1812, in his seventy-fourth year. He had found a sympathizer in Thomas Bensley, prospered as a printer and publisher; he with whom he entered into an agreement left the Times and printing offices to his in 1807. Two years later, when a working son, a bequest which was very valuable model of Koenig's improved press had then and was rapidly growing more valu. been completed, Bensley brought the mat. able still. During the years the second ter before Mr. Walter, who, for the mo. Mr. Walter bad conducted the journal its ment, was so fully occupied with other circulation increased so rapidly that the engagements that he could not entertain a problem of meeting the continuous de new scheme. In 1812 Koenig had finished mand was a serious one. At the begin- one of his new printing-presses, and the ning of the century the Times was at the conductors of the principal London jour. bottom of the list of London morning jour. nals were invited to see it in operation. nals as regards the numbers sold, its con. Mr. Perry, of the Morning Chronicle, a temporaries being ranked as follows in very shrewd man, and the editor of a most proportion to their circulation: (1) the successful newspaper, would not even Morning Chronicle ; (2) the Morning accept the invitation, declaring that, in his Post; (3) the Morning Herald; (4) the opinion, no newspaper was worth so many Morning Advertiser. The circulation of years' purchase as would equal the cost of the Times did not then exceed one thou. the new machine. Mr. Walter accepted sand copies daily. Seven years earlier the invitation, carefully examined Koe. the daily circulation of the Morning Post nig's improved press, and at once ordered was but three hundred and fifty copies, two double presses on the same model. and its progress had been rapid ; yet, that Two years elapsed before these presses of the Times was even more marvellous were constructed and at work. Rumors during the ten following years. From of the new invention were circulated, des. having the smallest circulation of any pite the secrecy to which all concerned London contemporary, the circulation of had been pledged, and the Times press. the Times became so much larger than men, who believed that their means of that of any of them that the ordinary livelihood would be at an end when steam printing appliances proved inadequate to was applied to printing, vowed vengeance provide the copies for which there was a upon the inventor. The new press was demand. When the number bought was erected in rooms adjoining those wherein a thousand, it was easy enough to supply the old presses were in operation. At them with a press which turned out be. six o'clock in the morning of the 29th of tween three and four hundred copies an November, 1814, Mr. Walter entered the hour; but when many thousands were office with several damp printed sheets in called for, such a press proved wholly his hand, and informed the startled press. inadequate.

men at work there that the Times was Mr. Walter had made several attempts already printed by steam; that if they to effect improvements in the printing. attempted violence there was a force press. He consulted Marc Isambard ready to suppress it; but that if they were Brunel, one of the great mechanics of his peaceable their wages should be continued day, who gave his best attention to the to every one of them till similar employ. matter and then intimated his inability to ment could be procured.” In proof of execute what was required. Mr. Walter his statement be handed to them copies advanced money to Thomas Martyn, who of the first newspaper which had issued thought he had made an important dis. from a steam press. The readers of that covery; but the ideas of Martyn were not day's Times were informed of the revolurealized in practice. Whilst engaged in tion of which it was a visible token. Tri. seeking for a person who could give scope Aing though the speed may now seem, it and effect to his wishes, Friedrich Koenig, was then thought astounding that a press a Gerinan, who was born at Eisleben, in could throw off, as Koenig's did, eleven Saxony, in 1774, was laboring to effect bundred copies an bour; and this begin. improvements in the printing press, was ning is memorable as the first step in a confident of substituting steam for manual series of improvements still more remark. labor in his new press, and was anxiously able than that which was pronounced at waiting for an opportunity to give scope the time to be the greatest that had been to his views and for a patron to counte. effected in the art of printing since the nance and advance them. He had visited discovery of the art itself.* England in the hope of finding there the * Since I began this article, my esteemed friend Dr. opening and the support wbich he could Smiles has produced a new work entitled " Men of In: not obtain in his native country.


vention and Industry," which contains an excellent account of the chequered career and hard fate of Koenig.

