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making the acquaintance of the Altgräfin national movement in Bohemia are of in Florence, and I am very glad to have German origin, and do not even speak the an opportunity of meeting her husband, a language they wish to be made official. member of Parliament very deeply inter- The Hapsburg dynasty, our capital, our ested in the Tscheko-German question. civilization, the initiative and persistent He belongs to the Austrian Liberal party, perseverance to whic! Austria owes its and severely blames Taaffe's policy, and creation are not all these Germanic? the alliance that the feudal party, and es. In Hungary, German, the language of our pecially members of his own and of his emperor, is forbidden; it is excluded also wife's families, bave concluded with the in Galicia, in Croatia, and will soon be so ultra-Tscheks. “ Their aim is,” he says, also in Carinthia, in Transylvania, and in “to obtain the same situation for Bohemia Bohemia. The present policy is perilous as for Hungary. The emperor would go in every respect. It is deeply wounding to Prague to receive the crown of St. to the German element, which is nothing Wenceslas. An autonomous government less than the enlightened classes, comwould be re-established in Bohemia under merce, money — the power, in fact, of the direction of a Diet, as in Hungary, modern times. If autonomy is estabThe empire would become triune instead lished in Bohemia, it will deliver over the of dual. Save for questions common to clergy and the aristocracy to the Tschek all, the three States would be independent democrats and Hussites.” of each other, united only in the person “ All that you say," I answer, “is perof the sovereign. Such an arrangement fectly clear. I can offer but one objecanswered admirably in the Middle Ages, tion, which is that from time to time in when it was usual; but at the present the affairs of humanity certain irresistible day, when we are surrounded on all sides currents are to be met with. They are so by great united powers, as France, Russia, irresistible that nothing subdues them, Prussia, and Italy, it is senseless to advo- and any impediment in their way merely cate it. I admit of federation for small serves to increase their force. The na. neutral States like Switzerland, or for a tionality movement is one of these. See large country embracing an entire con- what a prodigious re-awakening ! One tinent, like the United States; but I con. might almost compare it to the resurrecsider that for Austria, situated, as she is, tion of the dead. "Idioms buried hitherto in the heart of Europe, exposed on all in darkness spring forth into light and sides to complications and to the greed glory. What was the German language and envyings of her many neighbors, it in the eighteenth century, when Frede, would be absolute perdition. My good rick boasted that he ignored it, and prided friends of the feudal party, supported by bimself on writing French as perfectly as the clergy, hope that when autonomy is Voltaire ? True, it was Luther's lan. established in Bohemia, and the country guage; yet it was not spoken by the upper is completely withdrawn from the influ- and educated classes. Forty years ago, ence of the Liberals of the central parlia. what was the Hungarian tongue? The ment, they themselves will be the masters despised dialect of the pastors of the there, and the former order of things will Puzta. German was the only language be reset on foot. I think they make a spoken in good society and in government very great mistake. believe that when offices, and, at the Diet, Latin. At the the Tscheks have attained the end they present day the Magyar dialect is the have in view, they will turn against their language of the press, of the parliament, present allies. They are at heart all dem. of the theatre, of science, of academies, ocrats, varying in shade from pale pink to of the university, of poetry, and of fiction; bright scarlet; but all will band together henceforth the recognized and exclusive against the aristocracy and the clergy, official language, it is imposed even upon and will make common cause with the the inhabitants of Croatia or Transylva. German population of our towns, who are nia, who have no wish for it. Tschek is almost all Liberals. The country inhab. gradually securing for itself the same itants would also in a great measure join place in Bohemia as Magyar has attained them, and thus the aristocracy and the in Hungary. A similar phenomenon is clergy would be inevitably vanquished. taking place in Croatia, the dialect there, If necessary the ultra.Tscheks would call formerly merely a popular patois, now up the memories of John Huss and of possesses a university at Agram, poets Ziska, to ensure the triumph of their party. and philologists, a national press and a
"Strange to say,” he continues, "the theatre. The Servian tongue, which is majority of the old families heading the merely Croatian written in Cyrillic char.
acters, has become the official, literary, instead of a State, a mere collection of parliamentary, and scientific language of dissolving views. Do you recollect Servia. It is in precisely the same posi- Dante's lines ? tion as its elder brothers, French and German, in their respective countries. It
Quivi sospiri, pianti ed alti guai is the same for the Bulgarian idiom in
Risonavan per l’aer senza stelle. Bulgaria and Roumelia, for the Rouma.
