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Fifth Series,
Volume IV.

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No. 1537. - November 22, 1873.

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CONTENTS.
I. THE GROWTH OF COMMONWEALTHS. Ву
Edward A. Freeman,

Fortnightly Review,
II. EDGAR WAYNE's ESCAPE. By Mrs. Oliphant, Blackwood's Magazine,
III. LIVES AND LETTERS OF BEETHOVEN, Edinburgh Review,
IV. MR. RUSKIN ON AMBITION, •

Spectator,
V. Seine-FISHING,

Saturday Review, VI. PREREQUISITES TO The RESUMPTION OF

Casu PAYMENT. America and France, Economist, VII. MR. JOHN STUART Mill's AUTOBIOGRAPHY, Spectator, VIII. THE AMERICAN EXCHANGE ON ENGLAND, . Economist,

POETRY. THE VALLEY OF BERACHAH,

450 | A SKETCH AT EVENING, SUNLIGHT AND SHADOW,

450 | Light,

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MISCELLANY,

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PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY
LITTELL & GAY,

& GAY, BOSTON.

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGe will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage. But we do not prepay postage on less than a year, nor when we have to pay commission tor forwarding the money; nor when we club the Living Age with another periodical.

An extra copy of THE LIVING AGE is sent gratis to any one getting up a club of Five New Subscribers. Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money-orders should be made payable to the order of

LITTELL & Gay.

THE VALLEY OF BERACHAH. Oh, blessed shadows ! who so kind as you,

So patient, humble, generous, and good? (II. Chron. xx.)

Obedient to the sun, and ever true, When Judah's foes were all assembled Your presence beautifies the roughest road, Within Tekoa's wilderness,

Lends to the sternest rock a tender grace, On pallid lips the accents trembled :

And throws a charm upon the meanest place. "Save us, O Lord, in our distress !”

Oh, blessèd lights that make the shadows The answer came, their fears allaying,

sweet, “Ye shall not need to fight to-day;

That make the world so exquisitely fair ! For I Myself, My power displaying, Life is more full when lights and shadows Will sweep that hostile host away."

Than in the midnight gloom or noonday Forthwith, before the embattled legions,

glare, A band of singers marched and sang ;

And human hearts have little tenderness And through those wild, infested regions

Till grief and joy have met in fond caress. Praise to the Lord sublimely rang.

Sunday Magazine.

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From The Fortnightly Review. Whig and Tory, but to the same class of THE GROWTH OF COMMONWEALTHS.

words as thief and murderer. A Repub

lican must be a Democrat, and for a THERE is much talk just now in the Democrat no words can be too bad. The world about changing monarchies into Democrat must be a foe to religion and republics, and changing republics into social order, to life and property and monarchies. To judge from the way in everything else. To be sure there are which people speak about the current men still living who may have seen, by politics of France and Spain, one might the banks of the Aar or on the isles of think that a change of this kind was the the Hadriatic, republics which were not easiest thing in the world. And one democracies. To be sure any man who might think that it was not only one of chooses may now go any day and see for the easiest things in the world, but that himself that the most Conservative and it was also a simple and definite thing, the most Catholic people in Europe are something which could be done within also the most democratic. To reasoning the four corners of an Act of Parliament, like this it would most likely be thought or voted by the briefer Yea or Nay of a answer enough to say that one set of rereal or a sham plebiscitum. The modern publicans cut off the head of Charles the history of France and Spain is perhaps First and that another set of republicans beginning to give people a diin notion cut off the head of Lewis the Sixteenth. that there may be many kinds of repub- An English Puritan and a French Jacolics and many kinds of monarchies. And bin were about as unlike one another as when we constantly see in polite news- any two kinds of men can be ; but both papers such a phrase as “ Conservative were Republicans, both upset Kings, and, Republic," it may be that the general with thus much in common, any differpublic is beginning to awake to the fact ences between them ought in loyal eyes that a republic is not necessarily a state to seem but small. There must surely of things in which everybody picks every- be some degree of revulsion from this body else's pocket and cuts everybody kind of talk, when the “Conservative Reelse's throat. Otherwise, as a rule, the public ” is daily discussed as being, for word “Republican” has generally been one at least of the great nations of Euused in England as if it were a term of rope, the form of government under moral reproach. A man may be Whig, which there is most chance of union, Tory, Conservative, Liberal, even Radi- order, and stability. It is at least not cal; he may be for or against the present from the Conservative point of view that state of the Legislature, the Church, the either M. Thiers or those who have disarmy - perhaps even the game-laws and placed him can be railed at as chiefs of a the succession to land. Thus far — gang of cut-throats. though it is perhaps not quite clear about Now I am not arguing in favour of a the last two points - a man may hold his republican form of government either in own notions, whatever they are, and at England or anywhere else. I am only most his error is mourned over; he is not claiming on behalf of those who are in at once set down as a rogue. But if a favour of a change in the form of the man goes on from speculating on all these Executive, that their notions are not to things to speculate still further upon the be looked on as something inherently form of the Executive government, he is wicked, any more than the notions of at once set down as morally wicked. If those who are in favour of a change in he thinks that it might be better to have any other of our institutions. I am only the actual rulers of the country chosen arguing that the hereditary King is simdirectly, instead of indirectly, by Parlia- ply, like the elective Town-Councillor, ment or by the people, then be is a “Re- something created by an Act of Parliapublican," and the word “Republican,” ment, and that it is no more sin to disin the mouths of most people, does not cuss the repeal of the Act which estabbelong to the same class of words as 'lishes the King than to discuss the repeal