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From the date of the Times being print. the way for the defence in a court of ed by steam down to the present day justice. The trial took place at Croydon unceasing efforts have been made with a on the 16th of March, 1841, before the view to perfect printing machinery. The chief justice of the common pleas. Owo mechanical impulse given to it by Mr. ing to a technicality, an important part of Walter is far from being spent. He was the evidence legally justifying the action always prepared to effect a useful change, of the Times could not be placed before and he was always ready for any emer- the jury; yet the jury pointedly manifestgency. Once only had he a serious dif- ed their opinion of the case by awarding ference with a contributor. This was the plaintiff a farthing damages, while the Dr. Stoddart, a man of great literary tal- chief justice confirmed this view by refus. ent, but indisposed to listen to wise coun- ing to certify for costs. The real triumph sel or submit to guidance or control. was on the side of the Times; but the Finding that he would not render the result had involved a heavy pecuniary service required of him, and ready to sacrifice. The bankers, merchants, and acknowledge that which had been ren citizens of London were grateful to the dered, Mr. Walter proposed that Dr. journal for the service which it had renStoddart should cease to write and should dered, and a meeting was held at the retire upon a pension. Dr. Stoddart Mansion House under the presidency of rejected this handsome offer, being over the lord mayor to raise a fund where with confident as to his powers, and he in- to pay the costs, and to serve also as a formed Mr. Walter that arrangements testimonial of the subscribers' gratitude. were completed by him for the appearance in a short time, though each person's of the New Times. This rival did not subscription was limited to ten guineas, prove dangerous. The New Times had a the sum of 2,700l. was contributed by short life, and involved its conductor in a persons living not in England only, but loss of 20,000l. Even events for which also in India, Italy, France, Belgium, few newspaper proprietors could well be Switzerland, and North America. The prepared did not take Mr. Walter at una conductors of the Times declined the

Such an occasion once occurred proffered help, and intimated their inten. at ten o'clock in the morning in the spring tion of bearing the entire burden which of 1833, when an express from Paris had been incurred in the discharge of brought the speech which the king of the what they deemed a duty. It was then French had delivered at the opening of resolved that two scholarships should be the Chambers. Mr. Walter was then founded with the greater part of the fund, almost alone in the office. He sent for and that a portion of it should be expend. some compositors, and, pending their ar- ed in placing a tablet in the Royal Exrival, he trauslated the speech, then set it change and the Times office, bearing the up with the help of a single compositor, following inscription, which, though re. and by the time other workmen had ar. ferred to, is not quoted in any of the his. rived he had the whole ready for printing tories of London or guides to it: off, a second edition of the Times containing the speech being issued by one This tablet was erected to commemorate the o'clock.

extraordinary exertions of the Times newspa. One of the most notable events in the per in the exposure of a remarkable fraud upon andals of the Times occurred in 1840. On the mercantile public, which exposure subthe 13th of May in that year a letter ap suit. At a meeting of the merchants

, bankers,

jected the proprietors to a most expensive law. peared from Mr. O'Reilly, the Paris cor and others, held at the Mansion House on the respondent, but dated from Brussels, con

Ist day of October, A.D. 1841, the Right Hon. taining particulars of a vast conspiracy orable the Lord Mayor in the chair, the fol. that had been formed for swindling for. lowing resolutions were agreed to, vide licet : eign bankers out of a million sterling. That this meeting desires to express in the The conspirators bad succeeded in obtain. most unqualified terms its sense of the inde. ing upwards of ten thousand pounds; the fatigable industry, perseverance, and ability correspondent's object was to stop their shown by the proprietors of the Times news. further proceedings by giving full public. paper in the exposure made through the in. ity to their infamous design. The result strumentality of that journal in the trial of was that Allan George Bogle, one of the Bogle versus Lawson of the most remarkable fourteen conspirators, brought an action brought to light in the mercantile world,