Diverse lingue, orribile favelle,
Parole di dolore, accenti d'ira, nian in Roumania, for Polish in Galicia,
Voci alte e fioche, e suon di man con elle. for Finn in Finland, and soon also in Flanders, where, as elsewhere, the liter- “This is the state of things that is beary reawakening precedes political claims. ing prepared for us. You would hardly, With a constitutional government, the perhaps, believe that this mania is now nationality party is sure to triumph, be so violently raging that the Germans in cause there is a constant struggle be. Bohemia, dreading the future power of tween the political opponents as to which the Tscheks, have requested autonomy shall make the most concessions in order for that portion of the country where they to secure votes for themselves. This has are in a majority. On the other hand, the been also the case in Ireland. Tell me, Tscheks would never suffer the division do you think it possible that any govern of their realm of St. Wenceslas, so this is ment would be able to suppress so deeply another cause of quarrel. This struggle grounded, so universal a movement, whose of races is but a reiurn to barbarous ages. root is in the very heart of long-enslaved You are a Belgian and I an Austrian; races, and which must fatally develop as could we not therefore agree to manage a what is called modern civilization pro. business direct an institution 10gresses? What is to be done, then, to getber?” “Of course," I reply. “When quell this irresistible pressing forward of a certain degree of culture is attained, the races all claiming their place in the sun important point is conformity of feeling shine? Centralize and compress them, as rather than a common language, but at Schmerling and Bach tried to do? It is the outset, language is the means of artoo late for that now. The only thing is riving at intellectual culture. The motto to make compromises with these divers of one of our Flemish societies affirms nationalities, as Count Taaffe is trying to this most energetically: De taal is gau. do, being careful, at the same time, to pro sen het volk (* Language is everything for tect the rights of the minority.”.
a people'). In my opinion, reason and “ But,” answers the Altgraf, “in Bo. virtue are the important points, but withhemia we Germans are in a minority, the out language and letters there can be no Tscheks could crush us mercilessly.”
progress in civilization." The following day I call on M. de V., I take note of a curious little incident, an influential Conservative member of which showed how exceedingly bitter this Parliament. He appears to me even more animosity of races has become. The distressed than Count Salm. “An Aus. Tscheks of Vienna, who number about trian of the old school, a sincere black and thirty thousand, requested a grant from yellow," I am,“ and even," says M. de V., the town council to assist them to found a * what you call in your extraordinary Lib- school, where the instruction would be eral jargon, a Reactionist. My attachment given in their language. The rector of to the imperial family is absolute, as of the university of that city spoke in favor being the common centre of all parties of this request at the meeting of the in the State. I am attached to Count council. The students of the Tschek Taaffe, because he is the representative University of Prague, apprised of this, forof Conservative principles; but I deplore warded bii a vote of thanks; but in what his federalistic policy, which, if pursued, language? Not in Tschek, the rector will certainly lead to the disintegration of would not have understood a word; nor the empire. My audacity even goes. so in German, the language of the oppressfar as io declare that Metternich was a ors; in French, as being a foreign idiom clever man. Our good friends, the Ital- and neutral everywhere. The vote – cerians, reproach him with having said that tainly very justifiable — of the rector in lialy is a mere geographical expression. favor of a Tschek school in Vienna, was But of our empire, which he made so so highly disapproved of by his colleagues powerful, and, on the whole, so happy, not that he was forced to resign his post. even that will be left, if this system of 1 go next to see Baron von Neumann, chopping it into pieces be followed much one of the pillars of our Institute of Interlonger. It will become a kaleidoscope national Law. Besides his vast legal
