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acid, has made many useful remarks on the action of ion and copper on tiniber. To expel a fuid -from timber, the following ingenious process is recomincnded: Let a vessel be properly con structed to admit the wood, into which the steam of boiling water is to be admitted, and a hole being made at the bottom of the vessel, the air will be expelled, and the steam being condensed, a vacuum, nearly will be formed in the vessel. In consequence of this vacuum, the elastic fuids. of the wood will rush out, and by repeating the operation the non-elastic fluids in the wood will be raised to the temperature of steam, converted into elastic vapour, and then discharged. The wood then being plunged imo oil, will be freed from their future intrusion, and thus wood may be seasoned the moment it is felled.
A steam chamber of this kind is not expensive. The author had one in daily use in the year 1803, capable of containing twenty or thirty planks, forty feet long, and he conjectures, that the fire consumed in his Majesty's yards, would from the chips furnish tar more than sufficient to saturaie all the oak wanted in the English navy.
When we have discharged the fluids froin vur timber, the proper mode of applying it to the construction of a ship becomes an object of inquiry, and that this is little considered must be evident, if the author's position be true, and we believe it is, that a ship in the light of a nachine composed of wood and iron, is the feeblest, most inartificial and unworkmanlike structure in the whole range of mechanics. For the proofs of this position, which it is highly expedient for the shipbuilder lo examine, we refer bim to the present. prospectus, where he will find many ingenious observations on the sulling and pitching of ships, on the nature of cross planking decks,
and other points, which if they do not concur with bis present practice, may produce improvements in it. The idea of construct- : ing a ship's frames entirely of straight timber, bent to the required curvaturé by steam, is not to be rejected merely from its forelty, and the experiment is assuredly worthy of attention.
The above points will aflord matter for the first part of the in'tendeil work ; in the two next parts we have reason to expect much
inforination : and if this work should meet with encouragement, another, under the title of Naval Philosophy, is prepared to succeed it. From the importance of the subject, and the manner of treating it in the present specimen, we shall bope that the author will be forwarded in his designs, and we recommend iliş prospec. tus to ship builders and their employers. ART. 29.--The Conveniences, Principles, and Method of keeping Accounts rith Bankers in the Country and in London, with accurule Tubles adapted to the calculating of Interest Accounts with Ease and Dispulrh, und to the discounting of Bills of Exchange, wherein the Table of Interest for one Day is extend. ed to one Miltion of Pounds, &c. By W. Lowrie. 8vo. Long
1805. TIE greater part of this volume is filed with the tables of in
terest, whose merit consists in their accuracy, The trouble in making them is not very great, as from a common rule of ihree sum, che interest of a pound for one day is found to a considerable de gree of accuracy, and the multiplication of this number by the numbers up to a hundred, gives the interest for any number of pounds under a hundred, for one day. The multiplying of the interest thus found by the numbers up to twelve, gives us the interest for pounds up to a hundred, to twelve days. A continued multiplication in this manner by the numbers up to twelve, gives the in: terest for most of the days in the year, and for the precise numbers and their multiples, we proceed by addition and multiplication. Thus for the interest of a pound tor thirteen days, we add together the interest of seven and six pounds for a day found, and then multiplying the number thus found by iwo, for the interest of twenty-six days; by three, for thirty-nine days; and so on. The great nicety is in knowing when to throw out the decimal below a farthing, or to increase it tillit is a farthing. On which account all tables made on this plaq should be perpetually rectificd, and in fact they ought first to be made in decimals to eight or ten figures, and afterwards converted into pounds and fractions of pounds.
"It seems to be a proper mode that when the decimal below the farthing exceeds 5, à fürthing should then be given to the interest, that when it is below 5, the decimal :bould be rejected ; but if the Custom of trade throws aside all the decimals below the farthing, nothing is to be said against it, but to take care that in going by addition or inultiplication this decimal should have its proper value in the higher numbers. We mention this, because at first sight, ou examining these tables, we thought the decimal rejected in one instance targe erough to admit of a farthing increase to the interest; but on looking to the multiples of the nuuber, we found that it was taken into the account, and the interest properly given.
