clear of combatants. But with the morn- | With the almost immediately supervening ing came another danger which it called return of the lord of Galloway and his forth all the manhood and the ingenuity of division of the army, the great Scottish the Scots to meet. The sun had hardly foray of 1388 came to an end. risen when the Scottish scouts posted along the road to Newcastle announced the approach of another English host. It was Walter Skirlaw, Bishop of Durham, eager to avenge the defeat of the Percy

From Chambers' Journal. the night before. Wearied, wounded,

SOME INDIAN HERBS AND POISONS. and worn out, and cumbered with a mul. No country is better supplied with me. titude of prisoners, resistance seemed out dicinal as well as poisonous herbs. than of the question. But what exhausted na. India. Along waysides and ditches, harmture refused to do, stratagem, it was less-looking plants flourish abundantly, yet thought, might accomplish. The bishop possessing, some strange, and some the had advanced within a league of the camp, most deadly qualities. It is one of the when a noise which seemed" as if all the mysteries of creation how side by side devils in hell had come thither to join it,” with plants and cereals the most valuable startled his borses and disconcerted his and necessary to life, nature has also scat.

The bishop approached half a tered abundantly plants so deadly; as if league nearer. Again the gruesome along with an element of good, there must cacophony arose, more jarring and dis- also be one of evil. But it is only during cordant than before. Once more the in a long residence in the country that the or. trepid churchman urged forward his dinary Anglo-Indian grows into acquainttroops, and this time he was permitted to ance with this feature of the vegetable come within sight of the camp. A third world around him, which previously he time the sounds broke forth, louder, more has only recognized as rank, troublesome dissonant, more terrific than ever. The weeds, iotruding where not wanted, and bishop halted and took counsel with his having to be cut down and cast away: knights. Concealed behind their intrench. Many if not all of these become converti. ments, the Scots could now, distinctly ble, however, according as they are used, see every movement of their enemy. It into some medicinal purpose or other; as was plain the bishop was irresolute. Per. if, after all, even the most seemingly usehaps a fourth blast from their cow-horos less or noxious have their value, if propwould assist him to make up his inind. erly treated. Wilder, deeper, shriller, lustier, more de- One of the most common plants by moniac than they had heard them yet, the ditch-side or cactus hedge is the datoora, horrid strains echoed and bellowed, with its large white flower, and leaves clanged and swelled, boomed and resembling the hollyhock, and now well shrieked, tbuddered and reverberated in known as a valuable medicine for asthma, their ears. At last, after long delibera- for which its leaves are used in the shape tion, as it seemed, the English were seen of cigars or “tobacco.” The seeds, on to face about. One parting roar from the other hand, are a subtle and powerful the cow-horns, and the whole force was in poison, in small quantities causing temporetreat. With an infinite sense of relief, rary insanity, and in large, either perma. the Scots retired within their huts and nent injury to the brain or death. By an tents to refresh themselves with meat and accident, I became aware of the peculiar drink, and to enjoy that rest of which they properties of the datoora. A robbery stood so much in need.

