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duty imperiously compels us' to withhold any thing further than the niggard boon' above, until Mr Cair produces something more worthy of our praise. That duty has also made us speak harshly of our tourist, or rather by his own voice condemn him. Let our readers, however, remember that it not only is his style of thinking and writing which we exclusively altack, but only tuose also as displayed by him in former and in the present travels. It is the author of the Stranger in France and the Northern Summer whom we are obliged to blame. Possibly in suine future work, Mr. Carr may redeem his literary character. We shall welcome its appearance with cordiality.', .
Meanwhile, after cursorily mentioning (upon Mr. Carr's authority) the Emperor Alexander's passion for Burton ale, and British bottled porter; and assuring our readers that under the heads of · Blue Bearg' and 'Bloody Beard,' 'Marine Warblers,' ' and Musical Cowkeepers,'' Potemkin's Peacock,' and a : Russian Row,' they will be as much entertained by the humour, as edified by the information of our author; we shall proceed, according to our plan of tracing this tourist through his capital absurdities, to Berlin, and here conclude the Petersburg Station..
We cannot, however, pass Narva,withoutsome potice:even as Englishmen, we have an affection for the name, from the immortality which Chatlerton (our glory and our disgrace) has given to it. • Rehearse the loves of Narva,? &c. &c, must be well known to every poetical reader. And as to the town itselt, it is immortalized by the heroism of Charles XII. and the wit of Mr. Carr; for he takes occasion, while at Narva, of telling a story of a British offieer; who, somewhere or other,' finding, after a battle, that his prisoners greatly exceeded his own troops in number,
made every prisoner swallow a copious quantity of jalap, and then ordered the waistband of his breeches to be cut: by this aperient and harmless policy he placed four men under the irresistible controul of one.'
But now to Berlin. «Early,' says Mr.C.' early on the eighth day from my leaving Dantzig, I passed the gate of the wall which surrounds Berlin, and with forty-one ducats discharged my companion at the Hotel de Russie.' But let not the gentle reader be in pain for Mr. Carr's companion. This was not the person whom he mentions at Harwich in the beginning of his journey; this was a man, whom he hired at Dantzig,
Mr. Carr's drawing of the Brandenburg gate at Berlin, is creditable to his knowledge of perspective. We cannot, however, say much for the plales in geperal, which were in.
tended to embellish the Northern Summer. Consistency, perhaps, was Mr. Carr's object; and conscious of his want of
success in poetry, he determined to be equally unsuccessful · also in painting: •Ut pictura, poesis.'; :
At Berlin, among other strange'articles of intelligence, Mr. Carr prefixes the following facetious title to one of his pages. .• Voltaire, and dogs of Frederick the Great.' It occurs to us from this and other instances of our author's talent for jumbling heterogeneous materials together, that he would excel in inventing odd signs for alehouses, as much as the witty Arthur 'Griffinhoofe, (alias George Colman) Esq. The tourist has inany incongruities resembling that of the Gow and the Snuffers.'
Mr. Carr praises with justice the beauty and elegance of · the Queen of Prussia, (p.473.) moreover he adds, her charms were heightened by her situation; she was expected in a few days to augment the illustrious house of Brandenburg.' We differ from Mr. Carr in our ideas of beauty. ;. . Our author winds up his travels at Husum ; where, 'like the hunted hare,' he says, 'he returned to the spot he first started from. We could perhaps find a simile in the animal creation equally apposite. However, we will turn with senciments of uninixed approbation to ihe piety and patriotism with which the Northern Summer is brought to a conclusion; perhaps, not a little pleased at having ourselves finished our critical labours upon such a subject. Our last advice to Mr. Carr is, not to write, when he writes again, solely from his feelings.
After another allusion to Gonzalo in the Tempest, Mr. Carr thus apostrophizes those who have had the patience to accompany bim to the end of his tour; and wishing to leave as favourable an impression as we can be justified in doing, upon the mind of the public with respect to our author, we shall in this, perhaps his best, passage, let him make his own bow at departure :
If, my reader, after having paid our homage to the merits of other countries, we return together, with a more settled admiration, -to that which has given us birth, I shall the less regret my absence from her, and from those who are the dearest to my heart, and to whom I am indebted for all my present enjoyments. .
Having felt most sensibly, in the hour of my return, those prime distinctions of my country, which eminently and justly endear her to alt her children, I close the volume with an ardent wish that heaven may graciously render those distinctions perpetual.'
Art. V.-- Description and Treatment of Cutaneous Diseases.
Order III. Rushes. Part I. containing the Varieties of Rubeola and Scarlatina. By Robert IT illan,,M. D. F. A. Š. 4to. 185. Johnson. 1805.