The account riven of the various details in tradesmen's accounts is drawn up with great clearness, and will be found useful to the country tradesman in his connections with the trave in London. It cons tains all the processes relative io bankers and the drawing of bills, processes which every clerk in London is very soon made acquainted with, but which, if not known by the country tradesman, may subject him to nuch unnecessary trouble. The work is recommender by the imprimatur of Mr. Nutt, governor of the bank of England, and a few merchanis' houses in London, Shettield, aud Waletield.
ART. 30.-The Doctrine of Philosophical Necessity briefly in
validateil, by John Dawsoir, of Suitbergh. Second Edition. To which is nuw udded un Appendix. 1'p. 36. 12.10.' Cadell and Daries,
THE reputation of Mr. Dawson as a mathematician has been dong and very extensively established. In this short tract he prefers a very strong cluinn zu the character of a sober, acute and profound
metaphysician. We have perused his remarks with much satisfac. tion. and think them deserving of very high commendation. Much more may be learned from them, on the subject of which they treat, than from whole volumes which we have seen, by less competent writers. We are sorry that they have remained so long uunoticed
Art. 31.---- A few Thoughts on the Creation, Generation, Groieth,
and Evolution of the Human Body and Soul : on the Spirituul and Immortal Nature of the Soul of Man : and on the Resurrection of his Body at the last Day, in a spiritual, incorruptible, and glorified State. 3s. 6d. 8vo. Hatchard. 1905.
THE chief intention of these pages is to state a few cursory thoughts and remarks on the creation of the body and soul of man ; on the existence and immortality of the soul ; on its generation, growth, and evolution with the body; on its happy or miserable state, immediately after the death of the body; and on some objections which have been offered to these doctrines: which the author is induced to produce, from a firm belief that they may prove ser. viceable to mankind; and particularly to those who, in this age of infidelity, have been led to disbelieve the scriptures, and that future state of rewards and punishments which they uniformly declare. In pursuance of this design the writer has occasion to advert to the opinions which have been entertained on the questions of the nutural mortality of the human soul, on the doctrines of materialism, on the manner of the soul's propagation, on the intermediate state, and on the eternity of the world which is to be hereafter. On all these, and some other subjects, the reader 'may derive some information fron the work which is before us. Reference is made occasionally to the works of Bishop Newton, Bishop Law, Doctor Taylor, Doctor Priestley, Mr. Ormerod, Dean (vot Bishup, as this writer calls bim,) Sherlock, and some others : men of whose opinions on any subject it cannot be altogether uninteresting and useless to be informed or reminded. This work therefore is not without its value as a record and recapitulation of sone important points of literary history. We are pleased also with the piety and the humility of its author. Yet the took has very many defects. And particularly, which is so requisite a faculty in the subjects which he has selected for discussion, we cannot speak in high terms of his skill and ex. actness in the use of language, without which the metaphysician's Jabours and the divine's are little less than vain.
ART. 32.-The Nature and Properties of Wool, illustrated with a
Description of the English Fleece. By John Luccock, Wool. stupler. pp. 360. 12mo.
12mo. 58. 6d. Harding. 1805. TO the volume of an artisan who writes on the business to which he has been regularly bred, we always turn with attention, convinis ced that if he has the vanity to publish, he will also have the can.