knowledge he possesses the precious fac- Salonica-Nitrovitza branch at Uskub or at ulty of speaking all European languages Varosch. The line is to run along the with equal facility, and has also at his dis- upper Morava by Lescovatz and Vraina. posal a treasure of quotations from the The latter town can then be easily conmost varied literature. In the different nected with Varosch on the Salonica line, towns in which the Institute has met, he the distance between these two places bas replied to the authorities appointed to being quite trifling. This branch line, receive us in their own language, and gen. which will be quickly terminated, is of erally as fluently as a native. Baron Neu- capital importance. It will be the near. mann takes me to the university of which est route to Athens, and even to Egypt be is one of the chief ornaments. It is and the extreme East; and will ultimately, situated quite near the cathedral, and is a in all probability, beat not only Marseilles very ancient building, which will shortly but Brindisi. The other section of the be abandoned for the sumptuous edifice line, from Nisch to Sofia and Constantiin course of coostruction on the Ring. Inople, presents great difficulties. In the am introduced to Professor Lorenz von first place, the pass through which the Stein, author of the best work that has Nischava flows before reaching Pirot is ever been written on Socialism, "Der So- so wild, narrow, and savage, as to chalcialismus in Frankreich," and also of lenge the skill of our engineers. Then, several works on public law and political after leaving Pirot, the line must rise over economy, which are very highly consid. some of the last heights of the Balkans ered in Germany. I am also very pleased to reach the plain of Sofia; the rocks to make the acquaintace of my youthful here, too, are very bad. Beyond, on the colleague, M. Schleinitz, who has just | high plateau, there will be no difficulty, published an important work on the devel- and a line was half completed by the opment of landed property. Baron Neu. Turks ten years ago, between Sofia and mann transmits me a letter from Baron Sarambay (the terminus of their system); Kállay, the financial minister, appointing fifteen or sixteen months would suffice to an interview with me before I leave; but finish it. To be brief, this year we shall I see first M. de Serres, the director of be able to go by rail all through Servia as the Austrian railways, who will be able to far as Nisch. A year later, if no time be give me some details as to the connection lost, we shall reach Salonica, and, two between the Hungarian and Servian and years afterwards, Constantinople." the Ottoman lines: a question of the very I thanked M. de Serres for all these in. first importance for the future of the East, teresting details. “The completion of and which I had promised myself to these lines," I said, “ will be an event of study.
capital interest for the Eastern world. It The Austrian Railway Companies' of- will be the signal for an economic transfices are in a palace on the Place Schwarz- formation far otherwise important than epberg, the finest part of the Ring. Their political combinations, and will hasten the interior arrangements are quite in keeping accomplishment of an inevitable result with the outside appearance. Immense the development and the supremacy of white marble staircases, spacious and the dominant races. Your Austrian railcomfortable offices, and the furniture in ways and Hungary will be the first to benthe reception-rooms all velvet and gold. esit, but very soon the whole of Europe What a contrast between this modern lux. will share the advantages which will acury and the simplicity of the ministerial crue from the civilizing of the Balkan offices! It is the symbol of a serious peninsula.” economic revolution. Industry takes pri- I call after this on Baron Kállay. I am ority of politics. M. de Serres spreads very pleased to have an opportunity of out a map of the railway system on the seeing him, for I am told on all sides that table. “See,” he says, "this is the direct he is one of the most distinguished states. line from Pesth to Belgrade; it crosses men of the empire. He is a pure Mag. the Danube at Peterwardein and the Save yar, descended from one of Arpad's comat Semlin; it was necessary therefore to panions, who came to Hungary towards construct two immense bridges, the piles the close of the ninth century: They of which have been constructed by the must have been a careful and thrifty Fives-Lille Company. The Belgrade- family, for they have been successful in Nisch section will be very soon inaugu- retaining their fortune, an excellent precerated. At Nisch there will be a bifurca. dent for a financial minister. When quite tion of two lines, one continues to Sofia young, Kállay displayed an extraordinary and the other, branching off, joins the taste for learning, and he was anxious to
know everything; he worked very hard at of a section in the Foreign Office. He the Slav and Eastern languages and trans. published his history of Servia in Hungalated Stuart Mill's “ Liberty” into Mag. rian ; it has since been translated into yar, and for his literary labor he obtained German and Servian, and even at Bel. the honor of being nominated a member grade it is admitted to be the best that of the Hungarian Academy.
