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No. 1540.- December 13, 1873.
CONTENTS, I. ENGLISH DICTIONARIES,
Quarterly Review, II. Sukie's Boy. By the author of “The Huguenot Family,” etc. Part I.,
Twilight in Winter — Despair.
642 | WATER-LILIES, Very Free Translation.
MADEIRA, Another Translation of the Same.
SIMILES, . REPLY TO MR. BOURDILLON'S POEM, · 642 |
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Like a fairest, sweetest maiden Tue night has a thousand eyes,
Lies each lily in its brightness,
All her heart with love's tire laden,
All her soul of purest whiteness ;
Furled and folded all her petals
Round she wraps her heart to cover,
Till on her the strong sun settles,
And her whole heart hails her lover.
F. W. BOC'RDILLOX.
How strangely on that haunted morn
Was from the West a vision born, nombre,
Madeira from the blue ! Et le jour n'a qu'un ail sur son disque
Sweet heavens! how fairy-like and fair vermeil;
Those headlands shaped themselves in air, Pourtant la terre est froide et sombre
That magic mountain grew!
I clomb the hills ; but where was gone
The illusion and the joy thereon, flamme,
The glamour and the gleam ? L'esprit a mille feux éclairant l'infini;
My nameless need I hardly wist,
And missing knew not what I missed,
Bewildered in a dream.
And then I found her; ah, and then
On amethystine glade and glen
The soft light shone anew;
On windless labyrinths of pine,
Seaward, and past the grey sea-line,
To isles beyond the view.
'Twas something pensive, 'twas a sense
Of solitude, of innocence,
Of bliss that once had been ;
Interpretress of earth and skies,
The Spirit of the scene.
Oh not again, oh never more
I must assail the enchanted shore,
Nor these regrets destroy,
Which still my hidden heart possess
With dreams too dear for mournfulness,
Too vanishing for joy.
And, dear, we part;
ONE taper lights a thousand — vet doth beam Stronger than Death is Love,
No dimmer, giving all, but losing nought. From Heaven above
By one faint glimmering taper light is Heart answers heart.
To altar-candles, many-branched, that gleam * LIVING AGE, No. 1537.
Against high-vaulted chancel-roofs, and stream
Whose folded hands, forever praying seem. WATER-LILIES.
These two things have I known; and this THERE are water-lilies lying
beside Large and lustrous to desire,
Fire kindled by a failing flame, which died With the snow for whiteness vying,
That self-same moment. Lord, my fame Holding each a heart of fire;
burns low Lilies with large leaves for shadow,
Great fires are kindled by a feeble spark – Where the sunbeams flash and quiver, Let my poor taper lighten some, whose glow Where through many a copse and meadow Shall bless the world when I am cold and Steals along the silent river,
From The Quarterly Review. the original stock of English, or have ENGLISH DICTIONARIES.
since been introduced ; what they meant
at their first appearance in the language, The German Dictionary of Jacob and
and what they have come to mean since. Wilhelm Grimm, of which the first vol- in discussing these and other kindred ume was issued nineteen years ago, has
questions as to what may be distinbeen carried on by other hands since the last of the two brothers died, and next schoolroom dictionary, we shall examine
guished as the library dictionary and the year may perhaps see completed its first five volumes, about half the entire work. view of showing what they ought to be.
what such works actually are, with the The French Dictionary of Littré was And seeing that dictionaries, of all books, completely published last year. It is
are apt to come into existence by succeshigh time to ask when and how we are sive development from author to author, to have an English Dictionary at the and from editor to editor, it will be helplevel of these admirable compilations. ful to glance over the whole history of Old and mediæval English Literature, English lexicography, tracing the series now risen into broad daylight again, must of works from the scanty and now alhave their treasures inventoried, more
most forgotten vocabularies of the sevenfully and strictly than hitherto, for mod-11
teenth century to the most voluminous ern readers. New English literature
and learned dictionaries which the modmust not merely give account of its vaster
ern bookseller has to offer. The compossessions, but must register its title
parison shows indeed great literary progdeeds for all that it has inherited ; must show its evidence for all that it has new- tional history, yet we have to admit that
ress during the last quarter of our naly made at home or imported from abroad. this progress falls short of what might Comparative philology has within the last have been made, and we trust soon will two generations risen from rude and vague be. Till late years,
our dictionaries beginnings to the rank of a science, and stood well in comparison with those of far deeper linguistic knowledge is
other countries, but at present we have required of the lexicographer than such
fallen somewhat behind. Our Philologias sufficed for the literary needs of a cen- cal Society is industriously collecting and tury ago. Beside this question of the great standard English Dictionary, there classifying a huge museum of linguistic arises another not less important, how specimens, but with no promise of im
mediate result, while the separate labours far do our smaller educational diction
of individual philologists are rather diaries answer to present requirements ?