and extensively fraudulent conspiracy ever against the Times for libel. At great That this meeting desires to offer its grateful cost and labor the solicitor to that journal acknowledgments to the proprietors of the unravelled the conspiracy, and prepared Times newspaper for the services which they have thus been the means, at great labor and de Rothschild (of the firm of Naiban Mayer de expense, of rendering to the commercial com- Rothschild & Co.), Edward Steward, Esq., munity throughout Europe. That the effect Patrick Maxwell Stewart, Esq., M.P., Samuel of such exposure is not only held useful to the Wilson, Esq., Alderman, W. Hughes Hughes, commercial and banking community as sug. Honorary Secretary. gesting additional care and circumspection in In 1847 Mr. Walter died. He was then all monetary dealings, but as showing the aid in bis seventy-second year. He had not which a public-spirited and independent jour. nal has it in its power to afford in the detec: only built up a great journal, but be had tion and punishment of offences which aim at

established a great personal reputation. the destruction of all mercantile confidence He sat in Parliament first as member for and security. That the committee now ap. Berkshire and next for Nottingham. He pointed be empowered to take measures for acquired much wealth as well as fame. the purpose of recording in a more permanent He left behind him estates in Berks and manner the sense of obligation conferred by Wilts, the freehold premises in Printing the proprietors of the Times on the commer. House Square, and the interest in the cial community. The proprietors of the Times Times, which represented as valuable a refusing to be reimbursed the heavy costs in property as many large landed estates, curred by them in the defence of the above and personalty to the amount of 90,000l. mentioned action, the committee opened a One who knew Mr. Walter has remarked subscription, which amounted at its close to 2,7001., and at a meeting held at the Mansion that Lord Beaconsfield's saying, “ Youth House on the 9th day of February, A.D. 1842, is a bluoder, manhood a struggle, and old specially summoned for the purpose of consid- age a regret,” had no application to Mr. ering the application of the amount subscribed, Walter; but that “his youth was an excitit was resolved as follows: That 150 guineas ing struggle, his manhood a period of be applied to the erection of this tablet, and comparative repose, his old age a perfect of a similar one to be placed in some conspicu. triumph.” ous part of the Times printing establishment. That the surplus of the sum raised be invested his father as conductor of the Times, in

The third Mr. Walter, who succeeded in the purchase of 3 per cent. consols, the herited a great responsibility as well as a dividend to be applied to the support of two scholarships to be called “The Times Scholar- magnificent property. In order that the ships.” That “ The Times Scholarships " be journal might retain its position, it was established in connection with Christ's Hospi- necessary to introduce constant improve tal and the City of London School, for the ments in the mode of its production. The benefit of pupils proceeding from those institu: more remarkable its success, the more tions respectively to the Universities of Oxford pressing was the need for further changes. and Cambridge. That Christ's Hospital and | It was found that, despite additions made the City of London School be required to place by Mr. Applegath to Koepig's press, the in their respective institutions a tablet commemorative of the establishment of such schol: improved press was inadequate for the arships. All which has been duly carried into work required, and Mr. Applegath deeffect. The committee consisted of the follow- signed one on a different model which ing, gentlemen: The Right Hon. Sir John sufficed for a time. In this press the Pirie, Bart., Lord Mayor, Chairman and Treas. types were placed on vertical cylinders, erer, Matthias Wolverly Attwood, Esq., Bar- and these revolved a thousand times in an clay Brothers & Co., Baring Brothers, Samuel hour, throwing off eight thousand copies. Briggs, Esq. (of the firm of Briggs & Co., of This press, which was considered a very Alexandria), Sir George Carroll, Knight, Al- remarkable instance of ingenuity, was derman, Cattleys & Carr, Cockerell & Co., shown in operation at the Great ExhibiGlyn, Halifax, Mills & Co., Robert Alexander Gray, Esq. (of the firm of Melhuish, Gray & tion of 1851, and was one of the chief Co.), John Benjamin Heath, Esq. (of the firm attractions in the machinery department. of Heath, Furse & Co.), William Hughes About the time Mr. Applegath completed Hughes, Esq., F.S.A., F.L.S., etc., Honorary this press here, Mr. Hoe was introducing Treasurer, Thomas Johnson, Esq., Alderman, a new press of a totally different kind in late Lord Mayor, Jones, Lloyd & Co., Sir Peter New York. The superiority of the Hoe Laurie Knight, Alderman, Peter Laurie, Esq., press was generally acknowledged, and Common Pleader of the City of London, Se iwo of the ten-cylinder, or largest, size bastian Gonzalez Martinez, Esq., (of the firm were bought by Mr. Walter for the Times of Martinez, Gassiott & Co.), John Master- offce. This American press was gen• man, Esq., M.P. (of the firm of Masterman; erally adopted in this country, as well as Peters, Mildred, Masterman & Co.), Francis

