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all. He was not used, as we have seen, / with this resolve clear before his mind he to admiration in that quarter. Despite was able, with more semblance of equathose attributes of his which might, under nimity, to await the slow but all.decisive ordinary circumstances, have been sup. course of events. posed to give rise to some such feeling, a That he was honestly, intensely, irresort of good-humored indulgence, deepen- coverably in love with Katherine Holland ing at times into something like pitying as man deed be, he had not a shadow of contempt, was their most familiar attitude doubt. It is true that he had had no towards him, and of this he himself was previous experience of the sensation, but perfectly well aware. Dull as he was, bis ihen neither, on the other hand, had he dulness, as we have also seen, was not ever had any experience of a glow which that truly enviable variety which enwraps had lost its first intensity. He loved her its possessor in a triple-lined coat of mail, for herself; for her grave, slightly, per. through which no dart, however potent, haps, austere beauty, for her brightness can ever penetrate. On the contrary, it and clear-eyed intelligence, for the unfailhad always been pricked through and ing gentleness with which she met the, through with a certain irritated conscious often, as it seemed to him, unreasonable ness of itself; he hated it; he chafed calls upon her time and patience; finally agaiost it; he longed to get away from it, and chiefly he loved her for that best of to find himself in the freer air, amid the all reasons — because he loved her, be. larger surroundings of those to whose cause everything about her filled him with intelligence what to him was opaque apa joy, a rapture, a sense of exhilaration, peared clear and apprehensible. When of which his previous intercourse with his therefore, for the first time in his life, he fellow-beings had given him no faintest perceived a direction in which bis facul. inkling. ties, instead of standing still in torpid One not a little amusing transformation ineptitude, seemed to leap, flow, and move resulted from all this. Borroughdale, to of their own accord, it was not very likely whom the portals of what is called the that any pressure from without would hin- great world stood as naturally open as his der him from following the invitation. own hall door, and who had hitherto

One thing, and one alone, filled him as shown such remarkably slight anxiety to the days went on with disquietude, and get inside them, now, on the contrary, exthat was the footing upon which he stood hibited a willingness to present himself at with regard to Katherine Holland. It reunions to which that great world in its seemed to him that he made no way at all. ignorance and inpertinence would in all He was not, it is true, repulsed, but then probability have turned up its distinpeither was he encouraged. He could guished nose. not even flatter himself that he had made Mrs. Holland dearly loved such mild clear his sentiments to her at all. When dissipations as came within her sphere, be called — and he called I may say ex. and, more to please her than for any great tremely often — she was always friendly, joy which they afforded her personally, always ready to discuss his latest zoologi. Miss Holland allowed herself to be concal perplexity, to eke out, so far as her ducted to them, and, for the sake of seecapacity enabled her, his, at present, very |ing, and occasionally, when he summoned limited amount of knowledge in that di. courage, of talking to her, Borroughdale rection; but whenever the conversation too began to frequent them. The diffi. threatened to take a more personal and culty of procuring invitations was not, as therefore interesting turn, it seemed to will be imagined, insurmountable. The him that she always contrived quietly but society which the Hollands moved in was determinedly to lead it away to safer and largely made up of the professional ele. less exciting topics, a maneuvre which, ment - the medical, as incorporating a helpless as ever in conversational mat. greater infusion of science than any other, ters, he found himself powerless to avert, perhaps preponderating Science, howthough it inwardly filled him with rage ever, pure and simple, was also to be and wild gaasbings of teeth at his own found, those occasions on which the stupidity.