rected to special scientific work than to The school-room lexicon ought not in
the production of a public book of referdeed to be a museum of far-fetched and
Critics, in the meantime, ill-satisoutlandish words, nor should it confuse
fied with even the better dictionaries of the schoolboy's mind with a crowd of speculative etymologies, but it should af. England and America, must condemn the ford reasonable information as to those worse, which only keep a place in the
book-market as educational works bewords whose derivation is most certain,
cause the schoolmasters and parents who showing plainly whether they belong to
buy them are too ignorant of the science
of language to know good from bad. It 1. A Dictionary of the English Language. By is needful to press this really important Robert Gordon Latham, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. ed on that of Dr. Samuel Johnson, as edited by the subject on public attention, for urgent deRev. H. J. Todd, M.A. London, 1866–70.
mand will hasten supply. A few years 2. Dr. Il’ebster's Complete Dictionary of the Eng- hence, let us hope, we may have a more lisk Language. Thoroughly revised and improved, by Chauncey A. Goodrich, 1).D., LL.D., late Professor of gratifying report to give. But dictionary Rhetoric and Oratory, &c., in Yale College, and Noah making is a long labour, and for the moPorter, D.D., Professor of Moral Philosophy and ment we had rather see a limited work Metaphysics in Yale College London (cir. 1865). 3. A Dictionary of the English Language.
By fairly up to the modern level, than the Joseph E. Worcester, LL.D.
London (cir. 1860). I prospectus of a mighty lexicon that shail
throw Grimm and Littré into the shade, book which the student seldom opens withand be published A.D. 1900.
out learning something, though most likeLexicons for the student learning ly not the something he is looking for. French, Latin, and Greek had been for Bailey, not content with a copious vocabmany years in use before the plain Eng- ulary of popular English, dived into techlishman was provided with a self-explain- nical books of law, alchemy, magic, and ing vocabulary of his mother-tongue, an other such repositories of quaint terms, English Dictionary in rudimentary form. bringing up scores of out-of-the-way Few but book-collectors and philologists words, which later lexicograp'iers prunow ever see the two little volumes of dently let drop again, but which still have Bullokar and Cockeram :-“ An English their value, philological and historical. Expositor, teaching the Interpretation of Thus the language of the occult sciences the Hardest Words used in our Language. in full vogue three centuries ago, is repo By J. B., Doctor of Physicke. London. resented in Bailey by such definitions as 1621.” And “The English Dictionarie, the foliowing :- Cacodamon “in Astrolor, an Interpreter of Hard Englisli Words. ogy) the Twelfth House of a Figure of By H. C., Gent. London, 1632." These the Heavens, so called because of its little books have an interest to us, as dreadful signification "; Mercury ** (imong showing the humble beginnings of our Chymists) Quicksilver; and is taken for lexicography, and as preserving in the one of their active principles common's compactest shape some noticeable pas. called Spirits.” Among the dwindling sages in the history of English. They store of Arabic scientific words in Engbelong to an age when many a familiar lish, some which later dictionary-writers English word kept an early sense which discard, almugia, alidadı, and the like, it has now lost, when animositie was still still remain clear and fresh to Bailey's to be defined as “courage”; when to mind. The following is a curious case edifie meant “to builde, to frame, some-in point :: “ Dulcarnon (Arab.) a certain time to instruct”; when miscreant was Proposition found out by Pythagoras, simply “an Infidell”; and pragmaticall upon the account of which he sacrificed “one that understands the Law.” After an Ox to the Gods, in Token of ThankBullokar and Cockeram came Edward fulness, whence Chaucer, &c., uses it to Phillips, Milton's nephew, with his New signify any knotty Point or Question. World of Words,” John Kersey, with his To be at Dulcarnon, to be nonplussed, “ Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum," and to be at ones Wits end." To clear up various other compilers, who gradually the whole history of this word, which has improved upon the labours of their pred- puzzled many a reader of Chaucer, the ecessors, until, about a century after the modern critic has only to add that the first crude attempts, a work which may be proposition in question is that of the called a tolerable practical dictionary, squares on the sides of a right-angled triaiming to register and explain the lan-angle, and that its well-known figure probguage at large, was given to the English ably suggested the Arabic name, which public.*
dulcarnon is intended to represent, viz., Nathan Bailey, a schoolmaster at Step- dhu'l karnain, “ lord of the two horns."* ney, brought out, about 1720, his “ Etymo-Among old English law terms, agiin, logical English Dictionary," which not Bailey includes such as these :- adictonly superseded the earlier vocabularies, vus, “a thief who hath stolen cattle" but was strong enough to hold a place (this word is mediæval Latin, from abigai; through the time of Johnson, and even | bairman, “a poor insolvent Debtor, left into that of Webster. In one or other of bare and naked, who was obliged to swear its twenty or thirty editions, it is still a in Court that he was not worth more than staple of our bookstalls ; a worthy old five Shillings and five Pence.” Every
now and then, as we turn over the leaves, An interesting sketch of the history and bibliography of English Dictionaries is prefixed to Worcester's Dic * Diog. Laert. “Vit. Pythag." xi. See also the
Athenæum,” Sept. 23rd, 1871, p. 393.
