point of all is the making of a railway and call it even Asiatic, if you will — we roads to connect the interior with the are compelled to be acquainted with all poris on the coast. The Serayevo-Mortar the languages of Western Europe. Our line is absolutely a necessity.”

institutions, our educational systems, be. “I am quite of your opinion,” answers long to the Western world. At the same Baron Kállay, ma i danari, all cannot time, by some mysterious connection with be done in a day. We have but just com- our blood, Eastern dialects are very easily pleted the Brod-Serayevo line, which takes accessible and comprehensible to us. I passengers in a day from Vienna to the have over and over again remarked that I centre of Bosnia. It is one of the first can grasp much more clearly the meaning boons conferred by the occupation, and of an Eastern manuscript or document by its consequences will be almost measure translating it into Magyar, than if I read less.'

a German or English translation of it.” I refer to a speech he has recently pro. The Ring, and how this splendid nounced at the Academy of Pesth. In it boulevard has been made, is certainly a he develops his favorite subject, the great question worthy of an economist's inqui. inission Hungary is destined to fulfil in ries. What changes since 1846! At that the future; being connected with the East period, from the beights of the old ramthrough the Magyars and with the West parts that had sustained the famous siege through her ideas and institutions, she of 1683, one could obtain a panorama of must be a link betwern the Eastern and the entire city, with its extensive fau. Western worlds. This theory provoked bourgs separated from the centre by a a complete overflow of attacks against dusty esplanade where the Hungarian Magyar pride from all the German and regiments, with their tight blue trousers, Slav papers. “These Hungarians," they drilled every evening. The Volksgarten, said, "imagine themselves to be the cen. where Strauss played his waltzes, and the tre of the universe, and their Hungaria Grecian temple with Canova's statue, the entire world, Ungarischer Globus. have been left intact; but a boulevard Let them return to their steppes, these twice as wide as those in Paris runs along Asiatics, these Tartars, these first cousins the entire length; ample space has been of the Turks.” In the midst of all this reserved for the erection of public monu. vehemence, I am reminded of a little quo- ments and the remainder of ihe land sold tation from a book of Count Zays, which at enormous prices. The State and the most accurately paints the ardent patriot. town have constructed public edifices ism of the Hungarians, at once their vying with each other in magnificence; honor and strength, but which develops a two splendid theatres, a town hall, which spirit of domination and makes them de. will certainly cost filty million francs; a tested by other races. The quotation is as palace for the University, two museums, follows: The Magyar loves his country and a House of Parliament for the Reichsand his nationality better than humanity, rath. All around the Ring, in addition to better than liberty, better than himself, the buildings just mentioned, are archbetter even than God and his eternal sal. dukes' palaces, immense hotels, and privation.” Kállay's bigh intelligence pre. vate residences, which, from their grand vents his falling into this exaggerated proportions and the richness of their dec. Chauvinism. “No one understood me,” oraiions, are monuments themselves. I he says, “and no one chose to under know of nothing comparable to the Ring stand. I was not talking politics. I had in any other capital. Where did Austria no desire to do so in our Academy at a find ihe necessary funds for all these con. scientific and literary meeting. I simply structions ? The State and the town made announced an undeniable fact. Situated a most successful speculation : the price at the point of junction of a series of paid to them for the ground on the espladifferent races and for the very reason nade almost covered all their expenses, that we speak a non-Indo-Germanic idiom but the purchasers of that ground and the

constructions placed upon it - who paid ese impoverished cities, beggars have taken up their for all that? The hundreds of millions abode in the ancient palaces of the princes of commerce, and the lion of St Mark overlooks these buildings fail- of francs represented by this land and by ing into ruins. This coast, which has the misfortune the public buildings and private dwellings to adjoin a Turkish province, will never regain iis former position until good roads and railways have been

on it, all that must spring from the savings constructed between its spiendid ports and the fertile of the country. This affords a clear proof iland territory, whose productiveness is at present that in spite of the unfortunate wars, the essentially hampered by ihe vilest imaginable adinin

(La Prusse et l'Autriche depuis Sadowa, loss of Venetian Lombardy and the Krach ii., p. 151. 1808 )

of 1873, in spite also of home difficulties


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and the persistent deficit, continuing from and indeed the full pathos of which we in year to year, Austria has become much England can with difficulty appreciate, wealthier. The State is a beggar, but the owing to distance both of time and space. nation has accumulated capital which ex. Not only is Hungary a long way off, occu. pends itself in all these splendors of the pying but a small place in an English. Ring. As on the banks of the Rhine, all man's mental horizon, but the events this is due to machinery. As man can referred to in that document happened with his new and powerful tools procure thirty-five years ago, in those antediluvian nourishment and clothing for a less sum, days when the Second Empire as yet was he can devote a larger portion of his rev. not, and the World's Fair had not been enue and labor to his board, his pleasures, held in Hyde Park. Even in Hungary to art and various institutions.