greater scientific bodies throw wide their If he was helpless, however, he was doors to the wives, sisters, cousins, and also very tenacious, a family trait which remotest connections of their members hiere as elsewhere stood him in good stead. constituting perhaps the highest, or at He swore to himself that he was not going any rate the most striking, points in Mrs. to be balked; that come what would she Holland's social horizon. All, or a conmust, would, should hear him yet; and siderable portion, of these entertainments, Lord Borroughdale now took to attending. fairly be called its most attractive form, His mantelpiece, long destitute of those embellished by a thousand possibilities natural adoroments of a young man about which fired his brain with vague but there. town, began about this time to bristle fore all the more dazzliog notions of what with shining announcements that the con- might not yet be in store for a world versazione of the Microscopical Society where all those exciting suggestions would would take place upon such a day, or that sooner or later become sober and univerProfessor and Madame van Ovibos would sally accepted matters of fact. If these hope for the pleasure of the Marquis of gatherings had no other merit, moreover, Borroughdale's society at their soirée upon they at least had that of causing Kathethe 22nd. Calling from time to time upon rine Holland's beauty and bearing to his son, Mr. Vansittart would turn over a stand out before him in new and more dozen, perhaps, or more, similar intima commanding lustre; indeed she seemed tions, lifting them one by one between his to him to be immeasurably more out of finger and thumb, and dropping them keeping with what was ordinary in her again upon the mantelpiece, with a slight surroundings than he was himself. Comelevation of his brows and a perceptible paring her, for instance, with the four start of astonishment as each fresh, and Miss Macmanuses, daughters of Professor to his mind, more utterly incongruous an- Macmanus, how could he fail to be struck nouncement met his gaze.

with the difference? Borroughdale himself was quite uncon. Professor Macmanus was an entomolo. scious, however, of any incongruity. The gist, a term which probably sounds quite society suited him quite well enough - sufficiently explicit to the outer world, but quite as well, at any rate, as any society which the initiated know to be far too was likely to suit him. That sense of coarse and too generalized for anything being at odds with his world which had like accurate definition, entomology, like hitherto been such a familiar experience, knowledge itself, having long since passed did not obtrude itself here, at any rate not out of the grasp of any one pair of hands, nearly as much. If he were something of no matter how strong or how wide.em. a fish out of water still, it was, at least, in bracing they may be. Professor Maca different and a much more endurable manus, however, embraced two or three way. To Mrs. Holland or Madame van of its divisions, the one in which he had Ovibos he was not an anomaly at all, but first won his spurs, and made for himself simply an amiable young nobleman, whose a European reputation, being known as presence in their drawing-rooms diffused the Heteroptera - a term which sounds over their souls a mild sense of beatitude, better perhaps in Latin than its equivalent and whose appearance, way of life, and does in English. He was a widower, and deportment it did not even enter into their he and his house with all that it contained heads to criticise. He might have been – with the exception only of his entomoon his way to Marlborough House, or re. logical boxes and cabinets were wholly turning home from the House of Lords - ruled over and subjugated by his four that natural abiding-place of the young daughters. hereditary legislator – for anything either The poor professor himself was like of them could tell to the contrary. Now wax in those redoubtable young ladies' I hope no one will too hastily accredit hands. If they had only been entomologBorroughdale with any ignoble love of ical specimens, no matter how rare or how being first in his company, if I say that in unique, he would have known in a mothis sort of unhesitating acceptance there ment how to deal with them, but being as was no little balm and solace for him. He they were sufficiently average specimens was so tired, you see, poor fellow, of being of the genus youthful English woman of criticised, of knowing that every one in the nineteenth century, he simply yielded and out of his own circle of acquaintance himself an easy prey, intrenching himself had an eye for his vagaries, and was men- behind his collections, and leaving the tally conning over those points in which whole weight and direction of social obhe differed from the received type, always servations to be determined as they in of course exclusively to his disadvantage. their united wisdom and experience might Amongst the younger scientific portion of see fit. these gatherings he made friends, too, as It so happened that it was at an enter(Farquart excepted) he had never as yet tainment given by this enterprising fam. done elsewhere. His leanings had always ily that Borroughdale for the first time been to the workaday side of things, and found courage to break down that bar here that side was to be seen in what may I which her discretion and his own diffi

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dence had erected between himself and the room he advanced upon a sofa, placed Katherine Holland, and to unfold to her immediately below the gas lamp, on which his wishes and his aspirations - a feat Miss Holland happened to be sitting, in

which he achieved after a fashion which conversation with a long.necked, somewas entirely his own, and which may fairly what weak-eyed young man, a professor of be said to have been unparalleled amongst philology, who had lately come up to Lon. the annals of love-suits.