AS the two preceding Orders of this work have been several years before the public, and those of our medical readers, who are actuated by a common share of zeal for the advancement of the science which they profess, are, doubtless, already acquainted with the classification and nomen, clature proposed by Dr. Willan for this obscure tribe of diseases, it will be unnecessary for us to enlarge at present upon the structure, or the general merits of the arrangement. Some methodical plan, followed out with great perspicuity and accuracy in the definitions of terms, and in the diagnostic characters of the genera and species, has long been a desideratum in this department of medicine; more especially in what relates to the chronic diseases of the skin. These diseases, being external and obvious, and detracting materially from those personal advantages which mankind bave in all ages been anxious to cultivate, (not to mention the old and prevalent opinion, that they imply a state of humoral impurity,) have attracted the attention of physicians from the earliest times. But if the inquirer refers to the volumes that have been transmitted by them för information, he discovers little that is useful or satisfactory, The terms expressive of simple appearances, have no where been accurately defined or understood, and are perpetually misapplied; and the names by which certain congeries of symptoms were designated, have been employed by success sive writers, with too little attention to the acceptations 'adopted by their predecessors, or to the descriptions which they connected with them; and confusion, in short, appears to have been but' worse confounded,' as the number of attempts at elucidation has increased. · Independently, therefore, of the difficulties arising from the nature of the diseases themselves, from the yariely of their appearances in different instances, and in different stages of their progress, and from their frequent connection with, and conversion into each other, the impediments to a methodical view of these diseases, resulting from the errors and contradictions of writers on the subject, are great and numerous, and only to be surmounted by an able and attentive observation of the various appearances which the diseases assuine. · The execution of the two foriner parts of this work jciected no cominon degree of credit on the industry, the discernment, and the judgment of Dr. Willan; and the part which is now before us will afford similar proofs of diserinination in ascertaining the characters, and in tracing the identity of diseases, through the obscurity of varying names, and imperfect descriptions. We shall confine our attention chiefly to the most novel parts of this dissertation, the diagnostics, and the literary history of the diseases of which it treats. The history of symptoms, which is minute, accurate, and comprehensive, is entitled to much praise, but cannot be abridged: and in the treatment, which is recommended, there is little which is peculiar to the author; it is extremely judicious and simple; the result of his observations tending to cortail the list of useless or pernicious expedients which are too often employed, and to determine the remedies of decided utility, rather than to multiply their number. Perhaps the superiority of modern practice, within the last half century, in febrile diseases in general, (a circumstance fully evinced by the great diminution of their fatality,) has chiefly consisted in a similar proceeding.
Having completed the subject of papulous and scaly eruptions in the two former publications, Dr. Willan now pro. ceeds to the Exanthemata or Rashes, which constitute the third order. He employs the terın Exanthema in a sense somewhat different from that which has been attached to it by other writers. It seems originally, he remarks, to have expressed an eruption of papulæ, miliary vesicles, wheals, or petechia. Some medical writers apply it to ali eruptive complaints : but modern nosologists confine the word to those eruptions which are attended with fever. It is lite. rally effiorescence ; and our author uses it' to express the appearance termed in English a Rash, which is a reduess of the skin, varying as to extent, continuity, and brightness of colour, and occasioned by an unusual quantity of blood distributed to several of the cutaneous veins, [vessels?) in some instances with partial extravasation.' This order comprises, besides the two diseases liere treated of, five other genera; Urticaria, nettle-fash; Roseola, rose-rash; Iris, rainbowrash ; Purpura, purple or scorbutic rash; and Erythema, or red-rash; which will be the subject of future discussiou.
Dr. Willan describes, with his usual discrimination, three varieties of measles, which he denominates Rubeola vulgnris, R. sine catarrho, and R, nigra. The distinction of the kwo first of these varieties is of considerable practical in
portance. He details fully and minutely all the symptoms, - whether regular or anonialous, which have been observed in the R. vulgaris, or common measles, and enumerates the yarious terminations and consequences which have bçen seen to occur, in a manner which envinces much attentive and original observation. The treatment which he recommends is simple and rational. During the eruptive, stage, light diet, tepid drinks, and moderate temperature, are chiefly required. He advises the use of the pediluvium, in preference to antimonials and other diaphoretics; and the inhalation of steam instead of the ineffectual palliatives of the cough, mucilages and emalsions. lie discusses the propriety of bloodlelting at considerable length, and remarks that even when, after the total disappearance of the eruption, the pulinovic symptons may demand its use, some limitation to the practice is yet suggested by the circumstance, that it does not alleviate those symptoms when they succeed to the measles, in the same degree as, when they originate from cold. He justly deprecates the hypothetical recommendation of Sydenham, of bleeding in order to remove the diarrhea, which frequently supervenes at the decline of the eruption; he considers its occurrence as a very favourable circumstance; and when it does not occur, be advises the use of occasional purgatives, which generally relieve the cough, and allay the infiammatory symptoms, and often supersede the necessity of bloodletting.
The second variety, mentioned by Dr. Willan, in which the characteristic eruption goes through its regular stages without fever or catarrhal symptoms, has not been noticed by any preceding writer, and merits particular attention, It is a circumstance of some importance in the prognostic of the physician, and still more in regard to the future conduct of the patient, that this variety of the measles does Hot emancipate the constitution from the power of the conta. gion, nor prevent the accession of the Rubeola vulgaris at a future period. The febrile Rubeola has never occurred twice in the same individual, in the course of Dr. Willan's loog and attentive observation of eruptive diseases. He, there, fore, justly suspects some mistake in the cases mentioned by authors, in which the measles are said to have recurred once or oftener, a mistake which is likely to be made, con sidering how difficult it often is to distinguish the measles from Scarlatina, Strophulus, Roseola, and other varieties of papulous and exanthematous eruptions. ..
'The Rubeola nigra is apparently a variety of little consequence.. " It sometimes happens, about the sevenih or eighth day, that the rash becomes suddenly black, or of a dark purple colour, with a mixture of yellow (as represented