the War of Independence is passing into All that I succeeded in ascertaining in the domain of history. Those, however, Vienna with respect to the present situa. of our readers who are old enough to retion of Bosnia served to confirm the views member that war as a contemporary event I already entertained as to that country. discussed in the columns of the Times and The interests of civilization, and especially the Daily News, and afterwards retold in those of the southern Slavs, command our burning words by the most eloquent for. approval of this occupation. We arrive eigner that ever addressed an English at this conclusion by an argument which andience, will remember that the Hungaappears to me irrefutable. Was it, yes rian commander-in-chief, Arthur Görgey, or no, of importance that Bosnia should was the scapegoat sent out into the wilbe freed from the Turkish yoke? No derness with all the sins and sorrows of friend of humanity in general and of the that unsuccessful struggle upon his head. Slavs can answer this question otherwiseIt was not enough that two of the most than in the affirmative.' Who then is to formidable military powers of the Conticarry out this freedom? Russia is not to nent joined their forces to crush the Hun. be thought of. The forming of Bosnia garians; they were betrayed, so we were into an independent State would be still assured, by the foremost soldier in their worse, for it would be simply delivering ranks, to whom the governor Kossuth up the rayas without the slightest defence had in a moment of inisplaced confidence to the Mussulman begs. The most tempt. entrusted the fortunes of his country. ing plan seemed to be to unite it to Ser. What was the precise character of the via, but in that case Bosnia would have unworthy motives that led General Görbeen separated from its neighbor Dalma. gey to soil bis laurels with treachery was tia, and the Servian government would variously and vaguely explained; but it have been compelled to undertake the was generally assumed that his motives difficult task of keeping its ancient ene must have been unworthy. The capitumies, the Mussulman Bosniacs, in check. lation of Vilagos, when twenty-four thouThe only other solution was the present sand men, with one hundred and forty-four

Austria-Hungary can neither Mag. cannon, laid down their arms before the yarize nor Germanize Bosnia. She brings Russian commander, was for the Hunya. it safety, order, education, and roads; or, rian nation the humiliations of Sedan and in other words, the elements of modern Metz and Paris rolled into one. civilization. Is not this all the Slavophils two delusions dear to the national mind can possibly desire? Thus will be formed seemed in danger of being dissipated a new nation, which will grow up side by that Hungary alone in arms could defy all side with Croatia and Dalmatia, fortifying her enemies round about, and, if not, the these two countries as it develops, and free peoples of the West would interfere serving at the same time as a connecting in her behalf. The theory of Görgey's link between them.

treason came in opportunely to save the EMILE DE LAVELEYE. amour propre of the nation and of those

who had fostered those dangerous and dear illusions. The events which preceded and those which followed the capit.

ulation combined to lend plausibility to From The Saturday Review.

the theory of treason. Early in the course GENERAL GORGEY.

of the war it had become apparent that the The other day in a private room in one Assembly, under the leadership of Kosof the by.streets of Pesth, five old sol. suth, and the army under the leadership diers presented to their former com. of Görgey, beld irreconcilable views with mander a document, the full significance regard to the proper aim and scope of the


By it



struggle against Austria. The more san. men of their country both in politics and guine partisans on either side urged their letters. General Görgey's great rival, the leader to suppress his rival by violent ex.governor, has of late years revived the

To bring Görgey before a court recollection of that war by the publication martial, to disperse the Assembly at Deb. of his “Memoirs. Their publication led reczin as Cromwell dispersed the Long to a certain recrudescence of the old con. Parliament, such would have been the troversies. Görgey and his friends relogical issues of the disagreement. But plied by articles in the Budapest Review the leaders shrank from such extreme and other periodicals. At last, in the

Each was too sensible of the spring of the current year, two or three weakness of his own position; each per members of the old Honved army, dishaps over-estimated the power of his cussing the question among themselves, rival. It was only the military disasters determined to collect the opinions of their consequent upon the energetic and effec. surviving comrades. Finding that their tual intervention of the Russians that gave own view of the matter was generally the soldier a final preponderance over the though not universally beld, they drew up agitator. Kossuth abdicated and fled; a declaration to the effect that in capitu. Görgey remained and capitulated. By lating at Vilagos General Görgey had surrendering, not to the Austrian, but to altogether acted as became a soldier and the Russian commander, he emphasized a patriot. This declaration, dated the the fact that Hungary yielded only to 30th of May, was presented to the general force majeure, and was conquered only by on the 22nd of November, by which time foreign arms. In so acting he conceived it had been signed by two hundred and that he was saving the military honor of seven old Honved officers, a goodly numhis country. One, however, of the con- ber when we take into account the ravsequences of his so acting was that his ages which thirty-five years have made in life was spared through the express inter their ranks. The document begins by vention of Russia, while his companions reflecting on their daily diminishing numin arms were shot, hanged, and impris. bers - one of them, General Gaspar, has oned. Under these circumstances it was died since his signature was affixed-on but natural, however illogical and unfair, the advanced age of those who still re. to make him responsible, not only for the main, on the destruction of the original failure of the campaign, but also for the official papers by the enemy, and the de. severity of the repression which began as sirableness in the interests of historic soon as the Russian troops had left Hun. truth of their making such a declaration. gary. Thus, as a deputy expressed him. They are further moved to do so by feelself in 1868,“ poor Görgey had to beings of humanity and of loyalty to a com. branded as a traitor that we might save rade and a commander who for so many the prestige of the country.” From 1849 years has supported with so much manly to 1867 Görgey was “interned ” in Kla. fortitude so great a weight of unmerited opgenfurt as a political suspect, and was probrium; further, by a juster idea of the not permitted to return home until the honor of their country than to suppose reconciliation of the king and the nation that it can be served by the maintenance took place in the latter year. On several of a fable invented in a moment of despair, occasions after his return he was publicly the need for which fable, if it ever existed, and grossly insulted both in the capital having long ago, passed away. They then and the provinces. Yet he counted point out the desperate position of the among his friends and adherents the most Hungarian army before Vilagos, and reprominent and most esteemed members call General Görgey's words in his fareof Hungarian society, and he was em. well proclamation to his troops, “ It is ployed by the government both as a chem- impossible that the right cause should be ist and an engineer.