from Cambridge. Both started He bad arrived early, and as a not un slightly and looked up as he approached, natural consequence had been instantly the professor pausing in the middle of a ingulfed by the whole of the Macinanus sentence, and pushing back his spectacles family, even the professor himself being with some surprise, for the new-comer's routed out of his retirement to do honor air was rather that of a man who comes to to bis distinguished guest. This our deliver some supremely important piece young man endured with passable philosoof intelligence than of one charged with phy for some time, solacing himself by the ordinary unemphatic nothings of so. keeping a watchful lookout towards the ciety. Lord Borroughdale was emphatic door by which Miss Holland and her enough, however. chaperon were bound, he knew, to enter. “ This is the very first moment I have Even after that event had duly happened, been able to get near you the whole evenhowever, he found that his escape was by ing!” he exclaimed, in a tone loud enough no means a matter of very easy accom- to be audible to the entire room, seating plishment. Youthful marquises were not himself as he spoke in the chair nearest to particularly rife amongst the circles in Miss Holland, and utterly, io his preoccuwhich the Miss Macmanuses moved, and pation, ignoring the presence of the unfornow that fate had thrust one alive into tunate professor, who, after a momentary their hands they had naturally no idea of gasp of sheer bewilderment, slid gently allowing him to evade them, showing, in. away and disappeared, leaving the other deed, in their watchful clutch not a little in full possession of the field. of that undaunted and untiring energy “ You were talking, were you not ?" she which is known to distinguish the objects answered rather vaguely, at a loss, to tell of their father's research above all other the truth, what exactly she was to say. denizens of the animal world. In vain " I wasn't talking, I assure you.

I poor Borroughdale made effort after effort hadn't anything to talk about. Some of to escape; always one or other member of the others were talking to me. I wanted the family engaged his attention; always all the time to come and sit by you.” some new object or person required to be brought before his notice ; and when supper-time come he found himself still hedged in by a compact hedge of his too hospitable entertainers, beyond which he

From The National Review. could only faintly and intermittently dis. cern Miss Holland across fast diminishing

LITERATURE. piles of plum cake and quavering moun. tains of jelly. Now this, as it happened, was just the sort of stimulus which his

WORDSWORTH'S THEORY OF POETRY. particular temperament needed. It aroused all that latent, never very far-dis.

Not that I think the amiable bard of Rytant obstinacy which, as all who knew him dale shows judgment in choosing such subjects intimately were aware, formed a distinctly do not compare myself in point of imagination

as the popular mind cannot sympathize in. I recogoizable portion of his character. with Wordsworth, far from it; for his is natuHe grew irritated, he grew silent, finally rally exquisite, and highly cultivated from he grew morose and desperate, and when constant exercise. But I cry no roastat last he had effected his escape, and had meat. There are times a man should rememgot upstairs again, all his timidity was for ber what Rousseau used to say: “Tais-toi, the time being at an end. He stood Jean Jacques, car on ne t'entend pas." ready primed for any enterprise, any sole. The error is not in you yourself receiving deep cism however gigantic, with that complete impressions from slight hints, but in supposing and heroic disregard of what might be that precisely the same sort of impressions

must rise in the minds of men, otherwise of said or thought or imagined about him, of kindred feeling; or that the cominonplace folk which only a desperately shy man once of the world can derive such inductions at any thoroughly roused to action is capable. time or under any circumstances. (Scott's

Marching straight down the middle of Journal, January 1, 1827.)

THE LIBERAL MOVEMENT IN ENGLISH

III.

