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brings to the mind of the philosopher and politician one of the most singular events in history, tht of the Danish people formally and voluntarily resigning their rights and privileges into the hands of the sovereign, which took place in the middle of the seventeenth century.
True it is, that power and superiority are so flattering and delightful that, fraught with temptation and exposed to dangers as they are, scarcely any virtue is so cautious,or any prudence so tinorous, as to be sufficiently on its guard against their seductive influence. History furnishes but few examples of men who possessing the power to be tyrants, have wanted the will. Highly therefore does it redonnd to the honour of the sovereigns of Denmark, that the confidence reposed in them by their subjects has not been belied; that in few, if any instances, it has been exerted otherwise than for the welfare of the people, and that fortune bas once seen her golden cop tasted without inebriation. The mild spirit of the Danish laws in all the ramifications of their influence, is the first object which strikes the observing traveller, and the government of Denmark, however inferior in constitution, will, in its administration, yield to none in Europe. · One great inducement with the writer to give the present production to the public, seems to have been a laudable desire to remove the unjust and unfavourable notions which foreigners are apt to entertain of his countrymen. The foundation of these false ideas he attributes to the Germans, against whom he loses no opportunity of dealing out the etusions of his spleen. 'It seeins to have been the peculiar province of German travellers,' says he, 'to augment their bulky volumes of incomprehensible falsehood, with visionary details on the state of Denmark. Naturally pblegmatic,' their splenetic minds and jaundiced eyes distort or discolour every object they encounter; and their chaotic brains give av bideous aspect to the prospect that surrounds them." Scarcely a page either of the preface or text.is free from sin milar invective or innuendo. He congratulates his country that the system of enlisting Germans into their service is done away, and rejoices that with the abolition of German recruits, German habits, or, to use his own expression, the Habits of these vagabonds,' are also done away, and that military discipline is enforced by reward instead of punishment. • It is no longer necessary,' he observes, 'to make men soldiers by flogging them, and having no Germans to run au ay, desertion, formerly so fiequent, is now little known.' Whence arises this hostility between the Germans and Danes, we cannot say, nor does our author hazard any conjectures.
Of Danish taste, the reader may form some estimate from a passage (page 67), which informs us that a nobleman, Count Schimmelmann, has erected a monument to the memory of his wife in the peighbourhood of a certain spring, of which, that it might be a symbol of his excessive griet', he has caused the water to spont from an eye, on which occasion the spring is vulgarly called “The Weeping Eye. Our author thinks this an interesting spot.
The concluding sentences of this Tour are, like the opening ones, calculated to interest the feelings of humanity.
'Just as we were passing the most remarkable field about Copena hagen, i begged him to accompany me a few paces out of the way; that I might stew him something worthy his observation. Immediately on the shore stands a small stone with this inscription, Justits Stedet,* the sight of which cannot fail to excite agreeable sensations, when we consider how seldom it is frequenter. The last execution took place in the year 1797. I shall not turn casuist on this occasion; whatever the cause-effects combine to render this stone an honorable monument of the national character,
"May the laws of our country hare no occasion to disturb the grass which shades this spot!
No consideration is more important, whether taken in a political and religions point of view, or with reference to our private feelings, than the execution of criminals. It comes home to every mari. The politician reflects how far the lives thus wantonly destroyed, might have been rendered serviceable to society; the divine considers in what cases, and in what cases only, the immutable law of God authorizes us to take away existence; and on the days when the prisons of this metropolis are emptied into the grave, let every spectator of the legal massacre, as is reported of the learned and pious Boerhaave, put this question to his own heart, “ Are these men less culpable than I am:
By way of supplement the author has subjoined an historical account of the battle of Copenbagen, which he observes has not bitherto been impartially described. That splendid victory adds guch an inestimable jewel to the glory of EngJand, that no one will be disposed to quarrel with him for this addition. The day of Copenhagen, though unsuccessful, was glorious to Denmark, and the high praises of our late Jamented hero, bore bionourable testimony to Danish vatour. We are happy therefore to meet with the particularso that vá
* Place of Justice Crit. Rev. Vol. 7. March, 184,
lour in an enemy, narrated in a simple and candid manner, and the hope of our author will, we are convinced, be fulfilled, that his account will be acceptable to both nations, which have been reciprocally raised in the estimation of each other.' But while we are ready to allow all due praise to our foes, we cannot help remarking that our author's patriotism leads him on this occasion, and indeed throughout his work, to use somewhat hyperbolical expressions, when vele brating the valour, and inore particularly the naval intrepedity of his countrymen. On one occasion even, the feeble ray of the star of Denmark, is boldly put in apposition with the meridian splendor of the sun of Britain. A captain of a Danish frigate is exalted to the honours of heroisin, for having driven off a Tripolitan corsair; a lieutenantis crowned with glory for fighting a drawn battle with a privateer; and no inconsiderable honour is allotted to the gallant crew of a frigate for weathering a storm in the bay of Naples. The writer anticipates the glory of the midshipmen of the academy of Copenhagen; and a parcel of school-boys are, by the magnifying powers of his optic, already transformed into present heroes. (P. 57.) But the poets inform us that the love of our country is supe. rior to reason, and a favourite hobhy-horse must be permitted to every writer and every man. By way of apology, however, for our perciflage, we will gratify our author* by quoting from his work an instance of disinterested heroism, which has been rarely equalled in any nation, and which is worthy of the best days of the Roman republic. It took place in the year 1710, in an engagement between the Danish and Swedish fleets.