Meantime, Mr. Pegler, Esq. (of the firm of Pegler Brothers), in the United States. John Diston Powles, Esq., William George Walter encouraged an Italian named Del. Prescott, Esq. (of the firm of Prescott, Grote, lagana to prosecute his experiments in Ames, Cave & Grote), Baron Lionel Nathan producing stereotype plates through the


medium of a papier-maché matrix. On the had perfected it by the indispensable ad. iovention taking a practical shape, it was dition of a diamond bathed in moon. adopted in the Times office in 1850, and beams. this represented another step in advance. When I visited the Centennial ExhibiBy printing from a stereotype plate the tion in 1876 at Philadelphia, I observed saving is very great, as the types last ten that the Walter press shown in operation times looger than they would do if em. there was constantly surrounded by an ployed to make the impression directly. excited and admiring crowd. The Ameri. To print from stereotypes was not a nov- cans koew that the Hoe and the Bullock elty; but to employ papier maché where presses were amongst the most notable with to make the matrix was not only inventions of their countrymen, but very novel, but enabled such a matrix to be few were aware that the achievements of made from the cylinders of the Applegath either investor had been rivalled if not outor the Hoe press. The speed attained stripped by English ingenuity. The New with these new presses was twelve thou. York Times, which had adopted the Wal. saod copies an hour; this seems a mar- ter press, wrote that “the Walter press is vellous increase when compared with the inost perfect printing-press yet known what was deemed the wonderful result to man, invented by the most powerful when eleven hundred copies an hour were journal of the Old World, and adopted as thrown off by the Koenig steam-press. the very best press to be had for its purYet the jury on printing at the Exhibition poses by the most influential journal of of 1862, while acknowledging how much the New World.” That press has been had been done, intimated that vast im- adopted in many newspaper offices as well provements might still be made.

as in the office of the Times, whereio there The wish of the jury was realized when are ten; there are eight of them in the the Walter press was devised and put in office of the Daily News, four in that of operation. This is the most complete the New York Times, three in that of the printing-press yet designed, and it repre. Scotsman, two in that of the Glasgow sents quite as extraordinary a change as News, two in that of the Neue Freie that effected when the old hand-presses Presse of Vienna, one in that of the Mis. were displaced by the steam-press of souri Republican, and one in that of the Koenig. To Mr. John C. MacDonald, for Magdeburg Zeitung. The first Hoe cylmany years a distinguished member of the inder press was a costly machine, the Times staff, the Walter press largely owes price being as high as 5,000l., whereas the its origin and success, whilst in giving Walter press, which is infinitely superior, effect to the inventor's scheme, the pres. costs 3,000l. ent Mr. Walter exercised the same judi. The present Mr. Walter did not rest cious supervision and liberality for which satisfied with having at his command a his father was noteworthy. This press is press of such perfection as that which is the subject of four letters patent issued called by his name. He resolved to sim. between 1863 and 1871 to John Cameron plify and accelerate the process of setting Macdonald and Joseph Calverley. The up type also, and in this respect his suc: main features of it are simplicity and com. cess has been marked. To substitute a pactness, combined with great speed and type-composing machine for the labor of economy in working. A large reel cov. a skilled compositor has long been a de. ered with a continuous roll of paper re. sideratum. Yet, after a machine had been volves at the one end; at the other the constructed that enabled this to be done, printed sheets issue, folded and ready for the gain was but trifling, skilled labor bedelivery to the publisher, at the rate of ing still required to distribute the types. fifteen thousand copies an hour. The After many experiments a twofold inapaper on the reel is four miles long; in chine was completed and introduced into less than half an hour these four miles the Times office, whereby the work of of paper are converted into newspapers. composing and distributing could be Every night when the Walter presses are effected at an enormous saving in time at work in the Times office, a quantity of and cost. For instance, to compose eight paper weighing ten tons and representing pages of the advertisement sheet by hand a roll one hundred and sixty miles in would amount to 431. 125., whereas the length is thus transformed. This appears same work could be done by means of a to be quite as magical a result as anything machine for 141, 145. All these mechani. which Adam Warner, the wizard in “ The cal improvements, which are the results of Last of the Barons,” could have effected many years' experiments and much prac. by means of his machine, even after betical experience, have rendered the Times