occurred in a neighboring village, and an Later in the day, with the dead bodies alarm spread that this had been effected of the Earl Douglas, Robert Hart, and through the agency of datoora poisoning Sir Simon Glendinding, enclosed in cof. by an organized gang of robber poisoners. fins and placed on carts, they withdrew | It seemed the gang had put up at the from thai position to whose strength, village the night before in the guise of rather than to their infernal minstrelsy, travellers, and succeeded in getting on they probably owed their late deliverance. friendly terms with one of the wealthiest The following day they arrived at Mel. families there, whom they entertained to a rose, and there, in the abbey of black feast of sweetmeats -the only eatable in mooks – in a tomb of stone, with his ban. which different castes may join. As night per floating above it — they laid the body advanced, the family allowed them to put of their brave commander. Soon after up in their veranda; and when the village they dispersed to their various homes. I was sunk in sleep, the effects of the poisoned sweetmeats gradually placed the faintly tinged with pink towards the cen. house and all it contained at the mercy of tre. The first time I discovered it to have the robbers. Next morning, when the a curative value was on getting a sprained hue and cry arose in the village, and na. thumb through an upset out of my dogcart, tive inspectors, thannahdars, and consta- causing swelling of the whole hand with bles had arrived from far and near to severe pain. While trying in vain the oro investigate the case -- and turn to what dinary home resources, my bearer, Jhoti, profit they could the opportunity - they who stood a stoical witness of the ejacula. found the family of eight lying helpless tions and contortions which the pain and and dangerously ill, semi-idiotic, and un- failure of remedies elicited, at length sug. conscious of what had occurred or was gested the madār leaf. Glad of any chance, going on around them. The house had though placing little faith in bis nostrum, been ransacked, and money dug out of the I agreed readily enough; and he soon ground (the natives' purse) amounting to appeared with a madār leaf, which he apabout thirty thousand rupees; and the plied hot to the hand and tied firmly round. suspicion of datoora poisoning was con. The relief seemed almost to begin from firmed. No trace of the gang could be the moment of application; and in a quar. found, in spite of the official raids made ter of an hour the pain had nearly subby the police, and the levy of blackmail sided, while the hand felt more elastic on those who could afford 10 “pay” to with the rapid decrease of the swelling. escape suspicion. The family gradually In an hour or two there was no perception recovered to find themselves almost pen- of pain left, and the band felt much like niless, the time they had been under the the other, except for a little stiffness. poison being a blank to them.

Keeping on the leaf, by his advice, for A sad case of datoora poisoning oc. twenty-four hours, with one or two fresh curred some time after this. My garden changes during that time, there appeared er's child, a fine little fellow of two years, afterwards a minute crop of watery pus. whom I had often seen in the garden, tules, which itched for a day or two, and had swallowed a few datoora seeds while then disappeared. No trace of pain or playing with some children by the road. swelling remained. After such an expe. side. This was first suspected by his rience, my incredulity in native remedies parents from some of the seeds being was somewhat shaken, and the plant, found in his hand; and after being taken which had hitherto seemed but a useless home, the fatal result too soon confirmed weed, now rose into new interest. The their fears. From being in perfect health, hurry of the native for his madār leaf, his in a few hours he was a memory of the neem-tree leaf or bark for poultices, his past; and one of the saddest sights was castor-leaf, etc., for sprains and swellings, the distracted grief of the parents for their now savored less to me of native simpliconly son. Sadder if anything was the fact ity, and inspired a desire to test their of the body being kept for three days in remedies before condemning them. On the hot weather under the shade of a large other occasions I have used the madār sacrificial banyan-tree close by, covered leaf with the same result, often wondering only with a light cloth and some leaves, whether its efficacy were known to our waiting till the thanoahdar of the nearest medical faculty, or ever tested for em. station could find leisure to come and ployment in a wider and more scientific report on it before burial, while the mother sense. was rushing off at all hours of the night But it is the milk of the madār which, and day to take another look at her dead like the poppy, contains its strangest and child.

most powerful property, and exudes abun. Though the plant is to be found every: dantly on the slightest scratch of its sucwhere, this is the only case I know of culent leaf or stem. When dried in the accidental poisoning from datoora. The sun, the milk becomes hard and brittle. native belief, however, is that it is com. The natives profess to use for any obmonly used by professional robbers in: stinate sore, especially in the nostril, and stead of the terrible roomal (handkerchief it was when used for this ostensible pur. strangling) of the old Thugs.

pose that I witnessed its effects among Another plant called the madār, from my servants, caused either from absorptwo to four feet high, grows in isolated tion in the blood or accidental swallowing. groups along roadsides and in open sunny Finding the khansamah absent one even. places. It is soft and branching, with ing from duty at dinner, and the masalchie broad, thick, dark-green leaves covered arrayed in his pugri officiating for him, I with down, and large, white waxen flowers | learned that he was in a very bad way,

