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we can form no other conception of our subordinate or secondary suns, and must earth's primal condition than as a vapour certainly have been such long after the globe. 'Our moon likewise affords abun-earth and her fellow minor planets had dant evidence of having once been in an cooled down into the condition of habitintensely heated state. And doubtless able worlds — we find very striking evithere was once a time when the earth dence to show that these minor suns or and moon were both (at the same time) major planets erupted from their interior vaporous through intensity of heat. the material of meteor systems and of
Now we bave not gone back to that far those comets of small period which have distant epoch for the purpose of seeking been called the comet-families of the mathere for the secret of the moon's present jor planets. The evidence on this point figure. It appears to us reasonable to will be found fully detailed in the article trace back to such an epoch the singular called “ The Recent Meteor Shower and law of the moon's rotation, whereby she Meteor Showers generally," which apalways keeps the same face turned to-peared in the Cornhill Magazine for Janwards the earth; for far off though that uary last; and the circumstance will there epoch may be, it is not separated from be found noted, that we need not inquire our time by so enormous a lapse of ages into the dimensions of a body, in considas could be required to “brake” a rapidly ering the possibility of its expelling matrotating moon to the moon's present ter from its interior with a velocity suffistrangely slow rotation rate. In the dis- cient to carry such matter altogether tant era then, when the moon was a va- away; since, in point of fact, the inferiorpour nucleus within the great vapour-lity (for instance) of the major planets globe which was at some future period to compared with the sun, is compensated form the earth we live upon, the moon by the inferior attractive power which thus involved learned to rotate synchro- their eruptional forces have to overcome. nously with her revolution. But gradu- All tha: is required is a sunlike condition ally the earth's vapour-globe shrunk in with respect to heat; granting this, a its dimensions until the moon was left small globe like the earth, or even so outside – or we may say that the vapor- small a globe as the moon, would be as ous envelopes around the two chief nuclei competent to expel matter to great disso far shrank as no longer to be anywhere tances from its interior, as the major intermixed. From this time forth the planets, or as the sun himself, or even as moon must have cooled more rapidly than an orb like Sirius, exceeding our sun at the earth ; and the time must at length least a thousand times in volume. have arrived when the moon had become So long then as our earth continued in an opaque orb, while the earth on which a sunlike state, she would probably expel we live was still a sun. Even at this early matter in all directions with a velocity stage of our existence the moon must small indeed compared with the velocity have so rotated as to turn the same face of matter erupted from the sun, but quite towards the earth's then glowing orb. as large relatively to the attractive power
But now a circumstance has to be con- of the earth. This process of continual sidered which, startling though it may eruption would not exhaust the earth, seem at first, is yet consistent with what simply because it would be compensated has been ascertained respecting the sun by arrivals from without; and moreover, and other bodies. There is a great mass far the greater quantity of the erupted of evidence tending to show that our sun matter would doubtless fall back upon expels matter from his interior with a the glowing orb of the earth. But it is velocity sufficient to carry such matter manifest, that whatever matter entirely away from him. This has been erupted directly towards the moon, so as shown by the microscopic and chemical to fall upon her, would recruit her mass. structure of meteorites, by their paths As we must assume from the known mass and rates of motions, and by many cir- of the earth that she was for ages in a cumstances which will be found detailed sunlike condition, we must believe that at length in the article called “ Meteors, during those ages that face of the moon Seed-bearing and Otherwise,” in the Corn- which was continually directed earthhill Magazine for November, 1872. It is wards received no inconsiderable supply also very strikingly supported by the be- of erupted matter. For it must be haviour of the so-called eruption-promi- remembered that when the process began, nences of the sun. Passing from the sun the moon was much larger in voluine, to the major planets - which even now though considerably less in mass, than seem to have some of the qualities of at the present time. She would, there
fore, at that time intercept a much great- | This, as it flows from the furnace, is er proportion of the erupted matter. received in stout iron boxes (called “cinMoreover, since, after she had shrunk der bogies '). The following phenomena into a semiplastic but still growing orb, are usually observable on the cooling of the moon must have continued for a very the fused cinder in a circular bogie. long time subject to this rain of earth- First a thin solid crust forms on the red born missiles, there is reason for regard- hot surface. This specdily cools suffiing as very considerable the quantity of ciently to blacken. If pierced by a slight matter by which her bulk was thus in- thrust from an iron rod, the red-hot matcreased. Moreover, if it be remembered ter within is seen to be in a state of that the meteoric missiles thus expelled seething activity, and a considerable from the earth would necessarily be quantity exudes from the opening. If a exceedingly hot, probably liquid even bogie filled with fused cinder is left unbefore their fall, and certainly liquefied disturbed, a veritable spontaneous volat the moment of collision with the canic eruption takes place, through some moon's surface, we find à priori evidence portion, generally near the centre, of the for that very downfall of liquid drops, solid crust. In some cases, this eruption of which, as mentioned above, the is sufficiently violent to eject small spurts present aspect of the moon seems to of molten cinder to a height equal to afford evidence. It is certainly a note- four or five times the width of the bogie. worthy circumstance that a theory de- The crust once broken, a regular crater vised to explain a most striking peculiarity is rapidly formed, and miniature streams of the moon's globe, should account also of lava continue to pour from it; somefor a feature, not less striking, which had times slowly and regularly, occasionally not been specially in view when the with jerks and spurts, due to the bursting theory was invented.