exists. He also published about this time Having failed to be elected deputy in an important pamphlet in German and 1866, he was appointed consul.general at Hungarian, on the aspirations of Russia Belgrade, which post he held for eight in the East during the past three centuyears. This period was not lost to sci- ries. Under the Chancellor Haymerlé he ence, for he spent it in collecting matter became secretary of state, and his authorfor a history of Servia. In 1874 he was ity increased rapidly. Count Szlavy, forelected deputy in the Hungarian Diet and merly Hungarian minister, a very capable took his place on the Conservative bench- man, but with little acquaintance with the es, now the Moderate Left. He started a countries beyond the Danube, was then newspaper, the Kelet Nepe, (" The People financial minister; and, as such, was the of the East"), in which he depicted the sole administrator of Bosnia. The occu. part Hungary ought to play in eastern pation was a total failure. It entailed Europe.
immense expense, the taxes were not paid It will be remembered that when the into the exchequer, it was said that the Turko-Russian war broke out, followed by money was detained by the government the occupation of Bosnia in 1876, the Mag- officials as during the reign of the Turks, yars were most vehement in their mani. and both the Trans-Leithanian and Cis. festations of sympathy with the Turks, Leithanian Parliaments showed signs of and the opposition was most violent in discontent. Szlavy resigned his post. attacking the occupation. The Hunga. The emperor very rightly thinks an im. rians were so bitterly hostile to this move. mense deal of Bosnia. It is his hobby, ment, because they thought it would be his special interest. During his reign productive of an increase in the number Venetian Lombardy has been lost, and of the Slav inhabitants in the empire. his kingdom, consequently, dininished. Even the government party were so con- Bosnia is a compensation for this, and vinced of ihe unpopularity of Andrassy's possesses the great advantage of adjoining policy that they durst not openly support Croatia, so that it could easily be absorbed it. just at this time Kállay took upon into the empire; whereas, with the Italian himself to defend it in the House. He provinces, this was totally impossible. told his party that it was senseless to The emperor then looked around him for favor the Turkish cause. He proved the man capable of setting Bosnian affairs clearly that the occupation of Bosnia was in order, and at once selected Kállay, who a necessity, even from a Hungarian point was appointed to replace Szlavy. of view; because this State forms a corner The first act of the new minister was separating Servia from Montenegro, and personally to visit the occupied province thus being in the hands of Austria-Hun- of which he speaks all the varied dialects, gary, prevents the formation of an impor. and to converse with the Catholics, Or. tant av State which might exercise anthodox, and Mahonmedans the He irresistible attraction on the Croatians, thus succeeded in reassuring Turkish landwho are of the same race and speak the bolders, in encouraging the peasantry to same language. He explained his favor. patience, in reforming abuses and turning ite projects, and spoke of the commercial the thieves out of the temple. Expenses and civilizing mission of Hungary in the became at once reduced and the deficit East. This attitude of a man who knew diminished, but the undertaking might the Balkan peninsula by heart, and had well be compared to the cleansing of the deeply studied all the questions referring Augean stables. Baron Kállay employed to it, was most irritating to many members great tact and consideration, coupled with of his party, who continued for some little relentless firmness. To be able to set a time Turcophile; but the speech pro- clock in thorough order it is necessary to duced a profound impression on the nation be perfectly acquainted with its mechan. in general, and public opinion was con- ism. Last year he was warned that a siderably modified. Baron Kállay was tiny cloud was appearing in Montenegro. designated by Count Andrassy as the A fresh insurrection was dreaded. He Austrian representative in the coinmis started at once to ascertain the exact posision on Roumelian affairs, and, on his tion of affairs for himself, and he took return to Vienna, he was appointed chief | his wife with him to give his visit a
