and to raise the price of were neither very numerous nor very war. everything, from eggs to rotton bor. like: they were amenable, besides, to the oughs," on the old county families, who unfamiliar seductions of strony drink, and regarded them jealously. Even after the we fear the pioneers of our civilization, as reforms in the Indian administration, a rule, were by no means particular in there was still romance in the career. their dealings. We suspect that many of The Company had set its face against them came to class “the black fellows" corruption, but the pay was enormously with the emus and kangaroos, knocking increased. Sybarites like Jos. Sedley had one and the other over indiscriminately. only to keep reasonably steady, and they Be that as it may, the savages soon had a dropped into a succession of fat appoint. wholesome terror of the guns that carried ments. A collector of Boglywallah might further and straighter than their boomeindulge himself in the luxuries within his rangs; and withdrawing to the recesses reach, and nevertheless could hardly help of the scrub, they wisely gave a wide berth saving largely. Then half the quick-witted to the intruders, merely knocking an ocsoldiers were sent “ upon the staff;” or, casional bush shepherd on the head detached from the regiments they seldom offences which were generally avenged on saw, drew large pay and allowances as in. principles of vicarious justice. These dependent political agents. At that time, were happy days, when with slack compe. we repeat, there was still romance in an tition and ready markets for the fleeces of Indian career, but ruthless retrenchment the fast-multiplying flocks, the squatters, and radical military reforms have gone far in spite of epidemics and droughts, ex towards reducing the prizes in the profes-tended their domains and accumulated sion. And now, instead of getting a lift | fortunes.
At first it was nothing out of the way Incorrigible scamps who would have done for a man to come home after an absence little good anywhere were beset by all of twelve or fifteen years with more than manner of temptations, to which those an easy competency. He either retained who were weak, either physically or more a sbare in the run he he had established, ally, succumbed. If they took to spend. or realizing his gaios, he left them lucra ing their days, or even the days' wages, tively invested in a country where the in the drinking.bars, they fell victims to normal rate of interest was from eight to sunstroke and villanous spirits : or possi. ten per cent.; while those who chose to bly they got mixed up in a free-shooting make a bome of their adopted country, affair, and were carried out to be sat upon were quickly and steadily developing into by the coroner. But if they were steady millionaires. But the droughts and des. and resisted temptation, they were sure to serts of Australia set limits to the pastur- do more or less good. They might work age, and the time came when even the hard and make little: they might be worbroad, grassy skirts of that great conti ried and half lose heart as their hopes nent were to be crowded up. The democ- sank over unsuccessful “claims." But racy of the towos rose into the ascendant they generally found dust enough to keep under a popular representative system, body and soul together, with something and the squatting aristocracy fell on com- more; and in the mean time the stern paratively evil times. “Cockatoos” had discipline was doing them inestimable permission to perch on small land lots, service. Possibly many of those graduwhich they naturally chose near available ates in the school of adversity were better water; and though capital might some off in the end than the few who had a times protect itself by pre-emption against wonderful run of luck, and “realized the these encroachments, new colonists with stakes." in pure gold of Ophir. With a mere trifle of a thousand or two were not a few of the miners it was a case of being steadily pushed to the wall. But “lightly come, lightly go," and the chief often as one door shuts another would results of their gold ventures were wasteseem to open opportunely; and so the ful habits of squandering. But there discoveries of gold in California and Aus- were many of the shrewder sort, who soon tralia set all the adventurers of Europe came to understand that the shortest cut and the New World agog. Without any to wealth was by speculating on the gains pretensions to the gift of prophecy, we of others. When they had gathered a may say that such openings will hardly little capital, if they attended personally occur again; for the diamond diggings in to its practical investment, with tolerably South Africa were merely an episode in clear heads they could hardly go wrong. speculation, since precious stones must They set up spirit.shops, refreshment cease to be precious when they are no rooms, or general stores: they dealt in longer the luxuries of the rich. But the gold-dust, and came to dabble in bills. wants of the world in respect of gold | The retail trade was all for ready money, seem, for all practical purposes, to be in- so they needed to make no bad debts; exhaustible; and though the river of Pac. they charged pretty nearly anything they tolus may be fed from a thousand fresh pleased; adulterated pale ale was dearer sources, thanks to steady evaporation it ihan Heidsieck or Cliquot; and boots never seems to overflow any more than went for the weight of their soles in gold. the Dead Sea. So while the gold fevers Those who were early in the field, before rán their course, there were grand chances competition became keen, rolled up little for penniless scapegraces. The sole stock fortunes, hand over hand; though, of in trade was strength and pluck; the outfit course, they had to count with the chances a pickaxe, a shovel, a revolver, and a of a knife-thrust