of the Act which establishes the Town-ment, than the constitution or the existCouncillor. As for discussions about ence of the other two. any one ideal form of government, they are

Our constitutional kingship, like any simply idle. The ideal form of govern- other form of government deserving to ment is no government at all. The exist- be called government, has its good and ence of government in any shape is a its bad side. But change, radical change, sign of man's imperfection. If we were change which is not the mere improvement all so wise and good as always to do ex- of detail but which breaks the continuity actly the right thing of our own accord, of institutions, is in itself an evil. Those there would be no need of laws, lawgivers, who seek to change a monarchy into a or judges ; the King and the Town-Coun- republic — just like those who seek to cillor would be equally uncalled for. In change a republic into a monarchy an imperfect world some kind of govern must be prepared to show, not only ment is needful; but what is the best that the proposed change will be abkind of government for any particular stractedly for the better, but that it will community depends on endless circum- be so much for the better as further to stances which are perhaps not exactly counterbalance the inherent evil of an the same in any two communities. Any organic change, of the snapping of a link thing worthy to be called government - I between the past and the present. No shut out mere tyranny and mere anarchy doubt there are times and places where as not being worthy to be called govern- such a case may be made out, but it is ment — may be the best or the worst in incumbent on the man who proposes so its own time and place. What is best in great a change to make out such a case. an early state of society may not be the I myself see no case for the abolition of best in a state of highly elaborate civiliza- kingship; I only ask for toleration for tion. What is best for a single city may those who think otherwise. It seems to not be best for a large nation. What is me that any radical change in the form best for one race or one climate may not of our Executive would do more harm be best for another race or another cli- than good. The worst side of our presmate. As a rule — again setting aside ent system is not political but social. mere tyranny and mere anarchy — that Where the existence of kingship works form of government is best for any par- badly is in the spirit of grovelling flattery ticular society which the circumstances which it encourages. The habit of cringof its history have given it. I do not mean ing to princes, of hiding or putting fair that such a government may not need names on their vices, must have a bad great reforms. But when a nation which moral effect; it must tend to deaden is possessed of an historical form of gov- men's feelings of truth and right. And I ernment makes from time to time such re- suspect that this habit of prince-worship forms as are needed, it is simply carrying is one of the special evils of a constitutionon the process by which that form of gov- al monarchy, that it has more influence, ernment camei nto being at all. The cir- and appears in a worse form, in a consticumstances of our history have made us a tutional monarchy than it does in a desconstitutional monarchy, and I at least see 'potism. But the spirit which goes down no reason to wish to change that form of into the dirt at the mere hearing of the government for any other. We have got name of a Royal Highness would, under Kings, Lords, and Commons, and I be- any other form of government, find somelieve that we shall go on best by keeping thing else to go down into the dirt before. Kings, Lords, and Commons, only making For my own part I have no wish to dissuch changes in the constitution of any turb the existing form of our Executive, of those branches as experience may except perhaps in one way. The expeshow to be needful. All I ask is that the rience of the present reign shows that the constitution, or even the existence, of duties of a constitutional sovereign are one of the three be not thought more best discharged by a woman, and I sus. sacred, more beyond the reach of argu-pect that, in order to make constitutional

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