of bubbles of gas. The accumulation of We must pass, however, from these these lava-streams forms a regular cone, considerations, because the evidence on the height of which goes on increasing. which they have been based is too slight I have seen a bogie about ten or twelve to warrant any prolonged or exact dis- inches in diameter, and nine or ten inches cussion respecting them. But a few deep, surmounted in this way by a cone words remain to be said on the question about five inches high with a base equal which originated the strange theories to the whole width of the bogie. These devised to explain why the moon at cones and craters could be but little impresent shows no traces either of oceans proved by a modeller desiring to represent or an atmosphere.
a typical volcano in eruption.” We have said that on our earth the law The aspect of the moon's crater-covered seems established that where there is no surface certainly accords better with the water there are no volcanoes. May it supposition that active processes like not be, however, that this law does not those described by Mr. Williams were in extend to the moon ? Mr. Mathieu operation when that surface was formed, Williams, whose work, The Fuel of the than with the theory that slow and interSun, has suggested many new and strik- mittent volcanic action like that with ing considerations respecting the celes- which we now familiar on earth, tial orbs, has brought to bear on this modelled the moon's surface to its presquestion an experience which very few ent configuration. In the former case students of astronomy have possessed water would not have been needed, and the knowledge, namely, of the behaviour vaporous matter would not have been of fused masses of matter cooling under expelled to an extent irreconcilable with a variety of circumstances. "I have observed phenomena. watched the cooling of such masses very It is manifest that we have in the frequently,” he says, “and have seen moon a subject of research which has abundant displays of miniature volcanic been by no means exhausted. Ascerphenomena, especially marked where the tained facts respecting her have not yet Cooling has occurred under conditions been explained; and doubtless many facts most nearly resembling those of a gradu- still remain to be ascertained. The moon ally cooling planet or satellite — that is will hereafter be examined with greater when the fused matter has been enclosed telescopic power than has by a resisting and contracting crust. The applied, and when this is done appearmost remarkable that I have seen are ances may be accounted for which are at those presented by the cooling of the present unintelligible. Again : new in“ tap cinder' from puddling furnaces. 'quiries into the question of the evolu
Fit for her nest and her treasure.
tion of our solar system, can hardly been given to reach a higher level than is fail to throw light on the peculiar re- yet possible for the mass — a standing lations presented by the moon with ground from which they can discern a reference to the terrestrial globe. We clearer light, a truer beauty, and a wider believe that the problems suggested by love - a few should from time to time lunar research, perplexing though they pause in the struggle and shed abroad in unquestionably are, will not be found in- tenderness and sympathy for others the soluble; and it is most probable that good they have themselves acquired. their solution will in turn throw impor A stone's throw away, beyond the iron tant light on the history of our earth and railings which bound my garden, and her fellow terrestrial planets, on the where the mill-lake narrows to a stream, giant planets which travel outside the another willow grows amid a tangle of zone of asteroids, and lastly, on the past blue forget-me-nots and coarse weeds and history, present condition, and future fate rushes. It is a pollard willow, and I of the great central luminary bearing have heard it called ungraceful, for its sway over the planetary system.
boughs do not droop - they seldom have length enough even to wave in the summer winds — because every autumn they
are cut down and bound into sheaves From The Cornhill Magazine.
and carried away to be woven by patient WILLOWS: A SKETCH.
fingers into baskets to bear the burdens of many men and women.
I was very sad about the poor willow the first time I saw its green shoots shorn off. It was
slim and graceful then, and it seemed to This is a spray the bird clung to,
me that its young life was just developMaking it blossom with pleasure, Ere the high tree-top she sprung to,
ing into a fulness and beauty that bid fair
to rival those of its elder sister on my Oh, what a hope beyond measure
lawn. But the ruthless shears cut off its Was the poor spray's, which the flying feet hung to, So to be singled out, built in, and sung to!