lost forever." Among the names ap. Few European countries have changed pended may be noticed those of General so much as Hungary during the last thirty- Klapka, Count Scherr Thosz, the Prus. five, or even during the last seventeen sian Baron Uechtritz, Counts Esterhazy, years. The generation that fought and Karolyi, and Andrassy, and that of M. suffered in the War of Independence has Gustave Kossuth, sometime lieutenant in become a minority, although its surviving the Honved army and a cousin of the govmembers are still the most distinguished eroor.

Fifth Series, Volume XLIX.


No. 2117.- January 17, 1885.

From Beginning,



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Contemporary Review, .


Fortnightly Review, IV. DELPHINE,


Macmillan's Magazine,

All The Year Round,


Longman's Magazine, IX. NAPOLEON THE THIRD, .

Merry England, X. FRENCH DUELLING,


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With despair in his heart, and disdain in his From the Early-Middle Irish, Book of Leinster, He turns from the table, and turns but to die. fo. 214a (= facsimile, p. 303), col. 2.

He's the eagle no more; he now envies the I KNOW who won the peace of God.

wren, The old king Ailill of the Bann,

And pines for the peace of the Threescore and Who fought beyond the Irish sea

All day against a Connaught clan.

When the Sun pours the splendors of noon on

our eyes, The king was routed. In the flight

Those splendors but veil the true pomp of the He muttered to his charioteer, “Look back: the slaughter, is it red ? 'Tis but when he sinks in the surges of Even, The slayers, are they drawing near?” That we see in its grandeur the star-studded

heaven. The inan looked back. The west wind blew

The horizon of life thus grows clearer by years ; Dead clansmen's hair against his face.

Man is freed from his fever of hopes and of He heard the war-shout of his foes,

fears; The death-cry of his ruined race.

What was storm in the mountain, is calm in

the glen,

And he feels the true joys of the Threescore The foes came darting from the height

and Ten. Like pine-trees down a swollen fall.

Spectator. Like heaps of hay in flood, his clan

Swept on or sank — he saw it all,



And spake,“ The slaughter is full red,
But we may still be saved by flight.”

Then groaned the king, “No sin of theirs

WHAT pool is this by galingale surrounded Falls on my people here to-night.

With parsley and tall iris overgrown?

It is the pool whose wayward nymphs con“No sin of theirs, but sin of mine,

founded For I was worst of evil kings,

The quest of Heracles to glut their own Unrighteous, wrathful, hurling down

Desire of love. Its depths hath no man To death or shame all weaker things.


Save the young Mysian argonaut alone, “Draw rein, and turn the chariot round.

When round his drooping neck he felt, asMy face against the foemen bend.

tounded, When I am seen and slain, mayhap

The cruel grasp that sank him like a stone. The slaughter of my tribe will end.” Through all the land the Hero wandered, cry.

ing They drew, and turned. Down came the foe. “Hylas !” and “Hylas !” till the close of day,

And thrice there came a feeble voice replying The king fell cloven on the sod. The slaughter then was stayed, and so

From watery caverns where the prisoner lay;

Yet to his ear it seemed but as the sighing
King Ailill won the peace of God.*

Of zephyrs through the forest far away.

E, C. LEFROY. * A rough draft of this translation appeared in Fraser's Magazine for June, 1861.


(Translated from the Italian of Stecchetti, by OLD AGE.

Baroness Swift.) [TO THE EDITOR OF THE SPECTATOR.] WHEN Autumn's leaves have fallen, and thou

dost hie SIR, “The falling away of the personal

To seek my cross down in the churchyard horizon” is an expression used by your last

lone, correspondent which recalls some beautiful In some deserted nook shalt see it lie, lines, written and read by the Reverend Dr.

And flow'rets sweet o'er it will then have George Croly, the author of “Salathiel,” at a

grown; private dinner given by the late William Tooke, F.R.S., in 1859:

Oh, cull them to adorn thy golden hair, What is Youth ? a bold gamester! who stakes Those flow'rs born of my heart. I ween they

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against Fate, At a table of swindlers in Church or in State; The poems that I thought, but never sung, He flings his last venture for fortune and fame, The words of love, ne'er uttered by my tongue. To find one a cheat, and the other a name. La Mira, November 11, 1884.


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