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of to-day, in one particular, that which its the conductors of that journal resolved to founder hoped to make it. Its founder's be masters in their own house, and they ambition was to print a daily journal much have remained as independent in their more cheaply and expeditiously than had office as in the discussion of public affairs. ever been done before, and he expected in this respect the Times occupies a to do so by the logotype system of print position which its rivals may eovy quite ing. Though that system failed, yet the as much as its circulation and influence. changes effected in the printing-press by But the power which it exercises has al. his successors, the use of stereotypes ways been tempered with kindness. What wherewith to make the impressions, and appeared in its editorial columns on the the adoption of mechanical type-compos. 11th of February, 1842, is the explanaing and distributing machines, are so tion of its practice in this respect. After many steps in the process for realizing referring to the Printers' Pension Soci. more than all that Mr. Walter ever con- ety, it is there said: “Not one of our templated from that logotype system of establishment belongs to these pension. printing, which he fondly regarded as a ers; neither have we, nor would we keep discovery destined to supersede all other a man to whom we do not allow wages modes of printing.

sufficient, with ordinary temperance and The attention uniformly given by the industry, to secure himself against the conductors of the Times to the improve. accidents of life, and under the general ment of the means for increasing its pro- decay of nature during old age.” duction has had a twofold result. Owing The public takes note of the contents of to the saving thus effected, the constantly a journal and cares little about the manner increasing cost in collecting news has of its production, and a journal's influence been met. The electric telegraph is a on the public is the real measure of its great convenience to the public, and a value. Now, whilst the arrangements in great burden to newspapers. To pay, as the printing office of the Times were in the Times does, for special wires to Paris course of continuous improvement, the and Vienna represents a large expendi. tone and character of the journal were also ture. Had not the printing appliances sedulously considered and controlled. The been improved, so that this cost could be course which the Times should follow was defrayed without increasing the price of the subject of the second Mr. Walter's the journal, the public would not enjoy ardent care. His father, the founder of the advantages of which it is fully sensi-it, laid down the principle that the journal ble. But in benefiting itself, the Times was to be independent alike of any minis. has materially helped its contemporaries. ter and party; but the limit and condition I mentioned at the outset that the Morn- of independence on a given subject was a ing Herald and the Morning Chronicle problem both delicate and difficult

. A ceased to exist when they seemed to be journal or a politician may make a parade prospering; the reason, I may add, was of independence by attacking or opposing that they had ceased to march with the every man or measure.

Such indepentimes. They stood still when it was the dence is but another form of anarchy. law of their being to go on improving But the independence always displayed by and advancing. The penny newspapers, the Times bas its foundation in patrioi. which do so much honor to our country, ism. On all questions the endeavor seems have profited by the labor and outlay of to have been to ascertain what the counthe conductors of the Times. Had not try desires, and next to determine whether the printing press been improved so that what is desired will prove beneficial. In copies of newspapers can be thrown off carrying out such a policy it is inevitable in a very short space of time and at a very that occasion should be given for charges small cost, it would have been impossible of inconsistency; but those who make for any penny newspaper to attain world. them have overlooked the fact that, the wide, if not unprecedented, circulation. conditions having changed, the conclu

From an early day till now the Times sions to be drawn must pecessarily vary, has had an incalculable advantage over and that the supposed inconsistency is every rival. No other London journal is merely a token of that increased wisdom composed by a mechanical process of which Charles James Fox assigned in type-setting, because the printers' trade justification of bis expressing views on one union is opposed to its introduction. The day wbich were at variance with those he Times is the only one that has nothing to had entertained the day before. At every dread from the dictation, or rather the great crisis in the country's history the mistaken fears, of a trade union. In 1810 course taken by the Times has been justi.

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