crown and it has stood ever since as the
type of a maimed and broken life I can see two willows from my win-maimed life of which the personal indow. One grows on the edge of the completeness is compensated by a wider lake at the bottom of my lawn. Its roots usefulness. run under the soft turf and grasp the
Of my two willows I hardly know which mossy bank. Its languid branches droop I love the best, for I have watched them over the water and make a pleasant mur- long, and I have learnt to see that there muring sound as they sweep its surface is use in the beauty of the one and and caress the little pleasure boat that is beauty in the usefulness of the other. As moored beneath their shade. All my I look at them to-day I find my thoughts friends praise my weeping willow for its wandering away to a little village among grace and beauty, and say there is no the Sussex Downs and to two women in tree for miles ound that is so plea ant whose lives I lived long years ago. to sit and dream under on
I lived with my father in the Rectory afternoon. And so I find it myself. house ; they lived half a mile away in a When I am tired of the heat and dust of pretty gabled cottage with their mother this work-a-day world I find rest under and a swarm of younger brothers and its whispering boughs ; when I am sore sisters. Of their father I never knew with continual knocking against the more than that he had been a naval angles of my fellow-creatures, I find re- officer with a florid complexion and lief in the contemplation of its harmo- black bushy whiskers, and even so much nious curves; when I am in despair over I only knew by inference from a full disappointed hopes and bafiled efforts length portrait which hung against the and aspirations never to be realized, my drawing-room wall and toward whicl willow, bending its tall head earthward Mrs. Barnard was wont to look pathetias if to give back in loving sympathy to cally when she wished you to understand the soil from which it sprung whatever that the burden of life was pressing upon of goodness and beauty it may have ac- her more heavily than on her neighbours. quired in its upward growth, reminds me Whether these pathetic glances meant that if it is a good work to toil and agonize that the gallant captain had added more in the cause of human progress, it is not to the burden by his life or by his death less good that of those to whom it has I could never quite make up my mind,
but I think the silence of the other mem- | when she was standing at the store-room bers of the family on his score and the cupboard, with a large brown holland indifference with which they contemplat- apron over her blue cotton gown, dealing ed the blue uniform and gold buttons out soap and candles to the two maids inclined me to the former supposition. who formed the establishment of Cedar
Grace and Madeline Barnard were the Cottage. But I had found out that, if only intimate friends of my girlhood. there was more of practical usefulness in Perhaps I ought to say that Madeline Madeline's brown fingers than in Grace's was my friend and that Grace was Mad- taper white ones, there was also a good eline's sister,
deal more philosophy and certainly not To most people Grace was the central less poetry nestling under her unmanfigure at the gabled cottage. It was ageable brown curls than under Grace's Grace whom passers by looked over the dusky coils. And, though both were good, garden gate to admire as she stood pic- kind, loving girls, it seems to me even turesquely gathering honeysuckle in the now, after a life's experience of a world porch; Grace who sat all the long sum- in which kind hearts are, after all, not mer days reading poetry under the sweet- very few, that only those who knew Madscented shade of the cedar that spread its eline Barnard as I came to knew her, can arms, like a benevolent giant, over the tell what a width and warmth of sympalittle house and garden ; Grace, whose thy one human heart may hold. white fingers moved nimbly among the It was about six years after the Barold blue china tea-cups when visitors nards came to Endle Down that our girlcame in at five o'clock: it was Grace who ish intimacy deepened into a sacred sung old ballads in a tender, melting voice. friendship. Grace, who made little water colour sketch Madeline had been unexpectedly abes of the country about ; Grace, who mur- sent one summer afternoon from a meetmured pretty nothings and smiled sweet- ing of a clothing club committee, and I, ly, and interested and fascinated every- who had counted on her support in some body; it was Grace of whom my father disputed question, had felt a little vexed said that she was like a summer evening, with her for staying away. I had lost with its tender haze and quiet sadness. my point, which I should certainly have
And certainly she was very pretty, with carried had she been there to staté it for her tall slight figure and the masses of dull me in her clear and persuasive manner. dark hair that she wound round her head I felt so much annoyed that, as I locked as nobody else could ever succeed in do- the schoolroom door and turned my back ing, and the liquid grey eyes with a range on the scene of my defeat, I gave up the of varying expression that seemed abso-intention I had formed on first missing lutely infinite, and the faint rose-blushes my friend, of going up to the cottage to that came and went at a word or a look inquire if she were `ill, and I turned in the cheeks that were normally colour- homeward to nurse my dignity over a less. She was very pretty, and so I sup- solitary tea. But dignity is a poor thing pose it was the most natural thing in the in comparison with sympathy, and as I world that everybody should feel that bethought me that, my father being out, Mrs. Barnard and Madeline, the school- | I should not even have the satisfaction boy brothers and the sisters in pinafores, of telling him my grievance, I began to the gables and the honeysuckle — aye, relent towards Madeline, who might and ihe grand old cedar itself, had 'no after all, have good reasons for her abother meaning or raison d'être than just sence from the committee meeting. So this, that they were the setting of the I fung dignity to the winds, and feeling gem, Grace Barnard.