or of being knocked over pocketful of cartridges. Fathers could by some casual bullet. Then they inget rid of troublesome children for a trifle: vested their savings in building.lots or for a steerage passage across the ocean sheep.runs, so that nowadays they or their cost very little; and they were sent out beirs stand high among the colonial aris. not merely in the hope of securing a con. tocracy. petency, but to the potentiality of growing Unbappily, however, such opportunities rich beyond the dreams of avarice. Cyn- are over, and, as we have said, they are ically regarded, the gold-fields were for unlikely to recur. Now, unless you have the time an inexhaustible resource and an considerable capital to begin with, which uomitigated blessing. They might not be is an ironical begging of the question in the safest of moral schools, but they sifted large families, there is little to be hoped and somehow disposed of their scholars. I for in the colonies beyond bare subsis
tence, after serving a long and hard ap- agreeably checkered by hardships and prenticeship. We have seen that the some daily drudgery. If we meant to fertile districts of Australia have been expatriate a boy permanently, sending settled up, and the great squatters have him where the struggle for existence been fencing themselves within their could be only smoothed, we should send runs, by leagues upon leagues of iron him for choice to a genial climate, where fencing. That alone shows the amount mere existence might be enjoyable all the of capital indispensable for the business, year round. putting the necessity of stocking and get. Talking of genial climates, Florida sug. ting land out of the question. As for the gests itself; and Florida has been conmines, they are being worked by syndi- siderably cracked up" of late, and is becates or companies (limited), with great come the fashion with North American employment of labor, and a vast expendi. consumptives. Well, we fancy that the ture on machinery. There is hardly a seaports and watering places of Florida place for the poor educated man even in are all that can be desired in point of the cities — where clerks and shop-keep- brightness and balmy atmosphere; while ers are perhaps as plentiful as in England, the orange.groves, planted by the orange. and where they have taken to “raising” farmers, remind one of the gardens of their own professional men, who start Atlantis, or the glories of "the Golden with the advantage of local connections. Shell.” It is true that the soft climate The Cape! With the exception of that may be somewhat sensuous, and predis. episode of the diamond-fields, there was pose the settler to indolence, but that is a never much probability of making more mere matter of detail.
But the young than a living there; and now that the adventurer in Florida, who may answer game is being crowded back beyond the any one of those advertisements that have Transvaal and the Orange Free State, been so frequent of late, is bardly likely those who would follow in the wagon-ruts to make his home on the sunny coast or of the Harrises and Gordon Cummings among islands and keys where the tropimust go elsewhere in the Dark Continent. cal heat is tempered by the sea-breezes. Were it not for the scarcely explored re. He must buy his strip of soil up some gions between the Upper Congo and the swampy river, stealing snake-like beneath Upper Nile, the African elephant would the black shadows of the jungle, and if he be alınost as rare as old English wild gives no more than the value, it may be cattle, and our "ivory” would be bone or cheap enough. But he must proceed to vegetable imitations. Canada! We are clear it, stirring the seeds of the fevers always hearing a great deal of Canadian that lie in the slime and the leaf-mould, all immigration, and of the riches of the vir. ready to fructify: the very wild pigs that gin soil between the Saskatchewan and will come grubbing round his log hut the Pacific. Granting the fertility of the seein wasted down to skin and sinew by “Fertile Belt” and other districts; grant. the malaria; and if he hope to hold on to ing the magnificence of the timber on the gather his orange-crops, he should start great western rivers, and the fact that with an iron constitution and unlimited blasting reefs in the river beds, and Jaying supplies of quinine. down rails by the thousand miles, must Mining enterprise in the western terri. facilitate the transmission of the produce tories of the Union has been pretty nearly to markets, we can recall hardly an in-" played out,” at least for small men; but stance of a Canadian settler who has come catile-raising has come very much into back with a fortune. Any prizes drawn favor. Companies with large capital lave out there that we happen to have heard of been forming, and the cry is " still they have been fished out of shipping com- come.” We believe that those who were panies and financial speculations. To first in the field, or rather in the prairie, rise above the lot of the laborer or lum. have been fairly successful: there can be berer, in British America more than else. no question that some boards of directors where, you must commaod a moderate sum show highly respectable naines. But the of money; and the life of the ordinary business is apparently being overdone; farmer is as dreary as can well be con- and though we see no reason to suspect ceived. He has fewer comforts, of course, the honesty of the newer companies, we than his brother in England, for he is far- are inclined to doubt the glowing promther removed from anything like educated ises of the prospectuses. The presump. society; he toils at high pressure through tion is that American vendors are fully the short spring and the summer, and in alive to the value of the lands; nor are the long winter his life is a blank, dis. they likely to accept anything less than