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from accidentally swallowing some of the brain, on which it seems specially to act, madār milk, which he had applied to a may be imagined. sore in bis nostril. With some fear, from is stated by the natives as a familiar the description given, that he might be fact, that if a probe is formed from a mixpoisoned, and as he was an old and valued ture of the madār milk with a pounded servant, I left dinner and went to see him. ruttee-seed a recognized weight of the He was sitting in front of the cooking country used by jewellers — dried and house, with his face buried in his hands hardened in the sun, and if the skin be in an attitude of the deepest dejection, pricked with this and the point left, death. from which nothing could rouse him or will follow imperceptibly and painlessly in elicit a word of answer to my inquiries. two or three days, leaving no trace of the In eight or ten minutes, the first change I cause medically or otherwise but the faintnoticed was a slight movement of the est speck like a mosquito bite where the head to one side and a distinct leer at his skin was probed. fellow.servants, who were standing by: The wild ganja grows profusely wherThis was repeated in a few seconds, and ever it is permitted, and somewhat like again at lessening intervals, accompanied the home nettle without the sting, its by sounds of suppressed chuckling, as if flower is small and insignificant. Though the whole affair were a grand joke which very different in appearance from the culhe was playing at the expense of those tivated ganja — the Canabis Indica of the present. Shortly, the leers, which ex. pharmacopæia and famous hashish of the pressed the most intense mirth, developed East - its intoxicating effects are nearly into bursts of laughter loud and ecstatic, similar, except that the ganja proper is with looks of indescribable enjoyment, less injurious to the system, and is there. and I began to doubt whether, after all, fore correspondingly prized. This differwe were not being fooled. The "blowing ence between wild and cultivated plants up,” bowever, which I began to give him is seen to a stronger extent even among received no notice – if anything, it seemed cereals. The wild rice, or that which has but to increase his merriment; but while sown itself from a previous crop, if in I yet stood by, the fits of laughter grew good ground, looks like the cultivated in less violent, the merriment decreased, every respect, rich and heavy, and is soon ceased altogether, and the fit of de really equally good; but the moment it is jection supervened. This lasted for about touched with the hook, the grains shed a quarter of an hour, and then the hilari- themselves into the water in which it has ous mood gradually came on as before, grown, and are lost. A different peculbut always of less duration than the de. iarity is found in the koio a small grain pressed mood. The paroxysms continued like turnip-seed, much grown in dry soil, for some hours, till at last the man fell and with a peculiar pleasant flavor — the into a deep sleep. Next morning, he was self-sown or wild crop of which, though at his work as usual, none the worse, easily gathered, and undistinguishable in looking fresh as ever, but without any appearance from the cultivated, yet causes recollection of his exhibition the night giddiness when used for food, and is often before.

fraudulently mixed with the cultivated. In As on several occasions I had found noting this difference between wild and one or other of the servants in the same cultivated grains, one realizes indeed that statc, I began to wonder whether it was the bread we live by must be toiled for. “sores in the nostril,” or whether the drug The cultivated ganja is somewhat like the had not been taken to produce the effect caraway plant, but stronger and more I had witnessed. The inquiries I made leafy; and while the wild ganja has a brought no confirmation of the suspicion, strong, pungent smell, the cultivated is or showed that the drug was known or odorless. Being a government monopoly, used for that purpose. However that may it is subject to a high duty, is rarely grown, be, the frequent recurrence of the accident and owing to its expense, the wild ganja with the same individuals, and on so im- is often made to do duty for it. At the probable a pretence, forced the inference same time, the ganja proper can always that the madār was used as an intoxicant. I be bought at the rural bazaars, while a One peculiarity of it was that highly ex- good deal is understood to change hands citing or intoxicating though it seemed, sub rosâ, which accounts for its reaching there was no visible reaction of nervous the poorer classes. depression, disordered stomach, etc., as A confirmed ganja-smoker was a Bengali in the case of intoxicating liquors. The baboo (English bookkeeper) I had, whose terrible efiect of larger quantities on the weakness came to my knowledge through