Hour to communicate any secret of which he may be possessed. It is, however, from an opinion that professional knowledge is part of a man's capital, which should always be disposed of on the best terms, that artisans are most frequently induced to bestow it on the public in a respectable volume, the immense sale of which is to reimburse them for all their pains and cares. We need not observe how much the authors are deceived or the public disappointed in such works. Their little secret, their nostrum, which they would have communicated to their apprentices in two sentences, is either studiously concealed in obscure hints, or enveloped in a labyrinth of words, so that the hapless reader, obliged to purchase a thick volume, and lose tenfold its value in tima, pays very dearly indeed for his trivial information. We are sorry that the work of Mr. Luccock is no exception to these reflections. Had he presented us with his personal observations only, they would not have exceeded one fourth the compass of the present voluine ; and in doing so, he might have required the same price for his work, which would then have been much more honourable and profitable both to himself and the public. All Mr. L.'s general observations, which, in more able hands, would have assumed an historical character, are totally erroneous; his account of Spanish sheep and wool cannot deceive even the most illiterate, as it is extremely defective in historical facts. Any of our Encyclopedias, although egregiously erroneous and defective in this branch, would have as-isted the author in his general view of wool. Pliny or Strabo would bave informed him, of the excellence of Spanish wool iong prior to the incursions of the Moors; and the works of many of our philosophers (Bancroft, for instance), would have taught him something of the nature of wool. Nevertheless, in justice, we must acknowledge, that his work contains many important and interesting observations, but they are so intermixed with extraneous incoherent inatter, that it is an Hercu- lean labour to collect what is truly valuable into a liinitel point of view. When thus lopped of its excrescences, it might be denomibated a topographical Description of English Wool, interspersed! with Observations on the Feeding or Sheep, Quality of the Stapie, and Value of Fleeces as influenced by Commerce and Manufactures.' Voder this title, which, we think, will convey to ous readers a more just idea of its contents than any analysis we could give, it will be found to contain much local knowledge of the actual state of our wool-crops, with highly laboured estimates of their quantity and quality in the respective counties of England and Wales. Instidices of good sense and shrewd reflections occur in almost every page, among which it is observed, that Malta produced a very considerable effect on our woolien-irade; a fact worthy the attention of politicians. The author very ingeniously estimates ihe quantity of wool by the number of piles necessary to cover an inchi; of
noderately. We Spanish staple he has found with a microscope 1600) piles in an inch ; the average number of short English wool s 885, of long do. 600. Of the long staple, there is only half
the quantity, which is about one third of the value of the short. Total of England and Wales 393,236 packs; value 5,570,49+. Number of sheep slaughtered, 7,142,856, which exceeds the number of lambs yeaned, by 140,05+ annually. This calculation, we apprehend, is tolerably correct, though it is much below wha: we have hitherto scen. Upon the whole, this volume is worthy the attention of woul-farmers and all persons concerned in the woollen tade.
ART. 33.--Obsertations on the Cultivation of IVaste Lands, address
ed to the Gentlemen and Farmers of Glamorganshire. By James Capper, formerly Colonel and Comptruller-General of the Army and Fortification Accompts on the coast of Coromandel. pp. 61. 8vo. Egerton. 1805.
DID we not know the tendency of men's minds to extremes, we should be at a loss to say why a general bill of enclosure had not long since been adopted by the parliament of England. This is the more extraordinary, because general enclosures inight almost immediately become a feriile source of revenue to the government, as well as of supply to the people. The evil, however, if not speedily obviated, will remedy itselt; and public spirited individuals have embarked in speculations of local enclosures that will gradually extend themselves, until those vast plains shall be converted into fertile fields, and the overflowing wealth of their proprietors be at once the envy and the reproach of goverument. The moderate and judicious pamphlet of Colonel Capper will contribute materially to ihis end. From his impartial statement of facts it appears that the cultivation of waste lards, if properly directeil, will yield a clear profit of 301. per cent. oli ihe capital employed. A field of 10 acres for påring, burning, (the system that he has found incomparably the best) manuring, sowing, &c. cost only 681. 2s, 6d. and yielded 8 bushels of wheat per acre, leaving a clear protit, 511. 17s. Od. even in the first year of enclosure. The rotation of crops is wheat, which if good is then followed by turnips, barley or oats, ray grass and clover. To enclose 100 acres with the certainty of success, it is deenied necessary to have a disposable capital of at least 10001.
It is worthy of reinark how much more advantageous it is to drain marshes or fens, than to cultivate beatlis, as Sir Joseph Banks and others have recently drained near ten thousand acres of such lands in Lincolnshire, which are now worth sixty pounds an acre ! We trust that such a certain and rapid acquisition of great wealth, will be an incentive to other agriculturists, to attempt the total ali. nilsilation of these unbealthy wastes.
These observations are ihe result of four years experience, extracted from the minutes of the author's farming jou rual, wbich, as well as his improvements, he informs us, are always open to the inspection of his friends and neighbours; a conduct truly liberal. The work is prefaced by some hints for the establishment of a 'school or industry in Glamorganshire, lue the children of the 'a