we come upon strange words which set the word had not made its way into Engthemselves to us like puzzles, impelling lish literature in Bailey's time, so as to us to search out their origin. Thus fram- justify him in inserting an abigail as al pole-fence, “a Privilege belonging to the common noun. Again, modern English Inhabitants of the Manor of Writtle in cooks know perfectly well, though modEssex,” resolves itself on further enquiry ern English dictionaries do not give it into franc-pole fence, a local tenant's right the name of the bain Marie, a hot-water of taking poles free. Again, chechinqua- bath in which stewpans are put to keep inins, “an Indian Fruit which resembles a their contents at an equal heat. Bailey Chesnut,” may, after due search, be traced has not exactly the cook's description, to Captain John Smith's “ History of Vir- but that of the old chemists, who used ginia,” where the fruit and its American the apparatus to heat their cucurbites, Indian name are native. It is true that or, as we should say, retorts, and knew it Bailey's alphabetical vocabulary cannot by the name of Balneum Mariæ. Trabe at all depended on as complete, dition says it was called after Mary the
as to familiar language ; for in- Jewess, an ancient alchemist, though the stance, such words as cattle and pud- apparatus she invented was more like dle are left out. Still the presence or what our chemists call a sand-bath.* absence of particular words and mean Not to pursue these curious details ings, suggests at every turn some inter- further, we may look at Bailey's Dictionesting point as to the history of English. ary from another point of view, as an exThus, in connexion with antick, a buf-ample of a fairly learned eighteenth cenfoon or grotesque figure (antique), Bailey tury Englishman's idea of the constitution inserts the phrase “ to dance the anticks,” of his own language. He has not reached i.l., “ to dance after an odd and ridiculous the main principle of modern English philmanner, or in a ridiculous dress, like a ology that there is a staple English, distinJack-pudding." This phrase seems to guishable through above a thousand years show the transition of meaning whereby of history, during which it has at once unthe word antick passed through the de- dergone great internal increase and description of grotesque performances increase, and been expanded by large abantique guise, till it lost the sense of an- sorption from other tongues. To Bailey, tiquity and retained only that of gro- “ English Saxon” and“ Norman French tesqueness, or buffoonery, with which are alike fundamentals of modern Engmodern Englishmen speak of antics. In lish, which he defines as now a Mixmodern dictionaries this link in the chain Iture of Saxon, Teutonic, Dutch, Danish, of meaning is dropped, so that the ety- Norman, and Modern French, imbelmology of the word hangs imperfectly to- lished with the Greek and Latin." In gether. To take another instance of his- his actual etymologies of words, he is torical evidence from Bailey's Dictionary, scarcely trustworthy outside the very we find tuna, the West Indian name of simplest and most direct. He can tell the plant on which the cochineal insect us more or less properly that to eat is is reared, but neither · prickly pear nor from Anglo-Saxon ætan, easy from French "cactus” is given, so that it seems that aise, Anthropology, from úvopwrog and neither had the English popular name of 2oyia. But accepting the authority of the "prickly pear” come into use to denote - great Names, and approved Etymolothe plant, nor had botanists revived, as a gists” of his time, he was not content to designation for the whole genus it be follow writers like Camden or Skinner, longs to, the classical term kúktos, cactus. who as times went) kept tolerably within So the insertion of Abigail as a personal the limits of secure and commonplace name, but not as
a sportive word for a derivations. He was led astray by recklady's maid, reminds us that though the less speculators who felt at liberty to imsuggestion of this use is old enough, agine derivations where evidence fell 6 let thine handmaid be a servant to wash the feet of the servants of my lord,” yet See G. F. Rodwell in “Nature," Dec, 5th, 1873.