a quarrel he had with the Persian ac- ling risibility at the merest trifles, causing countant. The latter mentioned as an surprise, especially to some young ladies instance of the baboo's moral degradation present, who I could see put it down to that not only was he a ganja.smoker, but the sparkling lager beer. This tendency had fallen so low as to use the coinmon increased as the evening advanced ; and ganja of the ditches. True enough, one though conscious of the figure I was makday I saw a large supply of the dried leaf ing, I felt powerless to exercise the neces. on a shelf, which he had inadvertently left sary control. After bidding adieu to my behind. He was an active writer, how. friends, as I mounted my horse in front ever, and must have used the drug ab- of the veranda, suddenly the whole place, stemiously, as it neither interfered with the familiar bungalow, walks, shrubberies, his work nor showed the usual signs of all seemed changed, and only the voices havoc in the face. Whether the con- of my friends remained the same. The tinued use of the ganja incapacitated him transformation was even greater as I rode from discriminating between his own prop. homewards through the woods and quiet erty and another's, I cannot say, but for villages asleep in the moonlight. Now I this reason I had to part with him, which seemed to be in Spain, acting the hero of also accounted for his losing his previous the “ Romance of War; " then I seemed situation.

to be shooting over the moors of Scotland; Another of his class whom I was unfor- and from one part of the world to another tunate enough to have later in the same was but the flash of a moment. Now the post, so yielded to the allurements of the pale moonlight showed all the vegetation drug, that latterly he rarely appeared ex. crisp and sparkling with hoarfrost, or cove cept in a semi-muddled, dreamy state ; his ered with snow; while the moon herself shrivelled, yellow face, blear eyes as of a appeared a dull yellow speck in the heave film drawn over them, and cracked voice, ens. The whole way home I found mythough he was a young man, showing the self forever diverging from the well-known lengths he was going and the terrible road into bypaths; and it was only after havoc it was making of him. Premature the syce, who trotted beside me, had age had already come upon him, the ex. brought back the horse for the twentieth citement and visions of a few years of the time, that I saw the necessity of taking ganja having condensed into them the bis advice and dropping the reins on the measure of a lifetime. I had also to part horse's neck, to trust to the surer guid. with him from incapacity caused by his ance of his instinct. At times, with a babit.

strong effort, I endeavored to recall my The next of those around me whom I whereabouts; but it was only for an indiscovered to be a worshipper of the weed stant, and the memory was gone, to be was the gardener. He had been with me replaced by the unreal. At length, after at the same time as the latter baboo, and a period that seemed an age, though only had turned a secluded corner of the gar: extending over a ride of four miles, Í den to account to supply both his own and reached my bungalow, the sight of which the baboo's needs in the way of ganja, was the first thing that began to bring with perhaps a surplus for the bazaar. back reality. Getting into an easy-chair, He was an old, tall, lean man, with shriv. with the lamplight swimming dim and elled face, but clear, strong eyes, and yellow before me, I began to reflect with 'viry and strong, with an amount of activ some alarm that I was suffering from an ity in him which got him over as much overdose of ganja. Though drowsy, I work in an hour as took many younger dreaded to sleep; so, drinking off a strong men three. Whether the ganja had any: cup of tea, I resolved to keep awake till thing to do with his long.sustained energy the effects wore off. Reading and star. is doubtful, but he used to assert that it ing at the lamp in turn was all I rememwas it that gave strength to his old age bered, till I awoke next morning quite and enabled him to work as he did. well, and without the least reaction from

Once I had occasion to use the ganja the night's experience. Considering the medicinally in the shape of some of the different scenes I was transported io, all extract, sent to me by a bachelor friend, of a gorgeous and fairylike nature, and prepared by bim - as he said — according minutely remembered, I could easily unto a well-known pharmacopæia. The dose derstand the prevalent belief that it was I took was ten drops, just before setting the ganja that gave birth to the “ Arabian out for a neighboring bungalow where I Nights' Entertainments." was expected to spend the evening. Dur. The natives chiefly use ganja spiced for ing dinner, I become aware of an increas. the hookah, or as an infusion for drink.