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In a recent endeavor to estimate the the eighteenth century is the poetry of imaginative genius of the eighteenth cen- society and manners. tury, I said that one of its most marked So long as a powerful necessity comfeatures was its limitation. When the pelled men to think and act for them. range of thought and feeling in the “Can. selves, their 'work was marked by a vital terbury Tales," "The Faery Queen," originality of matter and form, and hence Shakespeare's plays, and "Paradise Lost," in literature almost everything of imagi. is compared with the subject matter of native value belonging to what may be Dryden and Pope's satires, of “The Van- broadly called the eighteenth-century ity of Human Wishes,” the “ Elegy in a movement came into existence between Country Churchyard,” “ The Bard,” and the Restoration and the accession of “The Progress of Poesy," the odes on George III. Dryden, Pope, Thomson,

Liberty” and “ The Passions,” “ The Gray, Johnson, among the poets; Swift, Deserted Village,” and “The Traveller," Steele, Addison, Fielding, and Smollett, every one must perceive within how nar. among the essayists and novelists, had row a tract the imagination of the later written their all or their best before 1760. period is circumscribed, and that the “The Deserted Village,” “The Travelmines of poetry which the region con. ler," " The Vicar of Wakefield,” and Miss tains, though precious, are not inexhaust- Burney's novels, are nearly all the works ible.

of genius or talent, culiarly character. The causes of this limitation are read. istic of the eighteenth century, produced ily discoverable by the light of history. after this date and before the French Chaucer had at his disposal all the re. Revolution. When the liberties of the sources of a social system highly stimu. nation were finally secured, and the prinlative to the imagination, which was not ciples of taste and manners advocated in peculiar to one country, but prevailed over the “ Tatler” and “Spectator" had met the whole of Europe. His successors, with general acceptance, the creative imafter the period of the Reformation, drew pulse of the age seems to have ceased. inspiration from still deeper wells. With Faction reigns supreme in politics: the minds dramatically excited by the spirit Church sinks into slumber: artifice in of religious liberty and ardent patriotism, poetry prevails over thought. We see a they employed the materials afforded by Junius succeeding a Swift as a controverthe still vivid traditions of romantic chiv- sialist: a Warburton following a Butler alry, together with the wealth of ideas in theology: for Pope as a satirist we and the beauty of form discovered in the have to put up with Churchill: and the revival of classical letters. All these op- pure Horatian style of the “ Epistle to posite veins of thought may easily be de Arbuthnot” is exchanged for the sono. tected in the wondersully compounded rous emptiness of " The Botanic Garden." work of Spenser, Shakespeare, and Mil. I endeavored to illustrate the decay of ton. But after the civil war, religious, mediævalism in the seventeenth century political, and social influences turned the by citing two poems of Cowley and Craimagination of the English people exclu- shaw; a comparison of a passage from sively upon their own manners. The old Thomson's “ Seasons" with one from modes of mediæval thought had lost their Darwin's poem mentioned just above, power over the mind: the spirit of reli- will be equally suggestive of the exhaus. gious fanaticism which rose up in opposition of the inspiring impulse of the eightion to them, seemed hostile to every form teenth century: The following extract of creative imagination. In the sphere from “ Winter” shows the creative spirit of politics the ancient traditions of mo. of the age still in its vigor :narchical government were subverted first What art thou, Frost? and whence are thy by the Rebellion and afterwards by the keen stores Revolution. Everywhere men were ask Derived, thou secret all-invading power ing themselves wherein consisted the Whom even the illusive fluid cannot fly? foundations of society, what were the lim. Is not thy potent energy, unseen, itations of liberty, and how they were to Myriads of little salts, or hooked, or shaped recognize the first principles of art. And, Like double wedges, and diffused immense these being the questions which agitated Through water, earth, and ether ? hence at eve, the mind of the nation above all others, it with the fierce rage of Winter, deep suffused,

Steamed eager from the red horizon round, was these for which a natural, an irresist. An icy gale, oft shifting, o'er the pool ible instinct drove men of genius to pro. Breathes a blue film, and in its mid career vide an answer, either in a philosophic or Arrests the bickering stream. The loosened in an imaginative shape. The poetry of