non-official character. Lady Kállay is as there, fully to realize the hindrances to intelligent as she is beautiful, and as cour. be met with at every step. For instance, ageous as intelligent; this latter is indeed the Turkish law constitutes the State the a family quality : Countess Bethlen, she owner of all forests, and I am especially is descended from the hero of Transyl. desirous of retaining rights on these for vania, Bethlen Gabor. Their journey the purpose of preserving them; on the through Bosnia would form the subject of other hand, in accordance with a Slav a poem. While on his way from ovation custom, the villagers claim certain rights to ovation, he succeeded in stamping out on the forests. If they merely cut the the lighted wick which was about to set wood they needed for household purposes, fire to the powder. Since then, it appears, only slight harm would be done; but they matters there have continued to improve; ruthlessly cut down trees, and then turn at all events, the deficit has disappeared, in their goats who eat and destroy the the emperor is delighted, and every one young shoots, so that there is never any tells me that if Austria succeed in retain. chance of the old trees being replaced. ing Bosnia she will certainly owe it to These wretched animals are the playue of Kállay, and that a most important rôle is the country. Wherever they manage to assuredly reserved for him in the future penetrate, nothing is to be found but administration of the empire. He believes brushwood. in a great destiny for Hungary, but he is As the preservation of these woods is by no means an ultra-Magyar. He is pru. of the first necessity in so mountainous a dent, thoughtful, and is well aware of the region we intend to pass a law to this end, quagmires by the way. His Eastern ex. but the difficulty will be to enforce it. It perience is of great service to him. I call would alınost necessitate an army of keepon him at his offices, in a little narrowers, and constant struggles in every direcstreet and on the second floor. The tion. What is really lacking in this fine wooden staircase is dark and narrow. I country so favored by nature is a gentry cannot help comparing it in my mind to who would set an example of agricultural the magnificent palace of the railway com- progress, as in Hungary. I will give you papy, and I must confess my preference an example in proof of this. As a boy I for this. I am astonished to find him so remember that a very heavy, old-fashioned young; he is but forty-three years old. plough was used on our land. In 1848, The old empire used to be governed by compulsory labor was abolished, wages old men, but this is no longer the case. increased, and we had to cultivate our. Youth has now the upper hand, and is re- selves. We at once sent for the most sponsible, doubtless, for the present firm perfected American iron ploughs, and at and decisive policy of Austria-Hungary. the present day these alone are employed The Hungarians hold the reins, and their even by the peasants. Aastria has a blood has preserved the ardor and decision great mission to fulfil in Bosnia, which of youthful people. It seemed to me that will in all probability benefit general I breathed in Austria an air of revival. Europe even more than ourselves. She
Baron Kállay spoke to me first of the must, by civilizing the country, justify her zadrugas, the family communities which occupation of it.” existed everywhere in India, as has so “ For myself," I replied, " I have always well been shown by Sir Henry Maine. maintained, in opposition to my friends “Since you published your book on the English Liberals, that the annexation primitive property” (which was, he says, of Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 Dalmatia at the time perfectly accurate), “many was a necessity, and I fully explained this changes have taken place – the patri: at a period when the question was not at archal family living on its collective and all under discussion,* but the essential unalienable domain is rapidly disappear. ing. I regret this quite as much as you * “It is absolutely necessary for Dalmatia to become can do, but what can be done?”
connected with Bosnia. As a Montenegrin guide one
9 day remarked to Miss Muir Mackenzie, Dalmatia Speaking of Bosnia, “We are blamed," without Bosnia is like a face without a head, and Losnia he says, "for not having yet settled the without Dalmatia is a head without a face. There agrarian question there, but Ireland is and the inland villages, the former with their tine names
being no communication between the Dalmatian sufficient proof of the difficulties to be are but unimportant little towns stripped of all their met with in solving such problems. In former splendor. For instance, Ragusa, formerly an Bosnia these are further complicated by inhabitants ; Zara, nine thousand; Zebeniko, six thou
independent republic, has a population of six thousand the contlict between the Mussulman and sand; and Cattaro, situated in the most lovely bay in our Western laws. One must be on the Europe, and with a natural basin sufficiently spacious
to accommodate the navy of all Europe, has but two spot and study these vexed questions thousand and seventy-eight inhabitants.
In several of