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ing, and much more so than appears on prepared for the hookah, which, like the the surface. From long continuance or calumet of the Red Indians, is socially excess, it is a frequent cause of insanity, passed round by the natives while discusswhich may pass away on discontinuing it, ing their village news and gossip as they or leave more or less permanent imbecil- sit circled near their doorways in the ity. Medicinally, it does not seem to be evening. But it is more constantly used used by the natives, though the wild ganja for eating; a bit of the dry leaf being is used as a medicine for cattle.

powdered in the hand as required, along Akin to the ganja is the poppy, whose with a little moist quicklime the size of a sheets of white flower surrounding every pea, is deftly conveyed to the mouth by village in the cold season form one of the a jerk of the wrist, and swallowed. In prettiest features of the landscape; and smoking and eating, it is used in a much which, being a government monopoly, milder form than even the lightest home supplying a large share of the revenue, is tobacco; the water of the hookah purifies extensively cultivated in India. The rich and mellows the smoke; the leaf as eaten est portions of land — namely, those clos- is so dry and crisp, that half its strength est to the houses are always allotted to is gone; while the accompanying quickit; and though a most labored crop from lime is considered counteractive of any beginning to end, in the careful weedings harm from the tobacco. and incisures and gatherings of the opium With regard to the medicinal herbs and from each separate bulb — from which cures of the natives, they are endless. the milk or opium exudes — it is, even at Hardly a weed grows but they find some the fractional price fixed by government, virtue in it for some ailment or other. by far the most paying crop to the native. The large leaf of the castor oil plant Like the ganja, it is much more used than beated and applied externally is used for is superficially seen, especially in towns allaying local inflammation and pain; the and by Moslems (of both sexes) of the leaf and bark of the neem-tree, a wellupper class, though there prevails among known and similar valuable appliance; a natives generally a sort of dread of it, and small weed like clover gathered among stigma attaching to the eaters, as if its the grass is applied to the temples to allay dangers were fully known and appreciated. headaches, or otherwise as a counter irriThe facility of obtaining it illegally where tant, as we use mustard; the chireita, also it is universally cultivated is obviously a well-known tonic and fever preventive; great. Here and there, a prematurely the milk of the chutwan tree for toothsharpened and baggard face, unintelligi. stuffing. though little needed in a coun. ble to others, may owe its cause to this. try where tooth-brushing, like a part of Opium eating, however, among the dense their religion, precedes and follows every population of India is not so great as to meal, and pearly-white teeth are the remark a national evil, and is not used in sult, despite the free use of sweetmeats. the systematic way, or nearly to the stu. During a long residence in the country, pefying extent, that it is in China. It I have on many occasions observed and does not appear to be much employed by experienced the value of native herbs and them curatively beyond the use of the medicines. The mention of these to medseed-husks — used also for smoking - ical men, however, has received but little externally for sprains or tumors. Unlike notice beyond an incredulous smile, or a the datoora, whose seeds are its poison, contemptuous allusion to such “crude the seeds of the poppy are harmless, are cures.” One out of those coming under used in native confectionery, and their oil my personal notice I may mention. A in cooking – besides being a well-known child of one of my servants that appeared article of commerce and adulterative of to be dangerously ill of incipient small-pox olive oil; whereas the milk of the poppy was given to the old gardener before reis its active principle, a poison, narcotic, ferred to, to be treated for the disease, a or valuable medicine, according as it is bargain having been struck for a see pay. used.

able only on the child's recovery. There Least hurtful of narcotics, the tobacco was every symptom of a severe attack; plant, largely grown wherever the soil is the child's breath was fetid, skin parched, rich enough, is universally used over In- lips and nose seamed and bleeding. The dia, and though indigenous to the country, gardener commenced by smearing the is consumed in much milder forms than child's body over with fresh herbs pounded at home. In the shape of a paste of in goats' milk, and then wrapping him up mixed spices and charcoal by some in a blanket, watched him the whole night, Europeans considered fragrant- it is now and again reapplying the herbs and


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