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Let down the flood, and half-dissolved by day blow his wreathed horn." Darwin feigns, Rustles no more ; but to the sedgy bank without a blush, that the operations of Fast grows, or gathers round the pointed stone, nature are performed by a whole army of A crystal pavement by the breath of heaven

nymphs, sylphs, and gnomes, yet in the Cemented firm; till, seized from shore to shore,

very same breath describes with scientific

coldness the mechanical forces to which The whole imprisoned river growls below. Loud rings the frozen earth, and hard reflects they owe their origin. A double noise ; while at his evening watch

Poetry of this kind is as sure a sympThe village dog deters the nightly thief; tom as the lethargy of the Church or the The heifer lows; the distant waterfall

prevalence of petty faction in politics Swells in the breeze; and with the hasty tread that the vigorous and constructive conOf traveller, the hollow-sounding plain servatism of the eighteenth century, the Shakes from afar. The full ethereal round,

nature of which I attempted to describe in Infinite worlds disclosing to the view,

the September number of this review,* has. Shines out intensely keen, and, all one cope

become crystallized in lifeless forins and Of starry glitter, glows from pole to pole.

conventions. Side by side, however, with In the following from The Botanic these indications of exhaustion in the es. Garden” the same spirit is seen in its tablished order of society there are many decay :

signs of the activity and progress of the

democratic spirit. Wilkes in the field of Nymphs, your fine forms with steps impassive politics, Wesley in the sphere of religion, mock

and Burns in the realms of poetry, all, Earth's vaulted roofs of adamantine rock; Round her still centre tread the burning soil,

though with very different intentions, And watch the billowy lavas as they boil:

strike the same note :Where in basaltic waves imprisoned deep

The rank is but the guinea stamp, Reluctant fires in dread suspension sleep;

The man's a man for a' that. Or sphere on sphere in widening waves expand,

At the same time, the centrifugal moveAnd glad with genial warmth the incumbent

ment of the individual away from society, land. So when the Mother-bird selects their food

which appears to be a natural accompaniWith curious bill, and feeds her callow brood, ment of democracy, and which manifests Warmth from her tender heart eternal springs, itself in France in the philosophy of Rous. And pleased she clasps them with extended seau, is seen in the blended Methodism wings.

and love of nature in Cowper's poetry. You from deep cauldrons and unmeasured Many influences thus combined to prepare

the way for that strife between the spirit Blow flaming airs, or pour vitrescent waves,

of aristocracy aod the spirit of democracy O'er shining Ocean ray volcanic light,

both in politics and art, the outbreak of Or hurlinnocuous embers to the night;

which was hastened by the incidents of While with loud shouts to Etna Hecla calls And Andes answers from bis beaconed walls :

the French Revolution. Sea-wildered crews the mountain-stars admire,

In literature the battle began with the And Beauty beams amid terrific fire.

controversy excited by the publication of

Wordsworib's “ Lyrical Ballads." To There is evidently something in com- prevent the historical accuracy of this mon between these two passages. In assertion being questioned, let me quote both (though only in the first few lines of what Coleridge, who had every means of Thomson) ihe description is, to some exo knowing, says, in his “ Biographia Litera. tent, scientific, and, as far as it is so, ria,” about the origin of the volume, and would find a more fitting expression in the influence it exerted on the taste of the prose; in both the frequent use of Latin times : words and the Latin method of linking epithets to substantives is observable; The thought suggested itself (to which of us but while Thomson has evidently con. I do not recollect) that a series of poems might ceived his subject with enthusiasni, and be composed of two sorts. In the one, the inimparts his enthusiasm to the reader, cidents and agents were to be, in part at least, Darwin thinks throughout in a matter of supernatural; and the excellence aimed at was fact spirit, and uses metre merely for dec. to consist in the interesting of the affections

by the dramatic truth of such emotions as orative purposes; so small is his sense of would naturally accompany such situations, sublimity that he does not perceive any, supposing them real. For the second thing ridiculous in imagining one volcano class, subjects were to be chosen from ordiballooing to another. Wordsworth la. mented that he could not “bear old Triton

* LIVING AGE, No. 2102.

caves

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