rather ashamed of myself turned quickly But, as I said before, Madeline was round and took the lane that led to the my friend. It was she who helped me cottage. in the schools and with the old women, Dick Barnard was sitting on the garwho advised me in my difficulties and den gate, lazily aiming stones at the comiorted me in my troubles. To most sparrows that hopped in and out of the people she seemed a matter-of-fact, cart ruts. housewifely little person, who darned the " If you've come after Madeline," he children's stockings, helped the boys shouted as I came up, "you won't find with their Latin grammar, and cut thick her, for she has been up at the Dene all bread and butter for the nursery tea; the afternoon.” who was always good-humoured and hap At the Dene - this was too bad. My py, but never so much in her element as charity had been thrown away, for Mad
eline had been enjoying herself all the dulged in little jokes at the expense of afternoon — probably eating strawberries their eldest sister. and cream under the trees — while I had “I shall be very glad to stay if your been fighting an unsuccessful battle over mother will let me." flannel petticoats and baby-clothing in “ Of course she will ; she doesn't like the stuffy schoolroom. I could have pepper in the jam any more than we do, cried as I stood before the gate debating though she tries to look as if she did, out whether I should complete my martyr- of respect for the Muses and the Graces." dom by going home to the meal that now And we laughed again at Dick's pun, seemed doubly lonely by contrast with and we were still laughing when we came strawberries and cream on the terrace upon Grace in the porch, looking like at the Dene, or whether I should invite Ophelia, in a white gown of soft clinging myself to tea with the Barnard children, muslin, with her arms full of flowers and who, I knew, would be only too glad to her black hair hanging in disorder down have me instead of Grace in Madeline's her back. She had been away lately on place by the tea-pot. I think dignity a visit, and this was the first time I had would have won this time, had not Dick seen her since her return. volunteered the further information that “Oh! how do you do ?” she said, and Lady Raymond had sprained her wrist, she put out both hands in greeting, and and had sent for Madeline to write some bent forward her pretty head to kiss me. notes for her. Then she had good rea- ! The flowers fell upon her white gown son, after all, and I could afford to for- ; and upon the floor of the porch. give her.
Oh, dear !” sighed Grace, “I had “Do you think that if I were to walk forgotten them. Will you pick them up up towards the Dene I should meet her for me, Dick, while I go and make mycoming home ?" I asked.
self tidy for tea?” And she added, by “ She won't come home till after break- way of explanation, “ I was reading in fast — tea, I mean," answered Dick ab- the garden and I fell asleep, and my hair sently, as he aimed a fifth stone at an un- came down.” She ended with a strange usually daring sparrow, against whom he sweet smile that made one feel that a appeared to entertain a special spite. whole world of mystery and poetry lay
* Then there is not much use in my behind the simple fact that Grace Bargoing to meet her ?”
nard's hair had got untidy. “ Probably not,” said Dick. His tone By the time I had made tea for the of unconcern was infinitely provoking: Barnard children and told Mrs. Barnard Why could he not attend tó ine instead all about my clothing-club worry, I felt of the sparrows ? I asked, “ Is your myself in sufficiently good humour with mother at home?"
the world in general, and with Madeline * Yes — that is — at least, I mean in particular, to go up to the Dene and Ah ! I almost had him that time." I was carry her off for a stroll in the woods. beginning to hate sparrows.
There was a private walk from the “Is Grace at home?”
cottage to the Dene through shrubberies “ Yes, I think so; she was reading in and green avenues. It was very pleasant the summer-house about half-an-hour on this summer afternoon. Long slantago. Take care, you have startled the ing shafts of golden sunlight stole under bird.”
the boughs of the tall trees to play My patience could hold out no longer. among the tangled underwood and wav
“Don't you think you might let the ing grasses. Rabbits started from their birds alone for a minute and get off the holes and scurried across my path, buttergate so that I might go in ? " I said flies floated over the fern-leaves and the rather crossly.
bending fox-glove, and here and there a Dick was a good-natured boy. In black-bird hopped out from under a bush, moment he was down. “Oh, I beg your and greeted me with a full-toned chirp. pardon. I never thought of your want. It looked pleasant, too, in the garden as ing to come in.” Then, as he walked up ! emerged from the shrubbery and came the path with me, he added, “I say, in sight of the house. Lady Raymond, couldn't you stay to tea?. Grace has with her sprained wrist in a crimson been reading Goethe so much to-day that sling, was walking up and down the tershe is sure to be in a dream, and to put race smelling at her favourite roses, and milk in the tea-pot and pepper in the talking local politics with Sir Thomas, jam."
who was sitting in the library window I laughed. The boys and I often in-'reading the county paper ; while, under