“During the engagement one of our line of battle ships--the Dans brog, took fire, nor could all our efforts to extinguish the flames availa Captain Hvitfeldt saw one ray of hope which seemed to promise safety to himself and his crew ; it was to cut his cables and drive ashore; there was, however, danger to be apprehended if the wind sbould change, in which case she would be drifted among our own feet, and thus endanger both shipping and town. Of two evils, Hvit. feldt chose the least. He gave positive orders that the cables should pot be cut; then sent his officers among the crew, briefly to explain to them, that their fate either way would be inevitable; and at the same time to ask them, if it would not be more glorious to pursue the destruc:ion of their enemy while the Danbrog existed, than, by a vain attempt to save themselves, endanger thousands of their countrymen ?
* This truly patriotic writer is determined to accomplish tavourite point. He informis us that he is about to publish a work from the Danish, entitied: " The great and good Deeds of Danes, Norwegians, aud Ilulsteinians
''The sailors approved the opinion of their gallant captain by their cordial cheers. llvitfeldi then sent six men on board the admiral lo inform him of their determination, and to bid their country farewell. In a few minutes the Hames reaching the magazine ---plosion followed, and all on board mounted to the skies.”
But our author is not content that his countrymen should perforin illustrious actions; the Muses of Denmark are put in requisition to record thein.
Captains and poets
Conspire to honour me.' Accordingly Messrs. Bruun and Thaarup, Rahbek and Ha. gerup, names, which should seem to be as unconsonant with the Muses as they are unknown to fame, are represented as embalming the exploits of their compatriots in imperishable numbers, and depositing them in the temple of inmortality.
The reader is dismissed with an account of the beneficial effects that have accrued to Denmark from the above incmorable conflict; these, however, may not at first sight be quite so obvious to an English reader. Faithful to his antipathy or resentment, he estimates, among the first of these advantages, the expulsion of Germans from the service, which immediately took place when the natives had so well proved themselves both capable and disposed to protect their country. Another good consequence was, the institution of a patriotic fund, which, in 1802, had accumulated to upwards of 50,0001. sterling, and the interest of which is appli, cable to the maintenance, relief and education of individual sufferers, or of those who had lost, or may hereafter lose, their husbands, children, or other relations in battle. Butthe most important benefit is the improvement which has taken place in the návy, and which, according to the present statement, (p. 39.) is very considerable. The number of midshipmen also in the Royal Naval Academy was increased from 60 to 100; and various batteries were built, and others projected, which will render the metropolis impregnable, in the opinion of our anthor, who asserts that the 2d of April, 1801, surpassed the uninterrupted calm of an eighty years peace, in yielding substantial benefits to Denmark. Hleforgets, however, one material advantage, viz. that the above batle produced a peace which prevented the boın bardment of Copenhagen, induced the Northern states to consult their real interest, laid open the delusions of French influence, and dissolved the coalition which had been set on foot by the madness of Paul I. l'hat part Deumark may beeventually disposed or coinpelled to take in the contests which will probably agitate Europe for many years, it is impossible to determine. She is not a substantive power, and ber motives must ever be influenced in a great degree by those of her more potent neighbours. Such is the uncertainty of the present state of things, and such the precarious situation of Europe, that the best grounded speculations seem to be made only to be defeated. We shall not, however, close this article without expressing our pleasing sense of the author's loyalty to his late sovereign, the Prince Royal of Denmark, whose virtues and wisdom claimed the bigbest regard. Nor is any thing more delightful than to contemplate the devotion of a grateful and happy people to tbe prince to whom they looked up as their friend and protector, and whose loss must be as sincerely lamented as it is irreparable.
• The Prince married Maria daughter of Prince Charles, Stadthota der of Holstein. Several children were the fruit of their uvion, of whom, the Princess Carolina is the only survivor. She is about ten years old, but excluded from inberiting the crown by the laws of Denmark, which contine the succession to heirs male. This has several times afforded the people grounds to eviuce their affection to the prince, by expressing their heartfelt regret, that the throne of Deninark was not likely to be filled by hisimmediate descendant; but it was never more cordially manifested than on the 13th of February 1802.
"In the morning of that day the cannon announced the delivery of the Princess. The people anxiously listened for a second and third discharge, * but their wishes were disappointed, anul a certain gloom clouded every face in the city. Notwithstanding which, when night approached, all sacrificed their personal feelings. The city was illumis nated, and the hut emulated the palace in testimony of unfeigned Tovally and joy.
When the Princess was sufficiently recovered to go abroad, she visited the theatre. The streets through which the Royal family bad to pass, were brilliantly embellished with devices, and other, wise disposed to give eclat to the occasion.
"Onihe loyal personages entering their box, they were, quite con trary to custom, greeted with the enthusiastic acclamations of the audience; and at their departure from the theatre, the populace, amid thundoring huzzas, surrouded ihe royal party with such a gerness and impetuo:lly, that the guards were compelled to recede and suffer them to follow the carriage.
"'This circumstance recalls to my mind the reply of Frederick the Fourth to the French Ambassador, when the latierespressed his 'sata prise, that bis Majesty should live at his country seat without guards, "I am always sale in the arms of my people,” replied the King.
• But she sense of the nation cannot be conveyed in stronger language, iban by relating the following anecdote: “ A gardener in
* On the birth of a prince the guns fire three times.